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PATENTS FOR 
INVENTIONS? 



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Transportation* 
Library 

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~ PATENTS FOR INVENTIONS. 



ABRIDGMENTS 



fenfiatttfits 



RELATING TO 



CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 
FOR COMMON ROADS. 



A.D. 1625 






1 '-;*. 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF PATENTS. 




LONDON: 
PUBLISHED AND SOLD AT 
THE COMMISSIONERS OF PATENTS' SALE DEPARTMENT, 
38, CURSITOB STREET, CHANCERY LANE, E.C. > 



^7 : , 



1880. 



JM> 






PREFACE. 



This volume is the first part of the series "of abridgments 
entitled " Carriages and other Yehieles for Common Eoads," 
and it deals with the specifications from the earliest date to 
the end of the year 1866. In the next part this series will be 
carried on to the end of the year 1876. Until that is published, 
the inventor can continue his search by the aid of the subject- 
matter indexes and the specifications. 

It should be borne in mind that the abridgments are merely 
intended to serve as guides to the specifications, which must 
themselves be consulted for minute details of any particular 
inventions. At the foot of each abridgment is stated the 
price at which a printed copy of the specification may be 
purchased at the Commissioners of Patents' Sale Department 
(38, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C.). The volume is 
furnished with a copious index of subjects, and an index to 
the names of patentees and inventors. 

This series, as its name imports, comprises inventions rela- 
ting to the general construction and arrangement of carriages 
for common roads, whether such carriages be drawn or pro- 
pelled by animal, steam, or other power. It also embraces 
inventions in near relation to wheeled carriages for common 
roads, as, for example, hand barrows, sack trucks, and some 
machines used for agricultural purposes. Carriages for tram- 
roads are included, though much relating to this head of the 
subject will be found in the series relating to " Carriages and 
" other Vehicles for Bailways." 

A large number of the specifications relating to wheels, 
tires, axles, axle-boxes, springs, and brake and skidding appa- 
ratus, do not specially claim any application to either common 
road or railway purposes. Such inventions will be found in- 

G239. Wt.B1363. a 2 



iv PEEFACE. 

eluded in the series of " Carriages and other Vehicles for 
" Eailways." Where, however, special mention is made of 
a common road use, the abridgment has been repeated in this 
series. 

Inventions relating to traction engines also form part of 
this work, but prominence is given to the running gear and 
special features fitting the engine for running on roads, 
rather than to the construction of the boiler and propelling 
engine itself. For these subjects the series entitled the 
" Preparation and Combustion of Fuel" and the "Steam 
" Engine " respectively should be referred to. 

Of the details of carriages the following, among others. 
will be found noticed herein : — Apparatus for showing dis- 
tance travelled by vehicles, for counting passengers, and for 
indicating fares ; apparatus for lubricating wheels ; com- 
positions and materials specially claimed for the construction 
of panels and carriage bodies and for covering vehicles and 
the seats, aprons, and dashers thereof; springs and other 
means of suspension ; axles and axletrees ; whip sockets and 
rein holders ; windows, blinds, and shutters ; lamp irons ; 
brushes for removing dirt from wheels ; and guards and 
couplings. 

Special modes of ventilating carriages will be found treated 
incthe series entitled "Ventilation." Lamps are included 
in the series entitled "Lamps, Candlesticks, Chandeliers, 
" and other Illuminating Apparatus." Specifications relating 
to lubricants for axles ; gun carriages ; steam pumping ap- 
paratus for cleaning carriages, &c. ; mine trucks and car- 
riages, will be found abridged in existing series, entitled 
respectively "Oils, Fats, Lubricants, &c. "; "Firearms and 
" other Weapons, Ammunition, and Accoutrements"; "Hy- 
" draulics"; and "Mining, Quarrying, Tunnelling and 
" Well-sinking." Fire engines will be found in the series 
" Fire Engines, Extinguishers, Escapes, Alarums, &c." 

It is obvious that many inventions relating to railway 
carriages are equally applicable to common road purposes, 
a,iid vice vers4. Strictly speaking, therefore, this series and 



PREFACE. v 

the series of " Carriages and other Vehicles for Railways" 
ought to be regarded as supplemental the one to the 
other. 

H. READER LACK. 

June, 1880. 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



£The names printed in Italic are those of the persons by whom the inventions 
have been communicated to the Applicants for Letters Patent.] 



AbeilJiou, J. L 912 

Abel, CD 952 

Abery , J 44 

Abraham, H. R 523, 586, 

602, 621 

Abrahams, J ...978 

Ackermann, E 168 

Adam,G. H 482 

Adams, E 208 

, S 866 

,W 1034 

, W. B....274, 288, 322, 

336, 405, 414, 558, 566, 648, 
896, 1001, 1059 ,1205 (Supp.) 

Adcock, J 1207 (Supp.) 

Aimont, P. E 755 

Aitehison, E. K 688 

Aitken, W 271, 398 

Aldebert, J 650 

Allain, L. A. F 833 

Allan, A 627 

, T : 471 

Allen, W 585 

Alleyne, J. G. 1ST 1083 

Allier, T.V 392 

Allnutt, H 726 

Allott, W 875 

Amies, N. J ....924 

Amuel,J. 788, 788 

Anderson, Sir J. C...396, 473, 
653, 679, 714, 1194 (Supp.) 

Andraud,A 633 

Andrews, F 212 

Anthony, W 82 



Pa#e 

Apperly, J 769 

Appleby, O.J 1163 

Applegath, A 254, 255 

Apps, J 977 

Arrowsmith, J..488, 850, 1205 
(Supp.) 

Artenn, J. F. d' 1094 

Asbury,W ...927,979 

Ashberry, P. H.... 1144 

Ashbury, J v 424 

Ashdowne, J 283 

Ashe,F 1033 

Ashe, W.A 1033 

Ashley, J 884 

Ashton, E 1180 

Ashwell, J. C 774 

Askew, J 1035, 1075 

Astbury, W 975 

Aston, T 565 

Atkinson, C. W 1093 

' ; , S 376 

Audineau, J. F. 952 

Auerbach, M 788 

Austin, J., 1198, 1203 (Supp.) 

,W 940 

Aveling, T...947, 1196 (Supp.) 

Avisse, L.A *;..574 

Avy, J. E 1121 

Ayshford, T. B 716 

Bacon, J. B 274 

Badaul, G .993 

Baddeley, R 8 

Bailly, 1ST , 982 3 1061 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 

Balcombe, J. B 665 

Ball, J 303 

Bance, J 248 

Banfield, J 535 

Banks, H 511 

,R ....160, 168 

,T 511 

Barbor, W 67 

Barclay, A 899, 958, 1208 

(Supp.) 

, J 147 

Barker, F 993 

, J 874 

Barlow, A 8 

-,'E. J 270 

Barnes,F 1071 

Barr ans , J 749 

Barre, J. B. H. H. R 798 

, J. B. M. E 778 

Barrow, J f ,..157 

Barry, J. R 182 

Bartholf, J. H 866 

Bartholomew, C 661, 903 

Bartley, J., junior ;.306 

Bates, E 473 

Bath, J. P 807, 948 

Bathias, G. M 904 

Bathias, O. M 1218, 1221 

(Supp.) 

Batho,W. F 1003 

Bauer, G. F, 97 

Baynes, J 177 

Beadon,G- 382, 388, 416 

Beale, B. B 713 

Beattie, James 585 

. , Joseph 709 

Beaumisnil, P. V 655 

Beaumont, G. D. B 596 

, H. B : 386 

— -, J ....59 

9 W.H... 1049 

Bedford, S 17 

Begbie, J 495 

Beggs,J.E..,,,, 820 

Beguin,J.F.F 983 

Bell, C... 930 

Bell, 0. W ■ 501 



Page 

Bell, G ...423,565 

Bellford, A. E. L 467, 542 

Bellingham, J 138 

Benham, J. L 319 

Bentley, D 215 

Berenger, 0. R. de 107 

Berg, Sir J. O. van 2 

Bergin, T. F 273,277 

Bergue, C. de....344, 412, 419 

Bernie, A 1074 

Berriman, R 48 

Bertrand, 1 436 

Bertrand, P. J 832 

Besant, J 51, 64 

Bessemer, H 745 

Bettyes, J 822 

Bewley, T 191 

Biddell, H 1188 (Supp.) 

Bielefeld, C. F 965 

Biers, J., junior 748 

Bigelow, L. A 836 

Biggs, J 668 

Billings, J. W 670 

Binks, H 165 

Birch, O. L 114 

Bird, E 476,499 

Birt, T. P 208 

BischofF, J 1141 

Bishop, J 400 

Bissell, L 455 

Black, J 574 

Blackburn, 1 1193, 1195 

(Supp.) 
, R.1193, 1195, 1211 

(Supp.) 

Blackwell, S '....493 

Blanchet, A. P.... 1215 (Supp.) 
Blanchet, A. P...1218 (Supp.) 

Blenkinsop, J 131 

Blockley,T 18 

Blyth, J 280 

Boase, J 237 

Boddy, W. B 365 

Bode, Baron H. de 574 

Bodmer, J. G 317, 336 

Boissenot, C. A 1170 

Bonnall, J 975 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 

Bonneau, J 975 

Bonneville, H. A 967, 938, 

988, 1094/1106 

Booth, T 722 

Bose, C 1170 

Bosworth, J , 124 

Bothams, J 512 

Bottomley, J 1033 

Botwood,W 1153, 1181 

Boulay, T. du 1068, 1116 

Boulnois, W., junior 282 

Bourne, J. F 306 

Bousfield, E. T 1210, 1214 

(Supp.) 

, G. T...666, 695, 905 

Bouveiron, H. A 347 

Bower, M 283, 489 

Boyd, J. E 798 

Boydell, J 400, 534, 710, 

757 
, J., junior... 366, 1187 

(Supp.) 

Boys, E., junior 258 

Braby, J ,293,737 

-, J., junior 737 

Bramah, J 120, 139 

Bramley,T 244 

Bramwhite, T 404 

Brandling, B. W 198 

Brandreth, T. S 206 

Brandt, W. G 434 

Brant, J. C 1057 

Brautigam, 1156 

Bray, J 959 

, W 645,748, 888 

, W. T.G 748 

Brecheux, E. A. N 599 

Breguet^L. F. G 696 

Brennand, J 742,761 

Brett, W , 1121 

Brettell, J 1128 

, T 1128 

Brierley,R 1150 

Briggs, G 565 

, J. G 371 

Brignon, J. P 695 

Brine,E... 99 



Page 

Britten, J 426, 631 

Broad, J 651 

Broekedon,W 406 

Brodie, A 54 

Brooman, C. E 1166, 1220 

(Supp.) 

, R. A., 393, 464, 581, 

624, 625, 632, 649,660,720, 
763, 790, 799, 832, 840, 903, 
1012, 1023, 1032, 1053, 1100 

Brotherhood, R 436 

Brown, G. F 805 

Brown, D 532 

, H 685 

, H. E 797 

— , H. R 133 

, H. W 954 

, John 101, 532 

, Joseph 505 

,;T 232 

, W 685 

Brown, W. H. 812 

Bruckshaw, J 1083 

Bruet, L. A. J 962 

Brun, B. E. G. de 717 

Brunton, W 142 

Brussant, P. A 690 

Buchanan, J 322, 335 

Buck,C ..524 

Buckwell, W 442 

Bull, M 38 

Bunnett, J. 449 

Bunting, J. G 928 

Burch, J 483 

Burden, W. B 961 

Burges, G 215 

— , H. 186 186 

Burley, W 798,1094 

Burness, W 1196 (Supp.) 

Burnett, E 923 

, J 161 

Burrell, 0..... 743 

■ — , J 152 

Burrows, J 1156 

, W 1156 

Burstall, T 198,210 

Burton, C 520 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 

Burton, R 666, 730 

Bury,E 5.. .38 

Bush,W 891,895 

— — , W., junior 153 

Butler, J 32 

, Samuel 14 

, Spilsbury 677 

Buyer, J. B. J. de 805 

Bycroft, B 449 

Byl,P. G. vander 930 

Caan, 0. le 123 

Cabanel, R 112 

Cail,J.F.8fCo 769 

Caldow, J 582 

Cambon, A. J. 815 

Cambridge, F 1157 

, W.C 644, 671, 

741, 1193 (Supp.) 

Campin,F.W ..759 

C annon, C 513 

Caporn, W. G 877 

Capstick, W 723 

Cardin, J. J 675 

Carey, C 617 

, S 624 

Carfort H. M. J. le N. cle 

1220 (Supp.) 

Carmont, W 802 

Carpenter, S ...872 

Carpmael,W 279 

Carter, J 409 

-,J. M 908 

Cary,W 1038 

Castelnau, F 995 

Castle, J 718 

Castor, T 820 

Catterson, J. J.... 520 

Cavaignae , G 309 

Cayley, Sir G-....1187 [Supp.) 

Chambers, E 437 

Champness, J. M 165 

Chaplin, A 699 

, W 252 

Chapman, E. W 141 

, J 291 



Pase 

Chapman, W 10, 141, 1007 

Charles, P.P. de St..- 509 

Charnley, H 721 

Charpentier, M 608 

Chattaway, E. D.... 512 

Chatterton, J 497 

Chaufour, J. A. M ,701 

Chaumette, J. de la 8 

Chauseau, U. A..1220 (Supp.) 

Chavanes, A 545 

Cheffins, A 1103 

Chellingworth, T. G..835, 868 

Chilcott, J. 527 

Chinnock, C 393, 414, 932 

, F 489 

Chollet,E 1106 

Chrimes, R 622 

Christie, J. S 440 

, P 576 

Christmas, E 966, 997 

Church, W 243, 250, 275 

Claggett, C 36 

Clairmonte, A. J 1168 

Clapp, W. H 1178 

Clark, D. K 1160 

, G. J 171 

, J 312,981 

, W... 676, 704, 802, 912, 

938, 968, 1003, 1043, 1048, 
1155, 1182, 1215 (Supp.) 

Clarke, J 690, 901 

, T 433,666 

,W. H 851 

Clarkson, T. C 606, 992 

Claustre,A 1053 

Clay, H 32,71,77 

, W 689 

Clayton, N 1197 (Supp.) 

Clement, J. H 592 

Clement, J. H. 703 

Clerville, J. J. C. de 669 

Clignett , J 4 

Clissold, W 769 

Clive, J. H 237 

Cloake, T 754,793 

Clyburn,B 446 

Coates, C .808 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 

Cochrane, A 248 

Cocker, J 799, 834,950 

Cockings, J. S .591 

Coffey, J. A 954 

Coignet, E. P 575 

Cole, 1 7 

,M , 1140 

, R. J 818 

Coleman, J 1122 

, J. E....1191 {Supp.) 

Collier, G- 672, 744 

Collinge,C 259 

, J 57,70, 128 

Collins, B 1452 

, S 1171 

,W 105 

— , W. W 608 

Combe,D 490 

Condie, J 335 

Cook, J 928 

, J. M 985 

,T 203 

, W 329 

Cooke, H. A 763 

, T 648 

, W 107,885 

Cooper, T.W 129 

Cope, J 1018 

Corbett,R 202 

,W 802 

Corbitt,W .616 

Corlett. H... 530 

Corrall. W 540 

Cottam,G ....299 

Coulson, W 558 

Cou^erie, S . A 959 

Courtauld,S 1093 

Cowan, W 719 

Cowing, H 441 

Cowpe,E 1071 

Cowper, C 438, 765 

Crabtree, R 228 

Craig, H. G 1115 

- ,W. G 597,685 

Craigie, J 130 

Cramer, J. A 953 

Crane, E 783 



Page 

Crane, W. T 881 

Craven, J 1053 

Crellin, A 990 

Cresswell, J 941 

,R 664 

Crestadoro , A 474 

Creuzbaur, B 1141 

Crispe,W 12 

Cristoforis, L. de 686 

Crofton, M. T 637 

Croker, B. W 715 

Crosskill, W 377, 530 

Cuming, W 147 

Curtis, J 305 

, "W. J.. ..625, 659, 900, 

925 

Cutts, J 823 

Cynelme, L. D 33 

Daalen, J. van 5 

Dalgetty,A 547 

Dalton, J. F Ill 

Dameron, L 573, 587 

Dance, E 784 

Daniell, J. C 491 

Danvers, P 670 

Darley, W 1202 (Supp.) 

D'Artenn, J. F 1094 

Darthey, S 308 

David, L. E 796 

Davies, D...401, 425,450, 629, 

650 

, G 1149 

, H 346 

,J 378 

Davis, J .«....55 

Davis, J. 1219 (Supp.) 

, M.. .345, 469, 508, 718, 

764 

, W 876 

Day, J 278, 1175 

, St. J. V 1036 

, W 538 

Deacon, H 638 

Death, E , 917 

De Berenger, C. R 107 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 
De Bergue, C....344, 412, 419 

De Bode, Baron H 514 

DeBrun,B. E.G 717 

De Buyer, J. B. J 805 

De Garfort, H. M. J. le N. 

1220 {Supp.) 

De Olerville, J. J, 669 

De Crist of oris, L 686 

De Flassieux, — 558 

De Fontaine Moreau, P. A. le 

Comte 485,546,558,658 

De Forest, C 747 

De Gablenz, Baron A.... ..1147 

De la Chaumette, J 8 

DelaFons, J.P.......491, 516, 

692 
Delannay, A. F........775, 853 

Delaunay, J. H 1182 

DeLolme,J. L 73 

De MaMalcoff, N. 903 

Be Mat, G. J. 838 

De Mesnil, Baron 1130 

Deming, J. £T. 802 

De Montferrier, A. A. Y. S. 

523 
Demoulin, L. A. Farjon...515 

Dempsey, W 820 

De Nanteuil, P. A. A. de la 

B Y\$l(Swpp.) 

De Neviers, A 1184 

DePrades, P 616 

Derby, L 934 

De St. Charles, P. P 509 

De Saint Marc, B. 8 781 

Desmarest, H. L. G 1074 

De Strubing, Baron, J. U. Y. 

439 

DeTivoli, Y 702,808 

Devilliard,P 1154 

Devlan, P. S 842,939 

Dewey,L. D 767 

DeWiart, A.C 912 

DeWitte, P 1132 

Dewsnup, T .513 

Dickinson, J 811 

Dicks, W 519 

Dickson, P., ....... 1209 (flfapp.) 



Page 

Dimpfel, F. P 628 

Dircks,H 331 

Dixon, E. J. J 462 

Dobbie,J 983 

Dobbs, A. E 1095, 1125 

Dobson, H. A 1072 

Dodds, J 324 

, T. "W 492 

Dodge, J 894 

Dodson, A. J 462 

,G- 85 

Doncaster, W 152 

Donovan, E. E 1091 

Dorlhiac,A 1043 

Dorman,W. H 765 

Doming, W. J. ...1196 (Supp.) 

Douglas, A 979 

Douglas, J. C 266 

Dowling, E .559,774 

Downie, J 950 

Downing, J. W 633 

Drabble, J 1110 

Draper,S 674 

Dray, W 532 

Driver, W 42 

Du Boulay, T 1068, 1116 

Duboy,A.\ 625 

Dubreuil,J.B 924, 963 

,P.H 924 

Dubs,H 514 

Duckett,G 610 

Ducoux, F.J. 1027 

Ducrest, C. L 60 

Ducrux, G 1184 

Dugdale,E 311 

Duley,J. H 879 

Dumarchey, F. F 647 

Du Maurier, L. M. B 310 

Dumbell, J 116,189 

Dumery, G. J. 1048 

Dummere, S 1131 

Dunbar, G 445 

Duncan, C. S 410 

1 J. W....1192 (Swpp.) 

Dunlop,A 860 

--, J. M..., 470 

Dunning, E.. , .9 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Burand, G 982, 1061 

Durant, A. H. A 552,572, 

587, 651, 654, 1019, 1054 

Dwyer,E 1126 

Dyer, E 422 

Eades,K 503 

Earl, J 783 

Earp,T 1180 

Eastman, Z 1218 (Supp.) 

Eastern, J 204 

Eaton, R 644 

Eckhardt, A. G 81 

Eddy, G. W 402 

Edge, W. C 933 

Edgell, J 48, 76 

Edgeworth, R. L.1185 (Supp.) 

Edisbury, K 5 

Edwards, E 488 

,J 848 

, T. junior 1139 

, W. Y 1149 

Elliott, G. A 1154 

,0 95, 102 

Ellis, J . 1162 

, T. J 881 

Elsdon,W 986 

Emery, J 498 

, R 641, 756, 790 

Erhard,C 655 

Esnouf, E 538 

Etienne, A 999, 1030 

Etty, T. B 668 

Evans, D 845 

, E 422 

-,J 752 

, JV/W 1131 

,0. C 908 

Exall,W 403 

Eynard, L 990 

Eyres, J ...2 

Fabien, J. F.Y 579 

Farjon-Demoulin, L. A.... 51 5 

Farnsworth, F. M. 926 

— ,J. 926 

Farnworth, J. E.... 1096, 1120 



Page 

Farries, A 420 

Faulds,R 946 

Fellows, F. P 664 

Fenton, J 830 

Ferry,F. J 796 

Festuz, F 996 

Findlater,W....... 652 

Finnemore, J. B 512 

Firth, B.W 531 

Fisher, G ,.,....442 

Fleet, B 793 

Fleury,A.F. 1012 

Flexen, S 929 

Flight, B r 119 

Florin, A.J 696 

Fons, J.P. de la.. .491, 516,692 
Fontainemoreau, P. A. le 

Comtede 485, 546, 558, 

658 

Fontenau, F 553 

Ford, H. W 663 

Forest, O. de ...,747 

Forrester, G 250 

Foster, J 22 

Foamier, A 922 

Fowler, J.. ..911, 1215 (Swpp.) 

, J. junior 666,730 

Fox, Samson 1053 

■ , Samuel 614 

, S. M.: 1202 (Supp.) 

Francis, J 555,693 

Franiet, J. M. 1023 

Franklinsky, J. A 448 

Fraser, A. J" ...969 

Frasi, F 561 

Freeman, S. R 1170 

Friend, J. W 1141 

Friou, J 777 

Froggott,W 459 

Fry, J 643 

Fuller, A 1073,1090 

, E. J 434 

, S.L 1073, 1090 

,T 189,216,343 

, W. 0....473, 562, 622, 

768 
Fulton, H.H ...668 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 

Gablenz, Baron A. de 1147 

Gall, W 338 

Gallegos, J.... 837,842 

Gallis,A. F 934 

Galloway, E 290 

: — , G.B 1070 

Gamble, J 697 

-, T 697 

Gangand, J. B 772 

Garcia, L. Bamon-y- 1155 

Gardiner, P. G 793, 854 

Gam, S 598 

Garnett, J 52 

Garratt, A. 575 

Gaskell, P 508, 997 

Gaudet, J. M 550, 561, 577, 

590, 598 

Gaulton, W. P 554 

Gaury, J 341 

Gautrot,P. J 712 

Geach,C 433 

Gedge, J 608, 689 

9 W.E...871, 973, 1036, 

1054,1085,1138, 11641220, 
(Supp.) 

Gee,T ......841 

Gellerat,E .andCie.,SocietelOhO 

Genetreau, H. A 553 

Geoffrey, P. J.B 582 

George, Watkin 55 

, William 1109 

Gerard, J 570 

German, T 93 

Gerner,H 549 

Geyelin, G 594,599 

Ghislin,T.G S53 

Gibbs, J 252, 254. 255, 268 

Gibson, F. M 833 

Gibson, J 351 

, J.W 962 

Gidlow, T 989 

Gilbee, H 541 

, W. A 756 

Gilbert, E. W 1089 

, J 1205 (Supp.) 

Giles, G 686,823 

, J 794 | 



Paaf 

Giles, J.W 727 

Gilks, O.H 643 

Gillet, A.W 245 

Gillett,S.„ , 291 

Gillott, J 315 

Gilman,E 1165 

Giot, P 790 

Gladstone, R 900 

Glatard, L 856 

Glover, B 1044 

, E. R. A 541, 560 

Goble, G. P 1192 (Supp.) 

Goddard, K -. 628 

Godfrey, S. 78 

Godsal, P 40 

Gollop, J 383 

Gompertz, L 1 50 

Goodman, J 967 

, J. D 480 

Goodrich, A 1026 

Goodyear, C 585 

Goodyear, G 453 

, C . junior 747 

.Mr 468 

Gordon, A 257 

, D 183, 195 

, J. E 484 

Gore,W.H.P 1004, 1019, 

1054, 1171 

Gorrery,T 625 

Gorst, J.Ii 956 

Gottlieb, Y 53 

Gough, N 220 

, T 675 

Gougy, P. F 490 

Goupil, E. A 1201 (Supp.) 

Gourley, D. de la C 687 

Gout.R 62 

Gradwell, D..., 772 

, W. J 772 

Grafton, S 1009 

Graham, A 246 

Gray,G ..919 

Grayson, W 456 

Greaves, H 829 

Green, L. J 494 

, T., junior 472 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page I 

Greene, J 4 i 

Greenway, 328 , 

Greenwood, J 665 ! 

Gresham, J 873 i 

Greves, E.T 941 | 

Grice, J., junior 1040 

Grice $f Long, Messrs 825 I 

Griffith, J 184 j 

Griffiths, James 1092 ! 

, John 627 ! 

,R 471 i 

Grime, J 300 ! 

Grindle, R 1167 ! 

Grisenthwaite, W 235 j 

Grist, J 531, 639 

Grundy, A 1170 ; 

Guillaume, G 580 

Quillet, L. D 1166 

Gumbley, J 934 

Gunn, J J 93 

Gurney, G 201,218 

Hackett, J 567 

Haddan, J. C....412, 453, 607 

Hadley, B 1144 

, C 732 

, J 5 

Haffner,J.P 1166 

Haggett,W 906 

Hague, J 296 

Haines, F 605 

Hall, 477 

,W. W 212 

Halladay, S 81 

Hamoir, G 799 

Hancock, D 7, 1071 

, J 143 

, J. L 1117 

, T 393,406 

Hands, S 64 

Handyside, J 1036 

Hanson, J 241,-271 

Harcourt, J 476 

-, W 476 

Hardacre, J 623 

Hardy, J 267,276 

— R 163 



Page 

Harland,W 220 

Harrington, J 1098 

Harris, G. S.... ; 195 

Harris, J. , junior 836 

Harrison, E.J 1058 

,W 15 

Harsleben, 281 

Hart, H. W 1160 

,S. 180 

Ilartson, G. B 866 

Harvey, J 370 

, W 1173 

Haseltine, G....923, 934, 1184 

Hatchett, J 24, 33, 43, 58 

Hathaway, 1202 (8wpp.) 

Hawkes, T 13 

Hawks, G 114 

Hawksley, G 876 

Haworth, J. 955, 1199 {Supp.) 

Hayes, J 796 

Hayman, G 295 

, J 379 

Hazard, E 355 

Hazeldine, C 361 

, F 1092, 1106 

, G 444, 570, 637 

Headlam, T. W 821 

Heale,E 378 

Heaton,G 243 

,J 243 

• , R 243,397 

,W 243 

Hedges, .W 480 

Hees, R. van 634 

Heffer, G 140 

Heming, E 6 

Henry, M 833, 837, 1027* 

1050, 1074 

Henson, W. F 810, 847 

Henwood, D 480 

Hepburn, F. J. S 454 

Heptinstall, J 661, 903 

Hernault, P. S. 1' 494 

Hewitt, W 823 

Hey cock, W 203 

Heyns, P 630,708 

Heythuysen, F. M. van.... 182 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 

Hey wood, B 451 

Hick, B 265,268 

Higgins, J. L 185,222 

Hildebrand, A. F .861 

Hilditch, J. B....1206 (Supp.) 

Hill, A .3 

, C 736 

*, E 380 

, J 198,210,894 

, T., junior 199 

Hillcoat.J 22 

Hilliar, J 942,943 

Hills, F 331,367 

Hine, H. G 621 

Hipkins, G. F 631 

Hirst, H .203 

~,W 203 

Hodge, P. B 258 

Hodges, R.B 541 

, W. R 648 

Hodson, W 849, 979 

Hoffman, J. E 1048 

Holbeche, J. S 536 

Holbrook, W 1017 

Holden, A.T 976 

, H. A 639, 655 

Holdway, F 603 

Holfman, J. B 1014 

Holiday, W 1076 

Holland, J. H 917 

Hollies, G. P 1159 

Hollond, T. S 219 

Holloway, K J 321 

Holmes, A. E 839,856 

, H.M 572 

, E.T 1106 

JCooper, G. 1ST..., 609 

,S 63 

,W 609,643 

Hopkins , J 663 

, T., junior 980 

Hopkinson, W 170 

Hore. W. H 1204 {Supp-) 

Horliac, L. M 284 

Horne,T 420 

,W 416 

Hornsby , B. junior 975 



Page 

Horrocks, J 486 

Houlditch, J Ill 

Houldsworth, H 332 

Houlston, J 301 

Howard, J.1210, 1214 (Supp.) 

,W 236 

Howells, H. C 770 

, J. C 770 

Howes, W 798, 1094 

Hudson, 0. H 613 

Huggett, J 177 

Hughes, B 600 

, E. T 870, 973 

,H 831 

Hugon, P 624 

Hugues, A. A 548 

Humphreys, T .....491 

Hunnybun,T 390 

Hunt,E 622 

, T 627 

Hunter, G .....205 

Hurlock, B. A 286 

Hurn, D 1128 

,G 1128 

Hurry, H. C 442 

Hutchison, W 422 

Hutton, A 640 

Hyde,H 731 

Hynes, P. S 272 

Iantowski, J 880 

Imhoff, G 973 

Imray, J 1162 

In glede w, J 276 

Ingram, G 872 

Iniff,S 1139 

Iremonger, B. J 298 

Isaacs, M 192 

Isherwood, J 61 

Jackson, B 6 

, B. H 7 

Jaclcson Brothers 577, 590, 

598 

Jackson, J 680 

, P. B 376,551 

Jacob, J 100 



INDEX OF JSTAMES. 



Page 
Jacob, J., junior 29, 31, 33, 40 

Jacobs, H. S , 1081 

James, J 525 

__ , s. L 1108 

,W 26 

_ , W.H 193, 254, 357 

Jarvis,W 1023 

Jean, A. B.J 548 

Jearrard, E. W., junior.... 320 

Jenner,G 1006 

Jennings, J. , junior 533 

Jerrold, J.E.I *....820 

Jessop, S 348 

Jochem, P 787 

Johnson, D 173 

Johnson, D 773 

Johnson, D. A 833 

, G. F 234 

, Jeremiah 537 

, Joseph 190 

__ j. H...527, 550, 554, 

561,573,577, 582,584,590, 

598, 696, 702, 842, 904, 924, 

1065,1179, 1199 (Supp.) 

Johnston, A 352 

,T 1146 

Jones, B. H 1049 

,T 211 

, W. A 1290 (Supp.) 

Jordan, W 39 

Josephs, E 225 

Jowett, H. A 781 

Jucket,E. B 973 

Juhel,H 910 

Julien, M., senior 1219, 

(Supp.) 
Juzet,E 786 

Katz, G. Ther— 694 

Keene, M. II 1101 

Keetley,W 652 

Kennard, J 595 

Kerr, J 949 

Kerruish,E 1037 

Kesterton, E 519 

Kettle, J. L. E 370 

Kincaid, J.S. 488 

G 239. 



King, R 11 

Kirkland, J 1076 

Kirrage, W 972 

Kittoe, E 141 

Knappe, E 1 

Knevitt, G. M 473 

Knight, W 342 

Knowles,M 229 

Kollman, G-. A 324 

Konig,E 551 

Koster, J. T 92, 166 

Krupp, A 601, 849 

Kyle, D. D 647 

Lacy, H. C 212 

Ladd, J 14 

Lake,W 889 

La Mothe, B. J 882 

Lamplugh, H 1063 

Lamur, J 1032 

Lane,W 1082 

Lang, L. A 644 

Lange, J. B. C...1212 (Supp.) 

Lariviere, E 1164 

Lamed, J. G. E 787 

Latham, J 637 

Latter, L 1176 

Laurent, B 554 

Law, D 950 

Lawrence, G 779 

Laycock, T 26 

Leadbetter , J 566 

Leahy, E 1190 (Supp.) 

,M 761 

Leak, E 297 

Leavitt, C 923 

LeCaan, C 123 

Lee, Jesse 886, 913,1207 

(Supp.) 

— ■, John 353 

, Joseph 864, 878, 931 

, J. D ...e 468 

, J. W 1032 

,W ..931 

Leedham, W 66 

Legaulty J. B 1054 

Leighton, SirE 3 

b 



INDEX OF NAMES* 



Pagre 

Lenkensperger, G 168 

Lenny," 594,859 

Lenz,C.F 50 

Leprovost, P 968 

Leslie, A 922 

Leverson, a. B. C 506 

,M. E 812 

Levy, S 647 

Lewis, a. W 538 

— — , J 95 

,T. Q 948 

L'Hernault, P. S .494 

Lillie, Sir J. O...1190 (Supp.) 

Lilly, T. E 513 

Lindley, J 1122 

Lindsay , J 201 

Lischine, A 1036 

Lister, S. 424 

Little, W. A 748 

Lloyd, H 1069, 1113 

, J. W 100 

,T 941 

Lockett, J 87 

Lockie, T 883 

Loggins, W 4 

Lolme, J. L. de 73 

Lones,E 1128 

, J 1128 

f j.C ....1128 

Long, J 1039 

Longbottom, E.J 477 

Longridge, W. S 944 

Longshaw, J 845 

Longstaff,E 771 

Lord, J 484 

Loulat,J.A 1100 

Lovely,E 486 

Lowe, H 746 

, J 409 

, T 987 

Lugg,T 11 

Luis, J 727,772 

Lungley, ; ...717 

Lusher, D 404 

Lyall, J. B 453,605 759 

Lyde,G 63 

Lydford, E 4<J 



Page 
Maberly, F. H...383, 404, 646 

,J 151 

McClintock, E 942 

Macdonald, J 1052 

McDowell, J 1022 

Mcintosh, J 11^0 {Supp.) 

Macintosh, J 588 

Mclvor, W. G 1074 

McKenzie, A 1008 

Mackenzie, A. E 1080 

, P. W 927 

McKinnel, J. B. A 582 

McLellan, A 308 

Macnee, J 302 

Macpherson, P 670 

Macrum, J. M....1219 (Supp.) 

Magen, H , 557 

Maggs, O 544 

Main, J 178 

,E 758 

Main waring, W 745 

Maissiat, J. H. M 728 

MaUahoff, N. de..,. 903 

Mallet, W 238 

Mallett,E.J 780 

Manby,0 693 

Mannix, J. B 818, 846 

Mansell, E. C 427 

Manton, W 162 

Marc,B. S.deSt 781 

March, J 68 

Marchal, D 912 

Margerison, J 526, 675 

Markham, 0. E i074 

Marsden, E 1079 

, W 1214 (Supp.) 

Marsh, J. H 179 

Marshall, J 881 

— , J. 1ST 470 

. E 1042 

.W 553 

Marsily,W. E 866 

Martin, O......800, 1025, 1060, 

1073, 1090 

, J. L 36 

Marvaud, P 1079, 1111 

Marychurch, W 627 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 

Mason, N 26 

, R 100 

, W 201, 214, 240, 

249, 279 

Masse, D 1138 

Massey, E. J.. 283 

Massi, C 898 

Massingham, W 481 

Masson, M , 763 

Mat, G.J. de 838 

Mathers, R 795 

Matthews, G 41 

— ., H 171 

Maude, W. E... 505 

Mauger, E. junior 538 

Maughan, J 333 

Maurier, L. M. B. du 310 

Maw, E 709 

May, 1188 (Supp.) 

Mayer, J 647 

Mayes, W. M 926 

Mead, T.... 1186 (Supp.) 

Meaden, J 219 

Meakin, J. F 668 

Meares, R 51 

Medhurst, G- 88 

Melling, R, junior 1021 

Mellish,T. R 454 

Mellor, J .1007 

Mentions, M. A. F....806, 815 

Mesnard, G-. II 1061 

Mesnil, Baron O. de 1130 

Metcalfe, T 385,556, 560 

Meyer, H. O 887,914 

,P. J 96 

Mickles, P. D 773 

Middleton, S 640 

Mill, H 6 

Miller, J 429 

■ — , R. F 615,711 

— , S 104 

Millichap, G 178,266, 382 

Millin, G. F 984 

Millington, J 898 

Mills, a 388 

1 ,J 510 

,8 507 



Page 

Milnes, G ...852 

Milton, W 106,157 

Minchin, 0. H 886 

Miniken,T 223 

Mitchell, R.B 1104 

Moat, C. "W" 309, 329 

Moineau, I. A 988 

Molyneux, E. junior . 936, 1216 
(Supp.) 

Monk,W 18 

Monnin,J 1170 

Montferrier, A. A. Y. S. de 523 

Mood,H 1126 

Moor, J. H 380 

Moore, F 27, 30,46,49 

,J 234 

Moreau, F 633 

9 a. H 389 

Morel, A 970, 1014 

Morgan, E 893, 1087, 1182 

,E. C 841 

9 a. H..893, 1087, 1182 

Morison, J 419 

Morlet, P, Varney 1036 

Morton, E. J 1180 

Morton, E. W 1180 

— ,G 156 

Moselev, J 607 

Moss, J 697 

Mothe, B. J. la 882 

Motley, T 433 

Mowate, 2 

Munns, J 71 

Munro, J. M. junior 678 

Muntz, E. G ...950 

Murdoch, J 703 

, R ..667 

Murphy, J ..617 

Murray, J 294 

Murray, J. B 853 

Murray, T 502 

Musqrove, E. JSF. 824 

Myers, E 584, 607 

.-J.J ..1219 {Supp.) 

IsTanteuil, de, P. A. A. de la B. 
1191 (Supp.) 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 

Napier, D 246 

, G 612 

, J 246 

,-W 246 

Nasymith, G... : 643 

Neall,G 910 

Needham, S 841 

Nelme, L. D... 33 

Neviers, A. de 1184 

Neville, J 213 

Newall, J 481, 529 

, R. S 431 

Newbould, W 1057 

Newcome, A , 38 

Newman, 181 

, J 583 

Newton, A. Y...484, 549, 554, 

719, 769, 776, 820, 835, 870, 

926, 955, 1184 

, H. E 1089 

, H. Y 443 

, M 478, 500, 517 

, W. E...364, 369, 465, 

466,496,542,669,704,710, 

730,783,805,814,820,877, 

1099, 1209 (Supp.) 

Nicholson, W -. 136 

, W. N 546 

Nicolas, J. L 327 

Nicole, A 1123 

Noble, W 672, 744 

Noel, G 968 

North, G 598 

, R. S 791 

Norton, C 698 

, J 62,463 

-, J. L 514 

Nottingham, J. W 961 

991, 1004 

Nunn,H 577 

Nurse, J 504 

Oates, J. P 475 

0'Brien,D 1091 

Ockerby, F 1174 

Offord, J 562, 907 

, R. junior 827, 843 



Page 

Ogilby, B 5 

O'Keefe, 20, 21, 34 

Oldershaw, A. P 659 

O'Leary, J 489,493 

Olive, J 597 

,W 597 

Onions, W 455 

Orange, E. B 814 

Orlowski, Y 936 

Osborne, C. S 1145 

Overend, H 80 

Overton, T 19 

Owen, W 324 

Oxley, J 568, 716, 740, 915 

Palin,W 4 

Palliser, G 394 

Palmer, G.T. 527 

Palmer, G. Y 250 

, H. R 349 

,W 137, 515 

Panter, W 164 

Pape, J. H 349 

Paradis , J 439 

Paraire, E. L 858 

Parfitt, A 522 

Parfrey, Y 503, 863 

Parker, Francis 662 

, Frederick 614, 945 

,R , 226, 244 

Parkin, T...., 314 

Parlby, J , 706 

, S 373 

Parsons, G 778, 807, 828 

p # ]\f 522 

Partridge, E.//..757,'80l','812, 

844, 863, 1064 

Paterson, A. J... 1197 (Supp.) 

Paton, T 117 

Pattinson, H. L., junior... 566 

Paul, R 180 

Payne, J.J 507 

,M 1039 

Peacock,D 817 

Peake,T 830 

Pearce, G 663 

Pearse, J 239, 247, 297 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 

Pearson, E 287 

Pease, T 18,23 

Peek,W.B 338 

Peillon, — 558 

Pennington, J 1111 

Pensam, J. T 874 

Peppereorne, a. E 299 

Perratone, C 769 

Perry, J. G ,..1184 

Peterson, 972 

Petin, 11. U 550, 561, 577, 

590, 598 

Phillips, P. W 338 

Phillips-Smith, J 1165 

Phipps, G.H 342 

Piatti,F 1099 

Piault, J 814 

Pichler, F 786 

Pickering, J 27 

Pickford, M 187 

Piekin, E 897 

, W.E 897 

Pidding, W 408, 460, 800 

Pierson, J. G 264 

Pinaud, J 1061 

Pinkus, H 1188 (Supp.) 

Pinney, J 1210 (Supp.) 

Piper, T 334 

Pitt,C 154 

Pitts, J. L... 746 

Playfair, W 45 

Playle, T 698 

Plum, T.W 791,1005 

Pocock, a 211 

Poirier, Z 1061 

Pollock, J 779 

Pomme, L. J 528 

Poole, J 16 

, M...235, 286, 312, 316, 

319, 381, 389, 444, 468 

Pope,F 334 

,W 155,207 

Portus, J 629 

Postweiler, A 1154 

Pottinger, E 94 

Potts, F 591 

Poulson, E. 843 



Pasre 

Poupard,W 750 

Powell, H. B.„ 390 

Pownall, C. J 437 

Pradel, P 938 

Prades,P.de 616 

Pratt, M 1186 (Supp.) 

— — , S 188 

Preaud, J. M 601 

Prentiss, E.F 920,1201 

(Supp.) 

Preux, A. E 628 

Price, E 1135 

, Y 427 

Prior, W 318 

Prioux. E. T 1220 (Supp.) 

Prosser, W., junior... 370, 382 

Puckering, E 1148 

Pugh, J 771 

Pullan, A 771,889 

Pyke,T 199 

Quaintain, L 262 

Quetin,L 230 

Quinche, A. J 653 

Quitzou, A 1089 

Eaggett,G ..656 

Bainey, T 870 

Ealli;P. T 362 

Ramon-y- Garcia, L ,1155 

Eamsey, D 2 

Eandolph, D. M 121 

Eaney, T. S 1105 

Eankin, P. S 618 

Eanking, J 191 

Eansley, J 766 

Eansome, E 1188 (Supp.) 

Eanwell,W 368 

Eathen, Baron A. B. von..534 

Eawe, J., junior 237 

Eawlings, J 793 

Eayner,H. S 384 

Eaywood, J 1192 (Supp.) 

Eead, G 1091 

Eeading, D 499, 661 

Eeddell, J.H 89,90 

Eedmund, D 261 



INDEX OF NAMES, 



Page 

Eeedhead, J.., 257 

Rees,D 260 

Reeves, 28 

Reiley, J., junior 700 

Reinagle, R. R 284, 590 

Remington, G 665 

Rennie, T. W 1146 

Rey, J. M., junior 870 

Reynolds, G. W 784 

j 257 

Rice, W. 5 ...".'.'. , .'.!!.'. , .'.'.'.".'!.'!3'055 

Richard, J 494 

Richards, A. K 974 

Richards, A. K, ... 1101 

Richards, J.. 1167, 1200 (Supp.) 

, R 1046 

Richardson, G 683, 706 

, H. F 327 

, J 1146 

,R 414 

1 W...683, 706, 852 

Rickards, J. B 838 

Rickett, T 729, 819 

Riddell, T 724 

, W 1088 

Riddle, G 334 

Ridges, J.E 874 

Riend, A 311 

Riley, Z 224 

Rimmel,E 557 

Rimmer, J 939 

Ringsted, W 16 

Rishworth,C ..703 

Rives, M 910 

Roberts, James 99 

s John 539 

— , Joseph 148 

, J., junior 174 

, M. J 982 

: — , R 253,620 

, R. P 953 

, T. H 1066 

,W 1015 

Robertson, J 731 

Robinson, G 767 

Robotham, S 938 

Robson, S. S 629 



Page 

Rock, J , 892, 1118 

, J., junior 446, 619, 

1130 

Rodgers, J.. 1009 

Rogers, T 10,140 

Rolfe, A 960, 989 

Romaine, R 683, 735, 1294 

(Supp.) 

Roosevelt,C 507 

Rothwell, P 1077 

Rouse, W.. 375 

Routledge, T 290 

Rowan, J. M 725 

? W 372 

Rowe, J 11 

-, S. R 1119 

Rowland, 1 1209 (Supp.) 

Rowley, G. W 413 

Rowntree, T , 102 

Boy,E 584 

Russell, G. F 1124,1137 

,W 768 

Ruthven, J ..174,238 

Ryder, S 199 

Rye, W ....577 

Sager, W 431 

St. Charles, P. P. de 509 

St.Marc,B.S. de 781 

Salmon, P 1067 

Salter, R. G 426 

Samuel, J 815 

Samuelson, B 735 

Sanderson, T 658 

Sargent, G. W. H 967 

Saunders, J 372,504 

■ , R 1213 (Supp.) 

Savage, R. W 678 

, W.P 762 

Savill,H 4 

Saxton, J.. 256 

Schiele, .0 432,524 

Schmoock, J 544 

Schroder, E 788,788 

Scotson, E 721 

Scott, F 820 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Scott, U... .457, 571, 588, 626 
753, 1133 

,W.C 455,486 

Scowen, T. L 656, 1020 

Sculthorpe, G. K 229 

Searby, W 691 

Seaton, T 204 

Seaward, J..223, 1187 (Supp.) 

, S.223, 1187 (Supp.) 

Seely, S.J 835 

Selby, F 890, 1207 (Supp.) 

Seton,0 785 

Shakespear, H. J. C 682 

Shankster, J 49, 56 

Sharpies, J 66 

Shaw, A. R 1114 

, G....< 616 

-, H 1096 

Shepard, W. A. ..1204 (Supp.) 

Sherwood, J 657 

Shillibeer, G 344,686,823 

Shoner, J. F 691 

Shorter, E..... 82,164 

Shuttleworth, J..1197 (Supp.) 

Sievier, R.W...... 1046 

Silvester, E 136 

Simon, G 491 

Simon, J. L 806 

Simonton , J ,,.... 867 

Simpson, H. C..» 865 

, J 409 

,W 277 

Singer, I. M 776,1149 

Skeldon, P 1045 

Skelley,J 579,712 

Skertchley, J., junior 545 

Skidmore, J....' 51, 85 

Slagg,R 209 

Slater, J 224 

Slaughter,E 348 

Slawson, J. B 686 

Smith, Alfred , 746 

, Andrew 416 

; F.H 589 

, H 389, 410 

-, John 175, 495, 594 

• , Joseph 933 



Pasre 

Smith, J., junior 727 

, J.O 782 

j. Phillips— 1165 

, O.H 503 

S.W 927 

— ,T 386,869, 983 

J.H 332 

Smithson, T.A 482 

Snell, H. S 679 

Snelling, A. R 494 

Snider, J., junior 935 

Snowden, W 161 

, W. F 196 

Societe cles Forges of Monta- 

taire 840 

Societe E. Gellerat Sf <%..1050 

Soloman, S 507 

Somercon, W...., 37 

Southgate, T. L 1021 

Sovereign, L. L 1124 

Speed, J. J., junior 595 

Spencer, G 510, 848,1220 

(Supp.) 

, J. , junior 852 

, M ..852 

,T 743 

Spinks, J., junior 361 

Spong, W 217 

Spratley, W 145 

Stableford,W 879 

Stafford, D 197, 310 

Startin,T 1078 

Statham, H 1152 

, J 360 

Stead, J 159 

Steevens,W 1035 

Stephens, J 813 

,R 1117 

Stephenson, R 208 

Steven, T 722 

Stevens, B.F 862 

Stevens, S 862 

Stewart, T 838 

Stilmant,P.L.A 833 

Stirling,P ..790 

Stocken, F ,...588, 913 

Stocker, A. R 871 



INDEX OF FAMES. 



Page 
Stockor, A. S....546, 831, 871 

Stokoe, T 25 

Storer,T 751 

Stoy,H 535, 550 

Stracey, E 118 

Stratton, B. T 412 

Strubing, Baron J. U. V de 

439 

Stubber, N 1044 

Stubbs, F.H 1211 (Supp.) 

Sulton,A ,940 

Surgey, J. B 563 

Swift, E 604,1041 

Swinburne, T 1103, 1189 

(Supp.) 

Swinton.W 39 

Syines,J 1017 

Tabernacle, G 434 

Tabuteau,A 871 

Taillendeau, A 1085 

Tait, J 1146 

Tall, J 707 

Taplin, B. D 864, 878 

Tasker, W 1007 

Tate,J 98 

Tayler, J. 1ST 394 

Taylor, G 869 

— , James.. ..741, 798, 809 

9 John 131 

, Joseph 413 

■ , J. G 677 

— , Walter 35 

__ , William 135 

Teissier,. J. B. S...1189 (Supp.) 

Tenting, J. L. aine 783 

Tenting, M. aine. 756 

Testuz' t F 1013 

Thatcher, C 354 

, T 354 

Thelwall, J 875 

Ther-Katz,G 694 

TMercelin, E. E 1179 

Thirion, A. L 912 

Thomas, Bebecca 812, 840 

, Kobert 304 



Page 

Thomas, W 919 

Thomason, E.. 79, 83 

Thompson, G. A 132 

, J .....13, 185 

Thomson, R. B 1011 

,E.W , 391 

,W 593 

Thonet, F 804 

Thornber, J. B 720 

Thornhill, E 10 

Thurlow, J 835, 868 

Thurnham, C. H 736 

Tiffin, 0., junior 1177 

Tigar, P 265 

Tindall, T 150 

Tivoli, Y. de 702,808 

Tolhausen, F 993 

Tomlinson, J 1024 

Tongue, O 267 

Townsend, W 564 

Train, G. E 803, 815, 824, 

825 

Travis, J. S 816 

Tredwell, R 17, 19, 20, 24 

Trengrou se, J 8 

Trevithick, R ,...96 

Triat, A. H 1189 (Supp.) 

Truemen,W 746 

Truman, T. R 817 

Tull, J 12 

Turner, E. R 1034 

, F 1034 

, W 86,962 

Turrill, F 158 

Tyerman, T. F 614 

Tyson, T. S 876 

Ullrich, L 591 

Underhill, W. S.... 1083 

Underwood, W 520 

Upfill, W 927 

Uster, H. L. T. T. von 395 

YanBerg, Sir J. C 2 

Yan Daalen, J 5 

Yan der Byl, P. G 930 

Yan Hees, R 634 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 
Van Heythuysen, F. M....182 

Varley, J 339 

Varney-Morlet, P 1036 

Varty, J 126 

Vaughan, P 76 

Vazie, E 109 

Venden, E 390 

Vercher, J. A 796 

Vernon, 1128 

Vezey, E 576 

, E 576 

Viney, J 211 

Vingoe.H 373 

, W. H 373 

Violette, F. 0. M 369 

Vivian, A 96 

Von Bathen, Baron A. B...534 

VonUster, H.L.T.T 395 

Vulliamy, B 69 

Wagstaff,E 673 

Walker, G. J.. .477, 729, 1169 

, J 1056,1151 

, J.C 1102 

, T 315, 388, 433 

,W 336 

Wall, E 176 

Wallace, T 635 

Waller, E 370 

Walles, J 2 

Walsh, J. H 609 

Walter, E 1004 

Walthew,F. J 1000 

Warburton, T 1115 

,W 356 

Warcup, W 503,547 

Ward, E 518 

,H 672 

, J. T 611,964 

, W. H 1216 (Supp.) 

Warner, A 1151 

Watkins, J 771, 856 

Watson, A. T 862, 869 

Wayne, J.B 657 

Webb, T...1212, 1215 (Supp.) 

Webster, A 586 

Webster, H. 586 

G239. 



Webster, J 451, 476, 782 

Welch, A 792 

,E 476 

,J 680,705,714 

Welch, J 792 

Wells, B. T. M. 1065 

Wendell, I. P 702 

— , J. L 702 

Wessely, C 921 

Westhead, M. B 1108 

Weston, J 294 

Wharton, W....432, 882, 1015 

, W. jun.1199 {Supp.) 

Wheatley , F 458 

, J 127 

Wheelhouse, T 665 

Whitbourn, J 187 

Whitby, T 820,1158 

Whitcher, J 187, 289 

White, a 137 

,W 706, 776 

Whiteside, E 269 

Whitfield, W 148 

Whitgrove, J. T 847 

Whittle, W .*583 

Whytock, A 713 

Wiart, A. C. de 912 

Wigley, H.J 786 

Wigzel,M 891 

Wildey, H 30,72, 84 

Wilkey, J.r 359 

Wilkinson, S 203 

™s, C 142,145 

Willcock, J 787 

Williams, C. J. B.. '.".'. 7 311 

, J... 97, 115, 126," 650, 

1168 

, P 242 

,P.H .859 

-7 ,T 613, 975 

Williamson, J 1122 

Wilmot, S. E V,'..979 

Wilson, A 806 

, E.B ;.791 

, F. J 497 

,G- 533 

, H 957 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Page 

Wilson, J 642 

9 J. Q 483 

, T 558, 1029 

,W.G.... 385 

Winans,E 227 

Winby, 0. E 1138 

—, F.O 1138 

, W. E 1015 

Witte, a.de 1132 

Witty, E 245 

Wolferstan, T 365 

Wood,T. 400 

Woodall, J. F 902 

Woodbury, .J. P 1112 

Woodbury, 8 955 

Woodruff, E 852 

Woodward, J.M 905 

Woollams, J 188 

Worby, W 1188 (Swpp.) 

Worcester, E., Marquis of... 2 



Worssam. S 639 

Wren, J. W. 584 

Wrigg, H 402 

Wright, James 781, 853 

-John 14, 625 

-, Joseph 340, 379 

,L.W 221 

, P 857 

, S 1086, 1097 

, S.W 209 

, T 340 

Wrigley, T 1108 

Wycherlev,H 951 

Wyke, a.". 122, 164 

Yarrow, A. F 1206 (Supp.) 

Yates, J 60 

Young, F 620 



Zempliner, W. A. 



.689 



CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 
FOR COMMON ROADS. 



CARRIAGES AND OTHER YEHICLES 
FOR COMMON ROADS. 



A.D. 1625, January 7.— No. 31. 
KNAPPE, Edward. — Improvements in carriages, consisting 
in " Divers newe waves and meanes by which coaches, ea- 
" roaches, cartf and other carriage maie bemade to last and 
" contynue longer to goe with more ease to the parties that 
" shall use them and the beastes that shall drawe them and 
" be kept and maynteyned with less charge then such like 
" have heretofore beene in the ordinarie courses formerlie 
" vsed, that is to saie by makinge the axeltrees of iron, 
:" brasse, or Steele, either of one length fixed to the one 
" wheele and boxed in the other, or of two lengths fixed 
" severally in either wheele, and boxed vnder the bodie of 
" the carriage, whereby all charge of clowting wilbe saved, 
" and the wheeles and axeltrees to be soe placed and con- 
" trived as in an instant of tyme the wheeles maie be shutt 
" closer together where the narrownes of the waie shall 
" require itt without anie daunger or to be enlarged and sett 
" wyder as shall be most safe and easey for the passenger, 
" and with a devise whereby the coachman without comying 
" from his boxe shall in anie descent of grounde keepe the 
" hinder wheeles from turninge soe as the carriage shall goe 
* ' downe hill with noe more hurt or danger to the passingers 
" or horses then in playne ground, as alsoe by hanginge the 
" bodie of the coach or caroach to the carriages by two 
" springes of Steele before & tw r o behinde, for the more ease 
" of the trevellor, and savinge the dayly charge of grease 
<{ ^vsinge oyle in steede thereof." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent 'printed, price 4d.j 

V. [G239. m.B37.] A 



2 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1634, January 29. —No. 68. 
RAMSEY, David, — These letters patent were granted for, 
among other objects, " a farre more easie and better waye for 
" soweing of corne & grayne, & allsoe for the carriage of 
" coaches, carts, drayes, & other thingf goeing on wheeles, 
" then ever yet was vsed and discovered." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent pi'inted, Aid.'] 

A.D. 1634, December 19.— No". 77. 
EYRES, John, MOWATE, Charles, and WALLES, John. 
Waterproofing woollen cloth for covering coaches, &c. 

The title thus describes the invention : — " Seacret waies 
" and meanes not heretofore vsed within any of our dom- 
" ynions whereby to make woollen cloth impenitrable of rayne 
'" which would be very comodious for our subiect^, as well 
" for journyeing and the pservacon of theire healthe, as 
" allsoe for saving of much leather that nowe is wasted in 
" covering of coaches and waggons for that the said 
* * covering of clothe will keepe out wet as well as a covering of 
" leather and wilbe lighter for horses to travaile withall." 
[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4d.] 

A.D. 1636, April 27.— No. 92a. 
YAN BERG, Sir John Christopher.— These letters patent 
comprise a number of improvements among which are speci- 
fied the following: — " Instrument^, partly mathematical!, 
' ' partly mechanicall, serving for the accurate measuring of 
" land or ground, and may alsoe in a certayne manner bee 
*' ymployed to coaches, oartf, waggons, or any other thinge 
" that is moved from place to place, thereby to knowe the 
" exaote distance and dispatch of their mocon." " Alsoe in- 
" vencons of all kinde of wagons, waynes, coaches, carts, 
" litters, wheelebarrowes," &c. 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4d."] 

A.D. 1660, February 8.— No. 131. 
WORCESTER, Edward, Marquis of.— One of the inventions 
covered by this patent has reference to improvements in car- 
riages, and is thus described: — "An invencon to make an 



FOB, COMMON KOADS, 3 

(i engine appliable to any coach by which a child of six yeares 

" old may secure from danger all in the coach, and even the 

" coachman himselfe, though the horses become never soe 

" vnruly the child being able in the twinckleing of an eye to 

' ' loosen them from the coach in what posture soever they 

" drawe or turne be it ever soe short or to either hand." 
[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4*d.~\ 

A.D. 1664, March 3.— No. 143. 
HILL, Abraham. — This patent relates partly to "makeing 
of a carriage, chaire, coach or charriott with twoe wheeles 
vpon one axletree, haveing a seate or chaire sett vpon 
two shafts or peirch.es, one end resting vpon the axel- 
tree, the other vpon the horse; and of another sorte of 
carriage, chaire, coach, or charriott which hath twoe or 
more such shafts or peirches with foure wheeles ; and of 
another sorte of carriage, chaire, coach, or charriott which 
hath a seate or chaire placed vpon two wheeles or more, 
whereof twoe move on the end of a crooked aleltree, with 
rollers or otherwise; and of another sorte of a carriage, 
chaire, coach, or charriot haveing the seate or chaire hung 
vpon long springs before and behind ; and of another sorte 
of carriage, chaire, coach, or chaires which hath the seate 
or chaire placed upon winding springs fastened to the pearch, 
or to the axeltree, and winding about the same." 
[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4<#.] 

A.D. 1667, July 3.— No. 153. 
LEIG-HTON, Sir Ellis. — This invention relates to an engine 
for propelling carriages which is thus described : — ' ' A cteine 
" engine w ch , wrought & disposed into the bodyes and car- 
" ryages of waggons, charriotts, coaches, and all sorts of 
" things w cb are vsed for carrying of persons and burthens 
" from one place to another by land, will facilitate to the 
" mocon of all these things, that it will extreamely save the 
" toyle and labour both of men and horses and soe conse- 
" puently pforme their severall vses with lesse expence." 
[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, ZdJ] 

a 2 



4 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1683, November 15.— No. 229. 
PALIN, William, and LOGGINS, William.— " A new in- 
" venCOn of makeing severall things of iron by millwork 
" only, which were and are now done by hand and hammer, 
ie (as streaks or tires for wheels) " &c. 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Fatent printed, M.~] 

A.D. 1684, June 19.— No. 236. 
CLIGNETT, John. — " A new devise or engine much like a 
" callash, with two or more wheels, not subject to overturn- 
" ing, wherein one or more may travell with great ease and 
" safety, in which particulars it differs from any coach or 
tf callash hitherto made or invented." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Fatent printed, 3cL] 

A.D. 1685, November 30.— No. 248. 
SAYILE, Henry. — " A new invencon for the great improvem*, 
" both as to ease and vse of all sorts of cartf , waggons, and 
" carriages whatsoever going vpon two wheeles, by apply - 
" ing a third wheele, with other addicons entirely new." 
[No Specification enrolled. Letters Fatent printed, 3d] 

A.D. 1691, April 13.— No. 267. 

GREENE, John. — " This invention relates to hanging coaches 
' * &c, and is thus described : — A new carriage and way of hang- 
" ing coaches and charriots, which for ease and safety of 
" rideing, turning in narrow streetes or lanes, and maimer of 
" coachman's setting differs from and exceedf all that were 
" ever yet made or invented ; and notwithstanding the rough 
*' and vnevenesse of any pavements or road the rideing will be 
" very neare as easie as in a chaire or sedan and altogether 
" as safe, the body hanging perpendicular though the wheeles 
" should overturne." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 3d."] 

A.D. 1691, June 12.— No. 269. 
GREENE, John. — " New engines or carryages of certaine 
" shapes and measures to be drawne or driven by man or 



TOE COMMON BOADS. 5 

" beast vpon one or more wheeles, wherein the lading is 
" carryed about with every revolution of the wheele, which 
" for ease of the burthen or draft and labour exceeds all others 
" that were ever yett invented or vsed being of great benefitt 
" and service to the publique." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Talent printed, 3c?.] 

A.D. 1691, October 1.— No. 277. 

EDISBUBY, Kendmck. — '*' A new art or invention of certaine 
" rollers to be vsed vnder the bodies of carriages, carts, and 
" waggons instead of wheeles, which will be farr more 
" vseful than wheeles, by amending & preserving as well 
" the high wayes as private grounds." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 3d.] 

A.D. 1693, March 3.— No. 315. 
HADLEY, John. — Among the inventions comprised by this 
patent is one described as " an invention of egines moved by 
" wind, vsefnll for drawing severall machines & carriages 
" instead of horses." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 3d.] 

A.D. 1697, April 21.— No. 350. 

OG1LBY, Bartholomew. — Preventing overturning. The 
Letters Patent describe the invention as consisting of " an 
" engine which will prevent the overturning of any sort of 
" carriages, whether coach, carte, or waggon, makeing them 
" goe much lighter and easier, and keeping them in the same 
" scituacon both vp hill and downe even in the worst roads." 
'[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed. 3d] 

A.D. 1698, February 25.— No. 353. 

VAN DAALEN, James. — This invention is described as 
relating to an " engine or carriage with four wheeles and 
" double troughes, which open in the middle and shoot out the 
" load at once, and returne into their places againe, which 
" is wrought together with steelings and schrages or stages 
" that are removed and wrought either with or without 
" wheeles." 

'[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 3d.] 



6 CARRIAGES AND OTHER YEHIOLES 

A.D. 1699, June 20.—No. 364. 
HEMING-, Edmund. — Among other inventions comprised by 
these Letters Patent is il a new invencon very vseful for all 
" our artillery carriages, waggons, and carts, and all comon 
" carts and waggons vsed in our Dominions." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent 'printed, 3^.] 

A .D 5 1704, April 8.— No. 370. 
JACKSON, Benjamin. — Hanging coaches &c. " A new way to 
order coaches, calashes, chazes, wagons, and other carriages 
ts and machines of that nature, so that although the wheeles 
" or carriages may be oversett, yet the bodies or boxes of 
" them shall still remaine vpright without danger to those 
" that sit in them." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 3c?.] 

A.D. 1706, April 12 —No. 376. 
MILL, Henry. — Springs for carriages. " A new mathematical! 
" instrument consisting of new sorts or kinds of springs for 
" the ease of persons riding in coaches, chariotts, calashes 
" and chaises, absolutely differing from the springs now 
" vsed, which are placed below at the corners of coaches, 
" chariotts, and calashes this being made to be placed and 
" fixed vnto, betweene, and within the main leather braces, 
" by which the bodyes of coaches, chariotts, calashes, and 
" chaises are hung, being likewise inviron'd or incompassed 
" with the said leather braces, and being placed or fixed in or 
" very neare the middle of the said braces, forcing them 
" in their vse and operation to open somewhat like a rhombus 
" or lozenge ; and that the said new invented springs are 
" made and contrived of several forms vizt. : — Semicircular, 
" circular, angular, ovall, or of various other forms, a small 
" iron rodd or pinn running thro' the middle or extremities 
*' of the same springs, and may be putt on or taken off at 
" pleasure in the space of halfe an hour ; and which invencon 
" is very much lighter than the said springs now in vse, a 
(t sett of those generally weighing about 120 pounds and a 
" sett of these not exceeding 20 pounds weight and maybe 
" sold at farr lesse charge." 

[No Specification enrolled, Letters Patent sprinted, 3d] 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 7 

A.D. 1707, September 10.— No. 381. 
COLE, John. — Drawing coaches, &c. The invention is thus 
described by its title : — " Certain new methodf and ways for 
" more easy drawing any burthens in & vpon coaches, 
" waggons, carts, drays, dung carts, waines, or any other 
" carriages vpon wheels, than any other method hitherto 
" practised or vsed." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 3d] 

A.D. 1711, November 13.— No. 389. 

HANCOCK,, Daniel. — Axle boxes. The inventor thus des- 
cribes his improvement: — "Makeing a more vseful sort of 
' iron boxes for the wheeles of all manner of carriages, 
' called open boxes ; vizt., one sort of boxes called the body 
' box, which, haveing the edge next toward^ the lime pin 
' cyphered off, does not bear close upon the clout of the axle- 
' tree, but lyes hollow or open to prevent cutting the clouts, 
' and for the better receiving of the grease, which renders 
1 the rotation of the wheel more easy, and one other sort 
' with both edges cyphered off, co only called the lime 
' box ; that the said invention may be of great vse to the 
' publick in rendring the rotation of the wheeles of all 
* manner of carriages more safe and easy, and in preventing 
' those ill accidents which frequently happen from the sort 
' of boxes now in vse by their cutting, breaking, and some- 
' times fireing their axeltrees." 

\_No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 3d.] 

A.D. 1715, May, 5.— No. 399. 

JACKSON, Benjamin Habakkuk. — Hanging coaches, &c. 
This invention is thus described by its title : — 

' ' A very needful invention for the makeing and altering of 
" coaches, chariottf, callashes, and other machines of that 
" nature in such a manner that the persons who sit in them 
" will be in no danger of receiving any damage though the 
" wheeles should be ever so suddenly oversett, because the 
" bodies of them will always in such cases at the very same 
" remain in an vpright position, equivalent to an horizontal 
" levell, and they will be likewise on the same level when 



8 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" going on the side of a hill, and in the most rugged and 
" vneven roades." 

TNo Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 3c?.] 

A.D. 1717, July 17.— No. 415. 
TRENGrROUSE, James. — Improvements in carriages, thus 
described : — " Divers sorts of new vehicles or wheel carriages 
" that will not overturne in any roads, the like never before 
" made, and that the same will be very profitable to all 
" persons who vse any wheel carriages, and will not fret the 
" roadf as waggons and other such carriages now do, that 
" he calls some these new vehicles double and single runners, 
" that the double runners will travell in such bad roads as no 
" coach can travell in, and will run more miles a day and 
" with fewer horses, with more passengers and in lesse time 
" than the present coaches can, and will accomodate all 
" passengers, with several useful conveniences ; that he hath 
" also invented diverse new machines or engines which will 
u prevent all coaches, waggons, and other wheel carriages 
" from overturning, with several conveniences for servants 
" and cloathing for horses. " 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 3cZ. ] 

A.D. 1721, August 12.— No. 434. 
DE LA CHAUMETTE, Isaac— These Letters Patent include 
a great number of inventions, among which is one relating to 
" coaches and chaises that can neither overturn nor iolt." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4d.~\ 

A.D. 1722, May 22.— No. 445. 
BADDELEY, Richard. — Part of the improvement comprised 
by these Letters Patent relates to tf an art for making streaks 
" for binding cart and waggon wheels." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4c?.] 

A.D. 1722, July 12.— No. 450. 
BARLOW", Akthony. — This invention relates to " a new 
" addition of a wheele, iron barrs, plates, pinns, &c, to be 
" fixed to any sort of coach, waggon, or cart, but more 
" especially in the winter season, which, besides severall 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 9 

" other advantages of less moment, will effectually preserve the 
" roadf from being cutt and worne out as they now are, and 
" render the same commodious and passable in the winter, 
" which will tend to the vast ease, safety, and benefitt of 
" travellers, by preventing the fatige and danger of bad 
11 roadf and the heavy taxes and expense of turnpikes to make 
" them good." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4ti] 

A.D. 17-22, September 23.— No. 451. 
DUNNING, Eichakd. — Preventing overturning by " a new 
" machine, called a Poyser which being fixed to any coach 
*' chariot or chaise will not only prevent their being over- 
11 turned when most in danger either by the badness and 
" vneveness of the road, the ignorance of the driver or 
" vnruly horses but also when any wheel should happen to 
" break or slipp of the axle tree of any coach chariot or 
" chaise (having often experienced the said machine called 
" a Poyser) it will be in a great measure a meanes of pre- 
" venting the wheels breaking; that the new-invented 
" machine called a Poyser would not be above twenty pound 
" weight for the largest coach and about twelve pound 
" weight for a light chariot or chaise and after the first 
" fixing one might be shifted from one coach to another in 
" three minutes time and is rather an ornament than a 
" disfigure to any coach, chariot, or chaise on which it is 
" fixed ; it also saves the trouble of dragging the wheels 
si down steep hills (as coaches, &c. generall do) and is a 
" means of a coach, &c. going more miles in a day than they 
" now do without it. It would be equally serviceable to 
" w^aggons, wains, cars, and most other wheele carriages. 
" It is humbly presumed that this new-invented machine 
" called a Poyser, would be of great vse to vs and the pub- 
*' lick (as often as occasioned required) in sending and con- 
" veying cannon and wariiike stores cross the country 
" through bad roadf with more expedition and safety and 
ft likewise to the nobility, gentry and others who chuse to 
" hunt in chariote or chaises which they might do in very 
" vneven ground without the least danger." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4d.~\ 



10 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1724, October 24.— No. 470. 
ROG-ERS, Thomas. — "A steel worm or rowling spring, to be 
" vsed in coach.es, chariots, or any other carriages." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4d.'] 

A.D. 1728, July 27.— No. 500. 
CHAPMAN, William. — Two wheeled chaise or chair, which 
is thus described by the inventor : — 

" A chaise or chair with two wheels to be drawn with 
" one horse in or between a pair of shaftf , which is so con- 
" trived as to quarter the roads by the person riding in it 
c< without let or hinderance so as to keep exactly in the coach 
" track by which meanes the person in such carriage may 
" travel with more expedition, safety, and pleasure to him- 
" self and horse than anything of the like nature hitherto 
" invented ; that by meanes of the said invention when the 
" horse is vpon a full trott or any swifter motion the better, 
" by only setting a foot vpon a spring and pulling a small 
" line for that purpose fixed to the carriage, the traveller 
" may with ease immediately throw off either wheel into the 
" coach track as he shall find most convenient/' 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4cL] 

A.D. 1731, May 20.— No. 529. 
THORNHILL, Ellas. — Improvements in " coal waggon 
" wheels," hitherto made of wood only, and consisting in 
ct a new way or method of making the rim or edge of the 
" said wheels with iron or steel and with iron ribbs or tabbs, 
" and iron bolts, rivets, and screws for the fastening the 
" same, which the peticoner (having made severall experi- 
" ments thereof at a great charge) knows will more effectually 
" answer the end for the same use and purpose to all persons 
*'* who shall think proper to make use of the said invention 
" and will preserve the wood of the said wheels and the rails 
" which they go upon from wearing and will last many 
" years longer than those now used which are not done 
" with iron or steel nor rimmed or edged with any sort of 
" metall to preserve the same and the rails from wearing and 
" the said waggons by the said invention will carry consider- 
f ' ably more coals than usual and the same will be considering 



FOR COMMON EOADS. 11 

1 ' the length of time they will last much cheaper and more 
" serviceable and for the great use and convenience of all 
" gentlemen and others interested and concerned in coal 
" mines and the coal trade and will entirely prevent the 
" destruction of thousands of timber trees in every year to 
if the manifest benefit and advantage of the publick not only 
" in the coal trade and preserving the timber trees for ships 
" and other vessels, but for the benefit and advantage of the 
" nation in generall." 

[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4ci] 

A.D. 1733, May 11.— No, 540. 
LUGrG, Thomas. — Freeing horses from carriages by "drawing 
" of a proper string, which will cause the holdfast or bearer 
" that will be fixed to the flutehills to let loose the detainer, 
" & thereupon a barr of iron turning the chains or harness 
" with the swivells and other fastenings will be at liberty." 
[No Specification enrolled. Letters Patent printed, 4c?.] 

A.D. 1734, February 1.— No. 543. 
ROWE, Jacob. — Antifriction axles. This invention consists 
in facilitating easy rotation of the wheel ' ' by the axis of the 
" wheels that runns on the ground as usuall, turning round 
" on other wheels lying on the topp of the same, and also 
the shoulder of the said axis turns round on wheels instead 
" of a dead surface, as usuall." 
[Printed, 8d. No Drawings."] 

A.D. 1734, October 1.— No. 548. 
KING-, Robert. — "An engine or 'machine for the scouring of 
the inside of cast-iron boxes for all manner of carriages." 
In this invention* a " chock " or chuck is used, in which the 
box to be scoured is fastened and adjusted by means of screws. 
The " chock " or chuck is mounted upon a horizontal spindle, 
capable of revolving in suitable bearings, a screw passing 
through one of such bearings and serving to keep the spindle 
in its place. Upon the spindle is fixed a "band wheel" or 
pulley, from which a band proceeds to a second and larger 
band wheel, and by the rotation of the latter — which rotation 
is produced by means of gearing to which motion is given by 



12 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

an axis turned by a horse — the spindle, chock or chuck, and 
box carried by the latter are all made to revolve, and the 
scouring of the box is effected by the application thereto of a 
stone, which is held in a suitable position by tongs. 
[Printed, hd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1740, May 13.— No. 570. 

TULL, John. — A certain machine which the patentee calls 
" a flying sedan chair, fixed upon wheels." 

The body of this vehicle " is in the shape of a sedan chair 
" which will hold two people, with two doors opening before, 
" and glass windows on each side. It is fixed upon a sett of 
" springs, in a fashion entirely new. The whole carriage 
" is below the axletree, which is entirely new. The place for 
" the driver (instead of a coachman's seat) is a frame fixed 
" on the carriage, twenty-four inches high, which carrys a 
" demy peak saddle, upon which the coachman rides astride, 
€i which is also entirely a new invention. The place for 
" footmen to ride behind is fixed upon springs, with a box 
" for parcells. It is drawn by a double pole, different from 
" any other, and with either two or four wheels. It hath a 
" new invented lauthorn, fixed before the demy peatt saddle, 
" and a moveable screwed iron axletree, that will fitt any road." 
This is " a true and full description " of the invention. 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings."] 

A.D. 1740, August 9.-- No. 572. 

CRISPE, William. — " A double shaft and pole carriage to 
" cross the rutts and go with two wheels and two horses on 
" abreast together, with proper harness for the same, fitfc to 
t( carry either a chaise, coach, charriott, caravan, a chaise 
" marine, or any other convenience of that or the like 
" nature." 

"The carriage moves with two wheels fixed either on a 
" wooden or double stapled iron axletree, double shafts of 
" wood are fixed on the carriage so as to move horizontally, 
" within each of which shafts one of the horses is placed, 
" and each of the said shafts is confined by a barr to keep 
" them at a proper distance from each other, and between the 



FOR COMMON ROADS, 13 

" horses a pole is fixed on the carriage about four inches above 
" the shafts." 

The harness is also described. 
[Printed, 3d. ISFo Drawings."] 

A.D. 1746, July 26.— No. 618. 
HAWKES, Thomas. — "A machine to be placed on the axle- 
" trees of wheel carriages, as chairs, chaises, and such like 
" vehicles, &c. ; if the carriage or wheels overturn, the bodies 
" of them cannot." 

In this invention, there are fixed upon the axletree of a 
vehicle certain curved plates or pieces of metal, so arranged 
as to form a grooved bed, and provided with friction wheels 
there being connected to the lower part of the body of the 
vehicle other plates or pieces which form an inverted arch, 
this resting upon the friction wheels mentioned above, and 
being capable of working freely thereon ; the result of the 
whole arrangement being that although the axle may diverge 
from the horizontal position ; the inverted arch connected to 
the body of the vehicle, working to and fro upon the friction 
wheels, will preserve such body in a perpendicular position. 

The details of the invention are minutely set forth, and 
include the use of a large number of plates, shafts, bolts, 
jacks, and other adjuncts, the method of fastening the parts 
together and applying them to a vehicle being described at 
some length. These details, however, are all of a minor 
character, and may be varied. 
[Printed, 7d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1750, April 6.— No. 655. 
THOMPSON, John. — "A chain or carriage for one person 
" to travel in with one wheel and harness for the horse.'* 

This vehicle somewhat resembles a wheel-barrow in general 
characteristics. It is furnished with shafts in lieu of handles 
and is supported by the horse to the back of which it is 
attached by suitable harness, so contrived as to allow the 
carriage to adjust itself to the horse. There is but one wheel 
which follows in the track of the horse. A platform may be 
fitted behind the driver's seat and over the wheel, for the 
accommodation of another passenger. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 



14 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

AD. 1754, January 22.— No. 687. 
BUTLER, Samuel, and WRIGHT, John.— " Improvements 
" of coaches and other wheel carriages, so as to render them 
" more easy, safe, and convenient to those that are conveyed 
" in them, and less burdensome to the horses that draw 
" them." Also " a spring of a peculiar kind, which will be 
" abundantly lighter and less liable to disorder than any 
" other for the above purposes hitherto used, and which 
(c spring is formed by two braces, united at the ends and 
" divided in the middle by a steel worm in two triangles," 
such spring " rendering coaches and other wheel carriages 
" more safe, easy, less liable to disorder, and consequently 
." cheaper to His Majesty's subjects." 

The specification of this invention is as follows: — "A 
" spring to be applied to coaches, and all kind of wheel 
" carriages, formed by two braces united at the ends, and 
' ' divided in the middle by a steel worm ' or circle into two 
" triangles." 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1757, April 9.— No. 714. 
LADD, John. — This invention relates to "An entirely new 
'* method of making and constructing, on mechanical prin- 
" ciples, waggons, wains, carts, and other wheel carriages, 
" and rollers for roads, tilled lands, walks, and gardens, 
" which, without any horses or other cattle, and with a very 
" moderate and almost inconsiderable human force, will move 
" rollers of any size," " and will move and carry from place 
" to place great weights in such waggons, wains, carts, or 
" other wheel carriages "in any places where there are not 
very steep ascents, or on hilly ground with a much fewer 
number of horses or other cattle than usual ; the invention 
being also applicable to coaches and other carriages. 

This invention consists in the first place in a mode of pro- 
pelling vehicles by means of winches and certain toothed 
wheels and chains. An arrangement is described in which a 
winch is placed upon a shaft mounted in the front part of the 
vehicle, there being also upon this shaft a pinion having 
around its circumference teeth or " leaves," a chain passing 
partly around this pinion, the links of which fit upon the 



FOE COMMON BOADS. 15 

teeth and also partly around a wheel which is much larger 
than the pinion and provided with similar teeth, this wheel 
being upon a shaft on which is also a second pinion, and a 
second chain passing from this to a wheel fixed upon the axis 
of the vehicle, the result of the arrangement being that by 
turning the winch the vehicle is put in motion by the exercise 
of comparatively small power. These arrangements may be 
varied according to circumstances, and if desirable anti- 
friction rollers may be placed between the body of the vehicle 
and the axle, which will enable it to be moved with the 
exertion of still less force. Different modes of applying such 
rollers are set forth, the main feature of this part of the 
invention, however, consisting in the employment of a box 
which may be bolted to the side of the carriage or its frame, 
such box containing two anti-friction rollers which bear upon 
the axle. An axle is also described as having collars thereon 
between which rollers are mounted in a horizontal position, 
the object of these rollers being to reduce the pressure upon 
the shoulders of the axle when the vehicle is passing over 
uneven ground. An axle is also described as being square at 
one end and round at the other, the patentee stating that this 
will enable a heavily laden vehicle to turn with greater facility 
than usual. A carriage wheel is also described which is 
apparently meant to work upon a short independent axle, 
such wheel having the spokes strengthened by means of a 
ring placed at some distance from the centre of the wheel. 
A " slider or slipper " is also set forth as consisting of a circle 
or wheel on a part of the circumference of which are teeth, 
these being in gear with those upon a smaller circle or wheel 
of similar form ; this apparatus being apparently meant to be 
placed in connection with the front axle of a carriage, and 
the smaller wheel be operated upon by a winch or "leaves" 
for the purpose of turning the carriage. A mode of applying 
the invention to a machine for raising heavy weights is also 
set forth, and the invention is mentioned as being applicable 
to various other purposes. 
[Printed, 9eL Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1757, November 11.— No. 717. 
HAKBISON, William. — " Certain engines called coach 
springs, whereby coaches, chariots, berlins, chaises, ma- 



16 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" chines, and carriages of all kinds maybe hung with the 
" utmost safety, ease, and pleasure to the persons who ride 
" in them." 

This invention consists essentially in the employment of 
" hoop springs " combined with certain framing, the hoop 
springs being each composed of a plate or thin bar, bent into 
a nearly circular form, and having the ends coiled backwards 
bo as to form receptacles or eyes for the bolts by which the 
spring is connected to the framing. One arrangement is 
described in which two hoop springs are connected to each 
side of certain framework by means of pins, the action of the 
springs being controlled by a certain bolt and a " check 
" spring." In this arrangement the springs are apparently 
meant to expand when acted upon, the bolt already mentioned 
preventing them from expanding too far, but another ar- 
rangement is set forth in which the hoop springs are expanded 
when at rest and are closed by compression. 

The patentee states that the number of hoop springs em- 
ployed may be increased " by placing them one within the 
" other, or by the side of each other, or at right angles, 
" according to the weight of the carriage," and that they 
may " be made to turn each upon a separate pin, or several 
" upon the same pin." 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1758, December 21.— No. 732. 
POOLE, James, and EINGSTED, William. — Covering 
carriages with metal in place of leather. The nature of the 
invention is thus described by the patentees: — "To prepare 
" and make the outside pannels and tops of coaches, chariots, 
" post chaises, sedan chairs, and other such like carriages, 
" and properly fix a board underneath to support the copper, 
" iron, or brass plates, and afterwards such plates are fixed 
" on the outside of such carriages, and fastened down with 
" mouldings of wood or brass that cover the edges of the 
" plates ; and the plates for covering such carriages on the 
" outside with copper, iron, or brass, beautifully japaned or 
" enamelled with gold, or without, instead of leather, are 
" made and performed by rolling the copper, iron, or brass, 
" in a mill very thin, and afterwards planisht very smooth 
" with hammers, and cutt to fit the carriages they are made 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 17 

" for, and afterwards tooth'd all over to hold the japan, 
" which being done over several times, and baked in hot 
" stoves made for that purpose, untill they are hard enough 
" to bear a high pollish, and such plates are to be ornamented 
" with gold borders, coats of arms, or any other embellish - 
" nient, are then painted or japaned to any pattern, which 
" is also varnished, and afterwards baked! again in stoves untill 
' ' very hard, which preserves them long." 
[Printed, 3d. JSFo Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1759, February 10.— No. 737. 
BEDFORD, Stephen. — " A method of impressing in imitation 
" of ingraving upon varnish laid upon copper, iron, paper, 
" and other bodys, to be used in coach pannels, snuff boxes, 
" and other kinds of merchandise, and impressions of foliages, 
" figures, decorations, ornaments, and other devices." 

This invention is thus set forth: — "Ingrave any sort of 
" works, figures, or decorations upon copper or any other 
" metal plates, and take off the impression with very thin 
" rolled lead, and with such impression raised therein you 
" may impress the same work upon a body of varnish laid" 
" upon copper, iron, paper, or other bodys." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings J] 

A.D. 1759, February 21.— No. 738. 
TEEDWELL, Eichabd.— " New-invented ribbed springs for 
" hanging of coaches and all other carriages upon, which 
" said ribbed springs are so adapted as to be abundantly 
(i lighter, much easyer for the ryder, and less liable to break, 
" than any that has hitherto been made." 

The patentee thus specifies this invention : — " Take a thin 
" plate and stamp the same in a ribbed mould, either round 
" or square, until such plate is become ribbed in one or 
" more ribbs, and each plate being ribbed so as the rib or 
" ribs of such plate run one within another, whereby they 
" carry a much greater weight than other springs do, and 
" which enables me, the said Eichard Tredwell, to make 
" them more than one third lighter than have been usual.". 
[Printed, 4d. No Drawings.'] 



18 CARRIAGES AND OTHER YEHICLES 

A.D* 1759, July 14.— No. 740. 
BLOCKLEY, Thomas. — Making tires. Part of this invention 
relates to the manufacture of wheel tires, and the process is 
thus described : — "Let a bar of iron, of the length intended, 
" be heated in a furnace. When hot let the same be put 
" into a press or stamp with which the holes may be pierced. 
' l When this is done let the barr be taken to an anvell made 
" hollow, in the nature of a mould, to the form and size the 
" tire is intended, and let the same be wrought by a hammer 
" fixed in an engine of the exact dimensions of the sloop or 
" hollow of the anvell, by which, the tire may be com- 
" pleated." 

[printed, 3d. No Dravrings.~\ 

A.D. 1759, November 29.— No. 743. 

PEASE, Thomas, and MONK, William.— This invention is 
set forth, as consisting in an " entirely new and particular 
tl kind of ax el trees," for which the patentees claim various 
advantages, among which are mentioned working with less 
friction than usual, the " axeltrees " moreover being "so 
" framed and contrived as to preserve the wheels from taking 
" fire." 

The apparatus consists in the first place of a long wooden 
bed, into each end of which is let a metallic box for the 
reception of an axletree, there being one of the latter to each 
wheel, and the wheels and axles being thus capable of re- 
volving independently of each other. The outer ends of the 
axles are firmly screwed into the naves of the wheels, and in 
order to retain the axles in their places in the wooden bed 
each axle is grooved at a short distance from its inner end, 
bolts being passed through the bed which partially enter the 
grooves, and each bolt being furnished with a cavity or 
reservoir for the reception of oil, which is introduced thereto 
through an opening provided for the purpose, and the axles 
thus maintained in a proper state of lubrication. A cap is 
screwed upon the outside of the nave of each wheel, this 
preventing the access of sand, dust, &c, to the working parts 
of the apparatus. 

[Printed, bd, Brawmg."] 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 19 

A.D. 1762, February 10.— No. 768. 
TREDWELL, Richard. — " Curious new iron machine for 
" moulding and setting all kinds of springs for hanging of 
" coaches and other carriages upon, which is so contrived as 
" to perform the work much better and with far less time 
" and labour than the present method performed by hands." 

This invention is described by means of a drawing or 
tc plan," from which it appears that the "machine" men- 
tioned above consists essentially of a bent bar or lever, mounted 
upon a fulcrum at one end, and provided with clamps by 
means of which the piece of metal meant to form the spring 
may be bent into a shape corresponding with that of the bar 
or lever, such piece of metal being laid upon the bar, and the 
clamps operated by being " either screwed or keyed." The 
bent bar or lever may be varied in form, according to the 
particular form of spring desired. 
[Printed, hd. Drawing.'] 

AJD. 1762, February 10.— No. 769. 
TREDWELL, Richard, and OVERTON, .Thomas.— " New- 
invented springs for hanging coaches and other carriages 
" upon," such springs being "so constructed as not to be 
liable to give way or break, much steadyer, and in many 
other respects far more servisable and preferable than any 
other that has been made." 

The invention is thus set forth :— " Take thin plates, and 

either flute the plates at the points, or throughout the 

" length thereof, or in the middle, which said plates are 

made in various directions or turnings, according as the 

" purchasers desire; and in joining the said plates together 

" to make the said spring compleat the back of the first plate 

" is adapted to go in and suit the second plate, either by 

fluting the same as aforesaid, or by a slit, notch, or groove, 

made at the points or middle of the plates to receive the 

" flute and hold the same together ; and the back of the third 

" plate is made and adapted in like manner to the second, 

" and so on untill the whole number of plates are joined and 

set which are necessary to compleat the said spring ; and 

" in making the same the back plate may be made flat, while 

the other or others are fluted, whereby the said springs 



20 CAEEIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" become strong and much more useful and convenient than 
" those heretofore made." 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1763, July 29.— No. 792. 
TREDWELL, Richakd. — " New method of making and con- 
" structing springs for hanging of coaches and all other kinds 
" of carriages upon, which is so contrived as to be much 
" lighter and genteeler, and far easier and safer for the rider, 
" than any yet made, without being liable to break or sett, 
" as those commonly used frequently did." 

This invention, as set forth by the aid of a drawing annexed 
to the Specification, apparently consists of certain curved 
plates, jointed or otherwise connected together, and having 
their outer ends united through the medium of what the 
patentee calls a worm or plate, this being, however, obviously 
a spiral spring, which, it would appear, is meant to be com- 
pressed by the weight of the carriage. The patentee states 
that " the plate or plates, worm or worms, may be set in 
" various forms and shapes; or the same may be done by a 
" cranke plate with a pin through to the middle, or in divers 
" other forms and shapes, as shall be thought fit to answer 
" the purpose aforesaid." 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1763, December 2.— No. 801. 
O'KEEFFE, Owen.— " New-invented axletree, and box for the 
" same to run in, to be used for coaches, chariots, and all 
" other kind of carriages, which is so contrived as constantly 
" to supply itself with oil without having occasion to take 
" off the wheels to grease, as is comonly done, and no water 
" or dirt is lyable to get into the stock or nave of the wheel, 
" even when it is under water, whereby the carriage will run 
." much smoother, be neater and cleaner, and not lyable to 
" fire as those now used are, and a great of money and time 
" will be saved by not taking off the wheels to grease, as well 
" as many other advantages in travelling." 

The patentee thus describes the mode of carrying out this 
invention : — " Make an inside shoulder to the box behind and 
' ' a rais'd shoulder on the axletree to fill the inside shoulder 



FOB COMMON KOADS. 21 

" of the box, and a hoop or cap and plate fixed on the axletree 
" to cover the hind end of the box to keep the dirt or water 
" out, and a grove or channel made in the top of the axletree 
' f for the oil to drop in from a cannister or vessell or vessells 
" fixed in the axletree beds, or to the shafts or sides of the 
" carriage or elsewhere, as is proper to convey the oil to the 
" box. At the linspin end of the box or boxes there is an 
" inside shoulder which stops the oil from running out, and 
" an outside shoulder for the nut or sockett for the wheel 
" iron or inside shoulder or stop to stop the oil without an 
" outside shoulder." 

[Printed, 3d. JS T o Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1764, April 16.— No. 811. 
O'KEEFFE, Owen. — "New-invented carriage for hanging 
" coaches, chariots, chaises, and all kinds of bodys upon, 
" which is constructed on a new principle, and is much easier 
" to the rider and lighter for the horses, and in many other 
" respects far superior to those now used." 

The patentee mentions in the first place a four wheeled 
carriage, in which the perch and top carriage are so arranged 
as to move upon a centre of wood or metal " to fasten to the 
upper carriage or perch at each end, the hind center to be 
laid in, on, or under the center of the hind axletree or axle- 
tree bed and hind transom, with a cavity or hole boxed with 
" iron, or any other kind of mettle, or without, for the center 
to move therein, springs boulted on the hind transom and 
framework of the axletree bed, and lays over the transom 
i( that is made fast to the perch to ease the jolts of the hind 
" wheels." 

" The fore part of a four-wheel carriage " is also described 

as being composed of " a new framework of wood and iron 

" made in different shapes as may be thought fitt, to lay on 

the under carriage for the center piece for the perch to lay 

on, and fastened as may be thought fitt to give the centre 

" liberty to work and lett the four wheels have their full 

" liberty to lock under against the perch, and the wheels to 

" rise and fall without a side jolt to the body hanging 

" thereon; the center piece to be made fast to the framework 

that acts or moves on the under carriage as above, and be 

" made of wood, iron, or any other mettle thought fitt, and to 



22 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" move on, in, or under a framework made fast to the perch 
" or perches or shafts at the fore end of the upper carriage." 

"The hind end of a four-wheel carriage" is set forth as 
consisting of a "center piece " made of wood or metal, and 
" to be made fast to the axletree or axletree bed and transom, 
" to move in, on, or under the framework made fast to the 
" perch or perches or shafts ; " and " a two-wheel carriage " 
is mentioned which is to contain a ' ' center piece made as 
" before, and made fast to the framework belonging to the 
" shafts," and which moves in, on, or under the axletree or 
" axletree bed and transom ; or is made fast thereto and 
" moves in the framework belonging to the shafts," which 
framework is made as before " described, and springs boulted 
" and lays over the said framework, as before mentioned." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.] 

A.D. 1764, May 25.— No. 813. 
FOSTER, John. — " New-invented method of making inside 
" seats to coaches, chariots, and all other kind of carriages, 
" with braces and springs, whereby the same are abundantly 
" easier to the rider tban any other heretofore made." 

All that the patentee says is :— " Braces and springs, made 
" of leather, girtwebb, or any other materials that maybe 
" thought fit ; the braces are strained from pillar to pillar, 
" through rings fixed for that purpose to the back rail of the 
" body or elsewhere; a light spring fixed under the braces in 
" the center of the fore part of the seat." 
[Printed, 3d, No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1766, January 28.— No. 838. 
HILLOO AT, Thomas. — "A machine for disengaging horses 
" from coaches, chaises, and such like carriages, on any 
" emergency, by which persons riding in any of those car- 
" riages might in an instant, with the utmost ease, set the 
" horses loose from the carriage when going at any pace or 
" on any ground whatever, whereby various misfortunes that 
" might otherwise happen to His Majesty's subjects by horses 
" running away with carriages might be effectually pre- 
" vented." 
In this invention four pins are in the first place secured to 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 23 

the "splenter barr" of the carriage, the traces being fastened 
to these pins, and the latter being firmly secured to the 
" splenter barr " by means of certain " irons " and bolts, the 
latter, however, being connected to an npper bar which is 
capable of being raised by means of a lever and certain ap- 
paratus connected therewith, the raising of such bar with- 
drawing the pins from the traces, and so setting the latter, 
and consequently the horses, at liberty from the ' ' splenter 
" barr." And in order to facilitate this operation a hollow 
bar of iron is attached to the front end of the pole of the 
carriage, a ball of wood, having springs connected thereto, 
and which springs are inserted into the hollow bar, being 
connected with a sliding socket carrying buckles to which the 
" breast leathers" are attached, the result being that when 
the horses are disengaged from the "splenter barr,'* as men- 
tioned above, the socket slides off from the hollow bar " and 
" entirely disengages the horses from the carriage." 

[Printed, 5d. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1766, August 5.— No. 855. 

PEASE, Thomas. — "A machine and spring for rendering 
ei coaches, chariots, chaises, or any other vehicle to hang 
il more steady, safe, and easy, than any hitherto invented, 
" by means of which machine every spring had its equal 
" bearing." 

In this invention a spring, which is apparently formed of 
several plates laid one upon another and slightly curved, is 
connected at one end to a " stay iron," the latter being also 
connected to a shackle from which the body of the carriage is 
suspended. The other end of the spring is also united to the 
shackle, but through the medium of certain curved bars which 
the patentee denominates the " machines/' these being shown 
under various modifications. " Wooden beds to fix the springs 
" upon," and certain plates, standards, and axes, are set 
forth as forming parts of the details of the invention, which 
details, however, will not be clearly understood without the 
aid of y^e drawing annexed to the Specification. 
[Printed, &d. Drawing.'] 



24 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE YEHICLEg 

A.D. 1766, November 8.— No. 861. : /;.; 
TBEDWELL, Eichabd. —" Method of making springs for the 
" ease and convenience of coaches and other carriages, with 
" a worm and pin, and either with or without a plate, fixed 
" in several forms and shapes, to answer many usefull pur- 
" poses." 

This invention is carried out "by means of the plate or 
" plates and worm springs, with solid pins to go through the 
* ' center of the worm as a director to keep the worm springs 
" upright or in a direct line or even, and short pins with 
" shoulders to press the worms, which are contained in any 
" sort of pipes or tubes of mettle, or covering, or otherwise 
i( or without covering the same, as shall be thought fit ; and 
" also a split pin and sliding bolt to go within the same, with 
" worm springs fixed thereon for a director, to keep them in 
" a direct line, the sliding pins and bolt being so contrived 
" and fastened with screws, rivetts, and stops, that when the 
" w r eight is fixed at each end with proper loopes or shackles 
*' of iron it presses the worm closer together at each end, so 
ts as to give it an elastick motion. These may be made to 
" any length, and to carry any w r eight. They may be fixed 
(i to the points of any common sorts of springs, or to the body 
" and carriage, and with or without a short brace, or the 
" assistance of any other spring whatsoever. They will also 
" supply the place of braces where they are made use of, if 
" required, and to be covered with tubes, or not covered, and 
" made to such forms, sizes, and fashions, and of such 
" materials, as shall be thought fit." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1766, November 21.— No. 863. 
HATCHETT, John. — " A new spring for the hanging the 
" bodies of coaches and other carriages upon, both for town 
" and country." 

The main feature of this invention, which is described by 
means of a drawing containing numerous figures, consists in 
the combination of a " scrowl " or spiral spring with a " main 
" spring," the latter being of slightly curved form in some 
cases, while in other cases it also partakes of the spiral 
character. 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 25 

" The scrowl or serpentine spring is fixed to the main 
tl spring by a joynt, bolt, pevitt, pin, or otherwise at pleasure, 
" or turned out of the main spring in one plate or plates used 
<( or applied to the top of the said main spring or to the 
" bottom or intermediate parts of the said main spring, to 
" draw up or force down or pull out by the main spring. If 
" used with stays or leavers then the said stays or leavers are 
".to be cased in wood or in brass, or in any other metal or 
"' metals, ornamented rich or marked plain." 

The invention is shown in the drawing under a great variety 
of modifications, the details of which will only be clearly 
understood with the aid of such drawing. In one case a 
:< scrowl" is set forth a pressing down a small "ess" spring. 
In another case one ' ' scrowl " presses down a second 
" scrowl ; " and in another case a main spring has attached to 
it a brace by which it is connected to a (£ scrowl J ' spring, the 
brace itself containing a small " scrowl." This arrangement 
is mentioned as being applicable "for Italian or other 
" chaises." 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1767, November 2.— No. 883. 
STOKOE, Thomas. — Carriage for minerals. This invention 
which includes a carriage for the hauling of minerals is thus 
stated : — " A Scotch or whim gin, to be turned upside down 
" and supported with w r ood, on which the oxen, horses, mares, 
" or geldings, & riders or drivers thereof, to be used, are to 
" be placed, and to draw a weight, thirty or forty stones or 
" thereabouts, upon a four wheel carriage, with rowlers or 
" cylinders, vertical or horizontal wheels, also a cap of iron 
" upon the over tree bolt & wheels, to be -fixed to the overtree 
f£ & crosstree, if occasion requires them ; the rope to be used 
" therewith in drawing coals, stones, earth, rubbish, & water 
" from coal pitts, or other pitts & shafts, must be an endless . 
" rope, and to pass round a small roller, to be fixed at or near 
" the bottom of such pitts or shafts, the better, if necessary, 
" to guide such rope ; & when the machine is to be made use 
" of to remove any heavy weight or burthen to any distance, 
" with or without a coal waggon way, then the cylinders or 
rollers, vertical or horizontal wheels, must be affixed to the 
carriage with irons, ropes, or wood, whereby as well the 



26 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEK YEHICLES 

" weight as the strength of the oxen, horses, mares, or 
" geldings used in drawing the same are got." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1768, January 2.— No. 891. 
LAYCOOK, Thomas. — Window blind for carriages. The 
invention* is described by the patentee as divided into two 
parts, viz. : — " Imprimis, the shade blind to slide down the 
1 ' groove, and to answer at once the purposes of shutter and 
" curtain." 

" Secondly, the shades, made of wood or metal, to form a 
{ ' close pannell in the frame. When down, each lath of the 
" blind to turn on a pin or centre, by which it is fixed in the 
" frame. The pin or centre may be fixed on the top or 
" bottom edge, or near the top or bottom edge, or in the 
" middle of the lath. The pin or centre may be fixed to the 
" frame, hole, or socket, to the end of the lath. The shade 
" blind to be guided by ribbon, line, or tape, connected to the 
" shade; the guide maybe made of wood or metal. At one 
' ' end or side a spring bolt or latch constructed, to keep the 
' ' blind close or in different degrees of elevation. At one end 
" or side may be a spring bolt or latch, to keep the shades 
" close down as a pannell. At one end or side may be 
t( another spring latch, with a tooth rack or jack, constructed 
" to keep the shades in different degrees of elevation. The 
" shades maybe kept down as a pannell by a button, and 
{i fixed to different degrees of elevation by a hook." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1769, January 19.— No. 914. 
JAMES, William, and MASON, Nathaniel. — " Great im- 
" provements in the wheel carriages of the coach kind, to 
" wit, coach, charriot, landaw, chaise, or by whatsoever other 
" denomination such carriages may be termed, called, or 
" known." 

The mode of carrying out this invention is thus described : — 
" A crane neck with an iron bar fixt horizontally against the 
11 end of the perch, of a discretionary length and circular 
" form, with a streight iron bar fixt at one end by a swivel to 
" the transum wheel or to some other part of the carriage or 
" crane that has communication with the transum wheel, and 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 27 

(i the other end made with a loop or noose to slide upon the 
' ( first-mentioned bar, which gives way to the right and left 
" to let the fore wheels lock to such an angle as thought 
' ' proper, without touching or going quite under the cranes ; 
" which streight bar not only serves for the locking of the 
" wheels as above, but also for strengthening the cranes, by 
" preventing their giving way either backwards or forwards ; 
" and also to have the use and benefit of a high fore wheel of 
" any height, from four feet diameter to five feet six inches 
" and upwards, at discretion, for coaches, charriots, or chaises, 
tJ there never having been in use a fore wheel exceeding the 
" diameter of four feet three inches ; and also to have the 
" use and benefit of a new-constructed box to be placed in the 
" naves of the wheels for the axletrees to run in, of the nature 
" and description following : —The length or depth of the box 

in the inside, whereon the axletrees bear, of about two 
r,i inches and a quarter, and a groove in the middle of such 
: ' box of three quarters of an inch, or one third part of the 
" whole, cut or sunk from the level thereof, of about a quarter 

of an inch deep, to hold the grease, thereby preventing the 
i( axletrees running dry." 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1769, March 7.— No. 920. 
PICKERING, John.— Chasing coach furniture, &c "The 
" various kinds of work are performed by different machines, 

each respectively adapted to the dimensions of the piece in 
" hand, but being of the same kind and consisting of an 
" oblong "square frame with two rods, in which an iron moving 
" forcer, or weight, or hammer, faced with a softer metal the 
" better to assist the impression, is worked by the assistance 

of three wheels upon a striking block, with a die fixed 

thereon formed for each respective purpose." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1769, March 14.— No. 921. 

MOORE, Francis.—" Machines or engines, made of wood, 

'' iron, brass, copper, or other metal, to be wrought or put in 

" motion by fire, water, or air, with a small assistance of 

horses or manual labour, which will be very useful in agri- 



28 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" culture, carriage of persons, goods, and navigation, by 
" causing snips, boats, barges, and other vessels to proceed 
" with, more swiftness." 

[JVb Specification enrolled. Title printed.'] 

A.D. 1769, June 8.— No. 927. 
REEVES, Chkistopher. — " Certain springs whereby coaches 
" and all other four-wheel carriages would go and travel with 
' ' much greater ease as well in town as in the country, than 
' ' with, any other spring or springs which had hitherto been 
" invented or discovered, together with the method of sup- 
is porting the bodies of such carriages upon the said springs 
" in the center in such manner as would greatly conduce to 
" prevent the overturning the same by almost any accident 
" whatsoever." 

As regards the springs mentioned above, "first are two 
i( sockett nutts, with two check plates at one end of each 
" sockett nutt, which meet together in the middle and have 
" four bolt holes to receive the ends of the springs; the spring 
u plates are turned in a circle, meeting in the middle, the 
" ends turned with a thimble eye to receive a bolt which 
" fixes them to the check plates of the sockett nutts. The 
" sockett nutt of each end receives a long screw with a 
" thimble head to fix the shackle with a screw bolt w T hich the 
" body hangs by ; the long screws are screwed reverse, one 
" screwed to the right hand and the other to the left, which, 
" by turning the middle of the spring one way contracts it, 
ff and the other way makes it longer, which is a conveniency 
l( to hang the body a proper heighth. To the inside of the 
" checke plates, where the springs are fixed to, on each side, 
" is a sliding catch bolt for security if the spring should 
" break, to prevent the body from falling or sinking down 
" low : the sockett nutts and screws are covered with brass 
" barrels, soldered on at each end, which slide over each 
" other as the spring contracts or lengthens and conceals the 
" work." 

As regards supporting the bodies of carriages upon the 
springs the first part of the apparatus consists of "a flatt 
" plate stay, put in with screws to the inside of the elbow 
" rails and flaps against the standing pillars, and likewise 
* * against the middle of the corner pillars. The second is a 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 29 

" flatt stay from the splice of the bottom side to the middle 
" of the standing pillars, fixed with bolts. The third is a 
11 principal and main stay, which is fixed from the bottom 
" side and standing pillars at the bottom with screw bolts, 
tl and directs itself to the middle of the corner pillars, where 
" it receives the iron work by a screw nutt which receives a 
' £ strong screwed ring with a broad collar from the outside of 
' ' the pillar which the body hangs by. To the ring is fixed a 
" swivel loop or shackle, which fastens to the spring with a 
" bolt, as a further security ; " the side pannells are each of 
them lined with additional inside pannells, " fitted in curiously 
" between the framework, to be rabitted and screwed up to 
" the elbow rails, and further secured by the back seat rails 
" and a ledge down the standing pillars ; the elbow rails are 
" broad, with double tenons." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings."] 

A.D. 1769, July 13.— No. 932. 
JACOB, Joseph, the younger. — ' ' A method for the better 
" construction of wheel carriages, by the application of united 
,:i spiral springs, hoop wheels, and leather boxes." 

As regards springs this invention consists of two springs 
which are each of spiral form at the upper part, the lower 
ends being apparently meant to be attached to some part of 
the carriage framing, while the upper and curved ends are 
provided with forked sockets by which they are connected 
to a horizontal bar, mounted and capable of turning in suitable 
bearings. Such upper ends are also furnished with shackles 
for the reception of braces by means of which the body of the 
vehicle is suspended from them and the result of the arrange- 
ment is that on the weight of the carriage coming upon the 
springs they have uniform action owing to their being con- 
nected by the bar. 

The "hoop wheels" differ from those ordinarily used in the 
construction of "the felleys or periphery, which, instead of 
" being sawed out of timber to the shape required are made 
" of strait -grained wood, of any width, in one, two, or more 
" pieces, and bent by art like a hoop to the necessary form." 

" The leather box is made, either long or short, of a piece 

of strong leather closed and sewed together, along the 



30 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" outside of which is either one or two esses or ridges for 
" fastening the box into the nave of the wheel." 
[Printed, hd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1769, July 13.— No. 933. 

MOORE, Francis. — " Machines or engines, made partly of 
" wood and partly of iron, brass, copper, or other metal, and 
" constructed upon peculiar principles, capable of being 
" wrought or put in motion by force or power, without being 
" drawn by horses or any other beasts or cattle, and will be 
*' very useful in agriculture, carriage of persons and goods, 
" and also in navigation, by causing ships, boats, barges, 
" and other vessels to move, sail, or proceed with more swift- 
" ness or dispatch than usual." 
[No Specification enrolled.'] 

A.D. 1770, January 26.— No. 952. 

WILDE Y, Henry. — " An axletree of a new construction, with 
" a washer box and collars to be fixed on the arms of the 
' * axletree, and by truck wheels inclosed in the said box, to 
" be applicable to the common axletrees now in use, but not 
" upon centers, by which invention the grease or oyl will 
" continue for many months without any fresh supply of 
" grease or oyl." 

No usual detailed description of this invention is given in 
the specification, the latter being accompanied by a drawing 
containing various figures, and a short paragraph with each 
figure to state what is represented by it. 

The " arm " of the axletree is stated to be of " oval or any 
" irregular form, the intent of which is to prevent the work 
" from going round," and a " box," having an oval opening 
therein, and furnished with holes for bolts, being apparently 
meant to keep the axle in its place. Another box is shown in 
which the opening is circular, this box being furnished inside 
with trucks or rollers which appear to be intended to work 
upon the axle and so act as anti-friction rollers ; and washers 
are also mentioned as being employed to prevent the waste of 
oil from the box, and also the access of dirt thereto ; a l ' pipe 
(S box that preserves the oil from, the nave," and a long cast 



FOB COMMON BOADS. 31 

box and certain screws or rivets for keeping the collars " or in 
" works " in their places being also set forth. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 177] , September 17.— No. 997. 
JACOB, Joseph, the younger. — " A method for the better 
" construction of wheel carriages.'' 

According to this invention there is attached to the middle 
of the fore axletree or axletree bed of a coach, waggon, or 
other vehicle " a piece of iron or wood, through which, at 
11 any discretional distance from the axletree, is passed the 
CJ perch bolt which forms the point or center on which the 
' { carriage locks or turns ; the fore end of the perch is pro- 
" tracted before the transom far enough to maintain is bear- 
' ' ing on the axletree bed when the under carriage is locked 
" round to its utmost extent. The fore part of the head of a 
lt landawlet is constructed with a joint or hinge at the top of 
" each standing pillar, another joint or hinge at the top of 
" each fore pillar, and a joint or hinge to the roof on each 
" side between the fore pillars and standing pillars, by means 
' ' of which the upper part of the fore pillars and the fore part 
" of the roof fold up and fall back with the hind part of the 
" head. The body of pleasure carriages is hung by placing 
" the center of gravity below the points of suspension, which 
is effected by means of iron rods let through the bottom 
withinside the pannels at the corners of the body, and 
11 placed perpendicularly under sockets or plates fixt to the 
" body at discretion, to receive the rods ; the step to the body 
" is made with joints to fold up under the bottom, and by 
" means of a quadrant stay let through the bottom, the step 
" is put up and down at pleasure. The boxes of the wheels 
" to receive the axletrees are made in a spiral form of iron, 
" steel, or any other substance. The motion of the carriage 
" is occasionally retarded by increase of friction effected by 
" means of levers fastened to the axletree or bed of one end, 
" and acting on the knaves of the wheels at the other. The 
coachman's seat, cover, or hammock cloth is made either of 
carpet, or of canvas or cloth of any colour or colours, and of 
" any pattern or patterns." 

[Printed, 3d, No Drawings.'] 



32 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

AD. 1772, November 13.— No. 1026. 
BUTLER, James. — " Spring wheels for carriages." 

According to this invention the nave or middle of the 
wheel cl is made of wood and bushed as a common wheel ; " 
the rim or outside circle being composed of "wood fellies, 
" straitly fixed in a circular iron hoop," there being in the 
latter certain " counter struck holes " for the reception of the 
" feet of springs which serve the purpose of spokes. These 
springs are made of steel, and bent into a form somewhat 
resembling that of the letter S, and " being made with square 
" feet with two holes in each, are strongly screwed into the 
" nave. The feet of the other ends are made lengthways, and 
fC with two holes which receive the ends of the bolts that 
" come through the iron hoop and confines the hoop, the 
" fellies, and springs all at one time, and by the foot of every 
" other spring being fixed across the joints of the fellies, pre- 
" vents the joints from stirring out of place." 
[Printed, M-. Draiving.~] 

AD. 1772, November 20.— No. 1027. 
CLAY, Henry. — " Making, in paper, high varnished pannels 
e! or roofs for coaches, and all sorts of wheel carriages and 
" sedan chairs, pannels for rooms, doors and cabbins of ships, 
" cabinets, book cases, screens, chimney pieces, tables, tea- 
" trays, and waiters." 

This invention is carried into effect "by pasting several 
'*' papers upon boards or plates of regular thicknesses on each 
" side" the same, to prevent one side counteracting or drawing 
" with superior force to the other in the state of drying ; and 
" when the same is rendered sufficiently strong for the pur- 
" pose intended it is then planed or cut off at the edges until 
" the board or plate appears, and then taken off such boards 
" or plates. The pieces of paper are afterwards screwed or 
" fastened on boards or plates, and put in a stove sufficiently 
'•' hot to deprive them of their flexibility, and at the same 
* ' time are rubbed over or dipped in oil or varnish, which so 
" immediately drenches into them as to secure them from 
'* damps, &c. After the papers are thus made they are 
■ capable of being sawed into different forms, and planed as 
" wood; and if joining the parts be required, as in tea trays, 



FOR COMMON KOADS. 33 

" dressing boxes, and some other articles, they are done by 
" dufFtailing or mitering, in the same manner as if made in 
" wood. After the varions articles are thus formed in the 
" paper they are then coated with colour and oils sufficient to 
" make the surface even, and are then japanned and high 
" varnished." 

[Printed, 3d. No Dr divings. .] 

A.D. 1774, February 14.— No. 1065. 
JACOB, Joseph, the younger. — i( A method of ornamenting 
" carriages, sedan chairs, buildings, furniture, musical in- 
" struments, books, and toys." 

This invention consists in "painting, gilding, japanning, 
J * lacquering, high varnishing, engine cutting, stamping, 
" printing, engraving, inlaying, and piercing the metals 
" commonly called tin foil, lead, and pewter, beat or roll'd 
" out into thin sheets, and fixed on to the parts of the afore- 
" said subjects designed to be ornamented ; " also in a mode 
of constructing coach boxes, and a method of hanging the 
hind footboards of carriages. 

A coach box, or boot, is described, which contains in front 
a complete coachman's seat and footboard, a certain " jointed 
" stay " serving either to fix the footboard up or fold it within 
the boot as required. A footboard is also described as being 
jointed to the carriage at one end, and supported at the other 
end by being suspended from a brace which is connected to 
the spring of the carriage. 
[Printed, 3d. Woodcuts.'] 

A.D. 1774, September 12.— No. 1082. 

NELME (otherwise CYNELME), Lemuel Dole.— An alarm, 
" whereby sedan chairs, coaches, chariots, post chaises, and 
" other carriages may be immediately stopped, and their 
" attendants summoned in cases of imminent danger." 

[No Specification enrolled.] 

A.D. 1774, November 10.— No. 1085. 

HATCHETT, John. — " New-invented art or mistery for 

" making ornaments (such a3 arms, supporters, borders, 

G239. B 



34 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" cyphers, and all manner of flowers and other ornaments) 
" to add to the flowers for coaches and other carriages.' ' 

This invention is meant " chiefly for a quicker dispatch of 
i( business, therefore such ornaments, in general as aforetime 
" mentioned are to be pierced with a saw, or otherways cut, 
" in copper plates, brass, tin, or any other metal or eom- 
" position, stamp or silver compound, foil, mother-of-pearl, 
" paper, vellum, prepared canvas, leather, thin wood, paste- 
11 board or card paper, as shall be thought most proper for 
" that purpose ; when pierced, then to be painted thereon 
" with divers sorts of colours, gilded, glazed, bronzed, inlayed, 
" embossed or coloured, as maybe most approved of, to be 
" fixed and laid upon all manner of coach and other carriages 
" after the ground colour is laid and finished ; and that the 
" said copper plates, brass, tin, or any other metal or 
" composition stamp, silver compound, foil, mother-of-pearl, 
" paper, vellum, prepared canvas or leather, thin wood, 
" paste-board, or card paper, with the painting thereon, after 
li being pierced with a saw or other ways cut, are to be put 
" on and take off and fix on any coach, or any other carriage 
' * when required, or when the ground of a body of any coach 
" or other carriage shall or may be wanted to be new 
" painted, gilded, or varnished." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1775, August 1.— No. 1101. 
O'KEEFE, Owen. — " A new and particular carriage for 
" coaches, chariots, chaises, waggons, and all other vehicles 
" to be used with four or three horses." 

In this invention the body of the carriage or other vehicle 
" (instead of being hung with springs bolted or standards 
" framed or bolted to the fore transum uniting pieces or horn 
" bar) is hung by springs or standards which project from 
u the perch or shafts under the body, so as the body may 
" hang on stiff braces, or with shackles or iron work, without 
" a fore transum, or what is called an under carriage. The 
" perch bolt or turning plate is in the perch or centre 
" between the shafts or perches, jjearly under the fore part 
" of the body in the carriage with a joint or plates contrived 



FOE, COMMON ROADS. 35 

* ' to let the fore wheels lock even with the side of the body, 
" and not before the body, as common." 
[Printed, 3^. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1775, November 28.— No. 1109. 
TAYLOR, Walter. — " A great improvement in the con- 
" struction of wheels for all manner of carriages, and which 
" invention and improvement consisted of four parts, viz., 
' ' first, in the boxes ; secondly, in the naves or stocks ; 
" thirdly, in the spokes ; and, fourthly, in securing the 
" reems of the wheels." 

As regards the boxes this invention consists in the application 
of- — "two slides passing through grooves into the inner end 
" of the naves or stocks and boxes, which slides clasp round 
" & groove formed in the arm of the axeltree for that purpose, 
" and which said slides meet so as to form a close joint," 
these slides not only keeping the wheels in their places, but 
also preventing the escape of lubricating matter from and 
the access of dirt to the boxes. The latter "when cast close, 
or stop at the outer end of the same, should have one or 
more screw or screws thro' the naves or stocks and boxes 
that go into a groove in the axeltree arm, which is an 
additional security to keep the wheel on its axis, and the 
naves or stocks and boxes together, and adso admitts the oil 
into the boxes." 

" The naves or stocks are made of wood, iron, or other 
metal, into which the spokes are screwed or fastened (if 
made of wood it must be thro' an iron hoop, and which 
must be fixt on the said naves or stocks for that purpose) 
between flanches, with nutts and screws or rivets." 
" The spokes are made of iron or other metal as well as 
wood. If made of iron or metal they should be fastened 
to the fellies or reems of the wheels by an iron hoop or 
pieces of iron that go round the under part of the fellies 
or reems of the wheels, thro' which the spokes are screwed 
or rivetted, and to which the fellies or reems of the wheels 
are also fastened; or the spokes may be made by a separate 
flap or strap being put at one end of the spoke, by which 
the same is fastened to the fellies or reems of the wheels 
by screws or rivets. The fellies or reems of the wheela 

•r 2 



36 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

fl may be further secured by a circular piece or pieces of 
" iron, grooved in each side of the said fellies or reems of 
" the wheels, and the whole ri vetted or screwed together." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings. ~\ 

A.D. 1778, May 29.— No. 1193. 
MARTIN, Joshua Lover. — " A chain belt fastened by a lock 
n of a peculiar new construction, whereby all trunks are not 
" only effectually secured from being cut away from carriages, 
" but the lock itself such as cannot be picked." 

This invention consists in the first place of a " new con- 
" structed chain strap or belt " for the purpose of securing 
trunks and other articles to carriages. This chain strap 
is composed in the first instance of links " of an oblong 
" square figure " made of iron or any other metal, which 
links are, or may be, " joined together with plate iron, 
" copper, brass, tin, &c. &c." This chain is described as 
being covered with leather, and so having " every appearance 
" of a common strong belt," the ends of which are connected 
together by a lock which forms another part of the invention. 

This lock, and the key by which it is meant to be operated 
upon, are minutely described, the lock including various 
springs, notched pieces, branches, and other details which 
will only be correctly understood with the aid of the drawing 
annexed to the specification. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing^] 

A.D. 1780, March 16.— No. 1248. 
CLAGGETT, Cbispus.— " A new travelling machine," which 
the patentee styles "the Imperial Mercury," and which is 
intended for " the greater convenience and accommodation 
" of travellers, and which is more commodious and better 
" adapted for the purpose of travelling than any carriage 
" hitherto invented or at present in use." 

" There are three carriages or machines comprehended in 
" the invention, viz., the carriage No. 1 is divided into four 
" equal parts, No. 1, 2, 3, 4, carrying two passengers each, 
" and is so planed and constructed as to give each number 
" distinctly in the interior parts every appearance and 
44 superiour accommodation and elegance of a post chaise or 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 37 

" chariot, and externally the form and appearance of one 
" compleat carriage at large, perfectly uniform in all its 
il parts, and may be entered either at the fore or back 
" fronts or sides. There are separate doors, with locks and 
" keys to each compartment. In the interionr parts are 
" partitions, with glasses and doors of communication from 
" one number to the other, as occasion may require. In the 
" bottom of the carriage is framed an iron security box, 
'•' inseparable with the carriage, for the perfect security of 
" jewels, writings, and other valuables, the entrance to which 
" is from the inside of each number respectively ;" another 
branch of the invention embracing a well, "with holes in 
" ditto, for carrying game, &c. Each number is distinctly 
' ' and severally lighted from the roof by lamps, on an entire 
il new construction and invention, in manner and form 
" following, that is to say: — The first lamp is affixed to the 
" roof of the machine with springs, equally illuminating the 
" road and carriage at same time, and the light may be 
" withheld instantly from one or both at pleasure, and are of 
" equal advantage respecting those carriages following, as, 
" meeting, the words Imperial Mercury (or any device) are 
" done transparently in the circular part of each lamp, and 
" have a most striking and pleasing appearance on the 
" road." 

" The carriage No. 2 falls under the same description as 
" No. 1, without the least variation, excepting only that 
" No. 1 and No. 3 in this machine carries one passenger only, 
" which numbers in every respect imitate a vis-a-vis." 

" The carriage No. 3 exactly the same as No. I and 2 in 
" construction, manner, and design, excepting there are 
" only two parts in this machine, No. 1 and 2 carrying two 
" persons each." 

{Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'} 

A.D. 1780, June 14— No, 1258. 

SOMERTON, William.— " New invented friction boxes for 

" all sorts of wheel and other carriages, for ship- work, house- 
work, nutt-work, and engines and machines of every 

" kind." 
This invention, according to a "plan" with certain notes 

which form the specification, consists in the first place of 



38 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

an axle box having six sides, " but bearing on the axle 
l( only on three sides," the spaces between them being meant 
for the reception of oil or other lubricating matter. In 
another arrangement the sides of the box, instead of being 
plain, as in the first arrangement, are " all convex, " the 
convex parts bearing upon the axle, and the angles forming 
receptacles for oil or grease. Another modification of the 
invention is described in which the box has only five sides, 
and the invention is mentioned as extending " to any number 
" of sides or parts of bearing either in lines parallel to the 
" axis or in the form of a screw or circle, as also to such 
'■' boxes as are of equal diameters at both ends as well as 
" such as are of a conical form," 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1780, September 15.— No. 1264. 
BULL, Mark. — Umbrella support for carriages, &c. The 
invention is thus described : — " There is a base & socket of 
" steel or iron, or any other metal or composition. The ball 
" moves in any direction, and is fixed by one, two, three, 
" or more points, which are forced against it either by a 
" screw or spring. The ball is made with small cavities to 
"receive the points which press against it. In order to 
" secure it the more effectually in the ball, there is a hole 
" which receives the one end of the staff of the umbrella, 
" which is secured in it either by a spring or screw, or a 
" sliding or spring bolt. The umbrella may be taken away 
" from the staff, and either put under the seat of the saddle, 
" or fix'd before the rider. The staff may be made hole or 
" in two pieces, the one to slide within the other, in order 
" to raise or lower the umbrella, and be fix'd either by a 
" spring or screw. They are fix'd in the head of the saddle, 
" and cover'd by a top, without making the saddle appear in 
" the least different from what they are now made." 
[Printed, 3d. JSfo Drawings.'} 

A.D. 1782, March 9.-^0. 1320. 
NEWCOME, Augustine.—" A new method of making wheels 
for coaches, chaises, and other carriages, the naves and 
" spokes consisting wholly of iron, or in part of iron, brass, 
" or other metals, and which would be of public utility." 



FOR COMMON KO ADS. 39 

' ' The nave is made of any sort of metal, such as wrought 
" or cast iron, brass, or bell metal, and lined in the main 
" bore with a socket throughout of iron, brass, steel, or other 
" metal, or bushes in each end, of any sort of metal, wood, 
" or leather. The spokes are made of the best tough wrought 
" iron, drawn gradually taper throughout, and may be made 
" either round, square, octagon, or any other shape. A 
" screw is cut at each end of the spoke, and the biggest end 
" of each spoke is substantially screwed into the nave. One 
" or more thin washers or rings of iron or brass are screwed 
" or fastened to each spoke at a small distance from the nave, 
" to prevent the spokes moving or starting out of the main 
" nave. A strap of wrought iron is then screwed on the 
" extreme end of each spoke, of a sufficient length for 
11 the end of the strap of one spoke to reach the end of the 
' c strap of the next spoke, and so as in themselves to form 
li the whole innermost circle of the wheel; but for heavier 
" carriages it is necessary for the straps to lap over each 
" other, for the greater strength of the wheel. The main 
" or outside rim or tire consists of one whole sound ring, 
" made of the best tough wrought iron, and fixed upon the 
" innermost circle of straps ; the holes in each rim to fall 
" opposite each other, and are tap'd for short screws, the 
" heads of which are placed on the inside of the wheel, three 
" or more between each spoke, by which the inward and 
" outward circles or rims are firmly united or drawn to each 
" other; and, if necessary, to prevent the noise of wheels 
' ' running on pavement, a thin piece of wood or leather may 
' i be screwed in between the inner and outward circle of the 
" wheel." 

[Printed, 3d. No JDraivings."] 

A.D. 1782, October 2.— No. 1338. 

JO ED AN, William, and SWINTON, William.— "Making 
" and constructing the wheels of carts, waggons, coaches, and 
" chaises, that should be more durable and beneficial to the 
" public, and free from the defects and expenses of repairs 
" attending the wheels then in use." 

This invention relates to both "cast metal wheels" and 
" wrought iron wheels." The rims, spokes, and naves of the 



40 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

cast metal wheels are in each wheel to consist of " one entire 
" piece of good gray cast iron, or of copper, brass, or other 
" metal," or of a mixture of metals, such wheels to be cast 
from suitable models or patterns, and, if desirable, surrounded 
by wrought iron hoops, secured thereto by rivets. 

The wrought iron wheels may be of any form and strength 
' required, and are constructed by rivetting or screwing the 
spokes into an inner rim, the points of junction being further 
secured by brazing with copper or brass and borax, and then 
casting the nave, which may be composed of iron, brass, or 
any other metal, or a mixture of metals, around the inner 
parts of the spokes, a tire of wrought iron being then placed, 
in a heated state, around the inner rim, and secured thereto 
by rivets or screws, such tire consisting of either one complete 
ring or hoop, or of several separate pieces. These wheels are 
each provided with a central bush, the latter being furnished 
with snugs or projections on the exterior, which enter grooves 
formed in the nave for their reception, and being composed 
of hard cast iron, or of brass or other metal, being also 
wrapped in leather which has been dipped in linseed oil, and 
then driven into its place in the wheel, and secured there if 
necessary by a screw. Such a bush may be " hollow within/' 
and be furnished with an opening through which oil or grease 
may be poured, and, lastly, " caps, similar to those on 
" common wheels, must be rivetted or screwed on the 
" nave." 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.] 

A.D. 1783, January 22.-1*0. 1353. 
GOD SAL, Philip. — An invention " by which steps with 
" treble, double, or single treads for approaching or getting 
" into coaches, chariots, pheatons, or any other kind of 
" carriages by the mere act of opening and shutting the 
" doors of any such carriages be let down or taken up into 
li a space contrived for their reception at the bottom of such 
" carriages." 

[No Specification enrolled.'] 

A.D. 1783, February 1.— No. 1355. 
JACOB, Joseph, the younger. — " A method for the better 
" constructing of carriage wheels and wheel carriages." 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 41 

These "new constructed patent wheels are composed of the 
" same materials as those in common use for coaches, carts, 
" waggons, and other carriages, and like them consist of a 
" stock or nave in the centre ; a discretional number of spokes 
" and fellies proportioned to the size and strength of the 
" wheel, are shod with iron." 

The spokes " are framed in the same manner as for wheels 
" on the common construction, but the fellies which compose 
" the rim, instead of abutting against each other as in 
" common wheels, are united and firmly joined together " by 
means of certain " laps or splices." 

A mode of putting together a wheel with twelve spokes is 
set forth in which the patentee directs that in the first place 
the spokes are to be framed in the nave or centre, and the 
" nocks or tenons for the fellies" prepared " in the same 
" manner as for common wheels." Then, he says, "to ring 
" them bore in the fellies, begining with No. 1," "and 
" proceed in the following order, No. 2, 3, 12, 11, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
" 6, 5, 4, then wedge them up as common, and shoe them 
" with iron in hoops or sheaths, as occasion may require." 

A " pipe box, made in two divisions, lengthways, of wrought 
" iron or steel, screwed or rivetted together to receive the 
" arm of the axis in the centre of the wheel," is described, as 
also another pipe box the two parts of which are connected by 
means of iron hoops, these being so arranged as to " receive 
" the arm of the axis in the centre of the wheel." And a 
" splintree iron" is described " which, being made in two 
" lengths," and united by means of a male and female screw, 
" may be shortened or lengthened at pleasure." 
[Printed, bd. Drawing. ~\ 

A.D. 1783, March 22.— No. 1360. 
MATTHEWS, George.— Making cast iron ties and axletrees 
&c. malleable. The articles are first cast in moulds of the 
required pattern. If it be a tire " you make the circle of the 
" wheel in eight parts." The articles are then put into 
" close ovens covered with charcoal " which burns for twenty- 
four hours. The articles are allowed to remain till cool. 
These tires are fixed by nails or screws, put in through holes 
made at the time of casting. 
{Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 



42 CAEKIAG-ES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

A.D. 1783, May 3.— No. 1366. 
DEIVER, William. — This invention relates to an excavating 
or digging machine fitted to a wheeled carriage. The follow- 
ing is the inventor's description of his apparatus. There is 
also a table of references to a drawing, which however is not 
on the file. 

"The figure at the top, as drawn in perspective, doth 
" represent the machine and apparatus in question as a three- 
" wheeled cart or carriage, under which is placed an engine 
" nearly like a common plow, the particular form of the 
ts wheel and body of the vehicle and plow shear as invented, 
" and making part of the new construction, appear in the 
" said perspective; besides which there is a plan of the 
" loading wheel as invented, and a section of one of the 
" boxes or receptacles in the same wheel, and also a plan of 
" the bottom and back of the body of the carriage respectively. 

fi The manner in which the whole works together is such 
" that by drawing the whole forward and directing the plow 
" into the substance to be broke up and loaded, the shear of 
" the plow raises and turns the stuff into the cavities of the 
(l receptacles in the invented loading wheel, which in the 
" revolution receives the stuff thrown up, and as it receives it, 
" and brings it up, empties the contents of each receptacle 
" into the body of the machine at the hollow of the top, 
" which is levelled up nearly close to the loading wheel, so 
" as to receive the same, and fenced [so as to keep the same 
" from scattering ; and thus the performance of taking up 
" and loading is effected by throwing open the flap or doors, 
" which form the bottom of the body of the carriage effected. 
" And then as to unloading, that is performed by throwing 
" open the flapps or doors which form the bottom of the body 
" of the carriage, effected by means of the bolt, which bottom 
" and bolt, together with the form of the back, and a chain 
" by which the said bottom is lifted up again when the 
" contents of the body of the machine are discharged, are 
" shewn in the plan of such bottom, disjoined from the 

perspective, and which and back shews the shape of the body 

of the carriage as found the most convenient mode of shaping 
" it, which in the figure is flatt at bottom, and on each side, 
" and is round like the bouge of a cast in the back and front, 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 43 

11 though the shape of the body of the cart is not material. 
" The machine may also have two loading wheels and a 
" double plowshare, so as to throw up and load on both 
" sides. When the cart or carriage is loaded, the plow is 
" unhooked and disjoined, and the carriage of the contents 
" perform as in a common cart." 

[Printed, 4<d. Drawing not on roll.'] 

A.D. 1783, October 25.— No. 1393. 
HATOHETT, John. — " New invented art or mystery for 
* ' coaches and all other carriages and bodies of them, that is 
" to say, the bodies made for all pannels to put in and to take 
' ' out when required ; lining the same ; to have two setts of 
' * paimels to each body ; the one sett richly ornamented and * 
" slightly varnished, lining, answerable to take out and to 
' ' put in ; the other sett finished plain for travelling ; the 
" pannels for those and all other bodies, new or old, pre- 
" pared in a particular manner for strength and neatness 
" and conveniency, and to stand any climate or any sort of 
" weather, as follows: — To be mahogany pannels, or any 
" other sort of wood proper for the use, prepared with oils 
" and varnish ; colours, and to be laid all over, on one or 
" both sides, with a strong canvass straign'd on and well 
" work'd : when they are dried to be prepared and filled up 
with oil, varnish, and colours, and japan the wheels for the 
said coaches and all other carriages ; the felleys reduced in 
length or kept to the usual length as required ; and instead 
" of the joints of the felleys coming between the spokes, 
" which is done in common to all wheels now in use, the 
" joint between the two felleys come to the center of each 
" spoke, so as to have a firm bearing, and each joint to be 
" cross by edge plates ri vetted." 
This invention is thus set forth:— " All the pannels made 
to put in and to take out when required ; separate frames 
16 fixed on the panels and rabetted into the framework of the 
" body, and fixed on with screws fitted and screwed in with 
plate nutts, to take out and screw in when required ; the 
" lining made to fix on straining frames laced on to the backs 
" of frames or stiched on the poof, laced on, to take off and 
" put on at pleasure; the pannels for those bodies and all 
" other bodies of carriages, both the upper and lower pan- 



U CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" nels, to be made of mahogany, rattan, or any other sort 
" of wood proper for the use, prepared with oil and varnish 
" colours mixed with white lead, yellow or stone oaker, or 
" any other strong bodied colour, laid all over on both sides, 
" the pannels, with a canvass, linen, tin foil, flox, tow, paper, 
' i or any other sort of materials as will hold the grain of the 
" wood together, to be well pressed or rubbed on ; then to be 
" thoroughly dried ; afterward to be filled up with oil and 
" varnish colour or japan, &c, and mixed with white lead 
" yallow or stone oaker, or any other strong bodied colour, 
" till the threads of the canvass are entirely covered; then 
" put into a stove room and thoroughly dried ; or in summer 
" time, by the sun and air ; then ground down till it bears a 
" smooth and even surface." 

" Instead of iron loops fixed to the body as usual at bottom, 
" to have wood or iron polls or springs fixed through the 
is back between the lining and pannels and accross each side 
" to the standing pillar under or above each elbow, with loops 
" or shackles, or round the pole only, to receive braces or 
" chains which hang perpendicular, or near upon it, from the 
" springs of the carriage;" various advantages being men- 
tioned as arising from this part of the invention. 

According to another modification of the invention the 
wheels may have the felleys " reduced in length, or kept to 
" the usual length, if required, instead of the joints coming 
" between the spokes, the felleys to meet and join over on 
" the center of each spoke ; each joint to be crossed with 
" edge plates behind and before, and rivetted together." 
[Printed, M. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1783, December S.—'No. 1405. 
ABERY, John. — "A new constructed coach box, to be fixed 
" to the bodies of coaches, chariots, and other carriages, 
" whereby the carriage is rendered considerably lighter to 
" follow the horses, and the coachman rides equally easy 
" with the passengers, and is no obstruction to the front 
" lights. 5 ' 

In this invention a frame of iron, covered with leather, is 
fixed on each side' of the front of the carriage by being 
screwed into the front pillars. " A piece of wood is placed 
" from one iron to the other, and is boarded, which forms 



FOR COMMON EOADS. 45 

the coachman's seat. The two irons may either be placed at 
the extremities of the front, where no light is wanted from 
the front, or at any distance from the corner pillar, 
leaving "room for the seat, in which case a glass is made on 
" each side of the box," the arrangement being such that 
" the coachman is entirely hid from the passengers, either 
" in a coach or chariot; and the box, being fixed to the 
" body, rides equally easy with them. The foot board may 
" be fixed either to the boot or the body, according to pleasure 
" of the maker, and the boot made of any shape or size. By 
" this method of fixing the box, &c, the carriage is rendered 
" much lighter to follow the horses, as the perch maybe 
" considerably shortened. " 
[Printed, M. D reviving.'] 

A.D. 1783, December 17.— No. 1408. 

PLAYFAITt, William. — This invention relates to cutting 
pieces of metal into certain determinate or uniform shapes, 
and giving to such pieces of metal figured or ornamented 
surfaces ; articles being thus produced which will serve for 
a variety of purposes, including " ornaments for coaches, 
" chariots, chaises, phaetons, whiskies, and other wheeled 
" carriages," as well as for furniture and other structures. 

This invention is carried into effect by causing the piece of 
metal to be operated upon to pass between cylinders or rollers 
to which rotary motion may be given by any suitable means, 
one or both of such rollers being provided with indentations 
or hollows which give to the metal the requisite figured sur- 
face. When both the rollers are furnished with indentations 
both sides of the metal will be thus ornamented, but when it 
is desired to ornament one side of the metal only one of the 
rollers only is provided with indentations, the other roller 
being plain. " Beads or husks " may thus be produced in 
detached pieces, and be then united " by means of hollows 
" made in the flat side of the husks or beads by means of a 
" fine saw or other tool through which wire or string is made 
" to pass," and is fixed therein by rivetting or soldering, 
this part of the arrangement being applicable to connecting 
metal beads, husks, or leaves, which have been formed by 
other means, " so as to make festoons or other ornaments of 



46 CAKBIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

" metal which liave heretofore been made in one piece by 
" casting or otherwise." 

[Printed, bd. Dra/wing.~\ 

A.D. 1784, January 28.— No. 1415. 
MOOEE, Francis. — "A four-wheel'd carriage upon a new 
" construction/' and " more commodious, easy, and safe than 
' ' any hitherto known or made use of." 

This invention relates in the first place to the construction 
of a travelling or stage coach, each end of the body of which 
is of octagonal form, and is provided with seats for three or 
more outside passengers, the seats partaking of the octagonal 
form, and thus affording more room for the passengers than 
would be the case if the latter sat in line, as usual. These 
seats are moreover made so as to "open with flaps" for the 
introduction of goods into recesses or boots beneath them, 
and which may communicate with spaces below the seats 
inside the vehicle. The seat of the coachman is supported by 
"■ irons " which project forward from the front of the vehicle, 
but he may, if preferred, ride on the front of the coach with 
the passengers. In the door of the coach are blinds or sashes, 
" which open outwards, like a casement upon hinges, to 
" prevent the air from coming in too violently when the 
" carriage is in motion against the wind," a certain cross bar 
and stay, serving to adjust these blinds or sashes to any angle 
at pleasure. Certain other stays, having rack teeth, and 
acting in combination with straps or chains and rollers or 
cranks, serving to prevent the body of the carriage "from 
" sinking when persons get in or out," this apparatus working 
in conjunction with the carriage steps. Certain springs are 
also arranged below the body of the carriage, and are provided 
with shackles to which the traces are connected, this arrange- 
ment rendering the carriage less liable to sudden jolts and 
checks than when the traces are connected to the sides of the 
coach as usual. The perch of the carriage is divided, the 
parts being bent "like a double crane neck," the patentee 
stating that by this means " the wheels will lock with more 
"advantage than can be done with a straight perch." The 
sides of the coach may be straight, or the body may be widest 
in the middle, and the ends may, if preferred, be oval instead 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 47 

of being octagonal. A "pleasure coach." is described in 
which the middle portion of the octagonal front is so arranged 
that the coachman, box boot, and horses are not seen by the 
persons inside the vehicle, who may, however, see the country 
from certain windows on each side of the front. 

Another part of the invention relates to so hanging the 
body of a phaeton or other vehicle that should the wheels and 
perch be overturned the body will not overturn also, but will 
be deposited on the ground " horizontally upon the bottom/' 
this being effected by the use of shackles or loops and frame- 
work acting in connection with the bearing springs of the 
carriage. In order to prevent oscillation of the body of the 
carriage, owing to its being thus suspended, certain straps 
or braces are connected to the lower part of the body and 
also to a roller which is so combined with certain springs 
and a detent that the body of the carriage is kept steady "until 
the whole vehicle is thrown into such a position as to be in 
danger of overturning, when the detent is liberated from the 
roller by a pendulous weight, and the straps discharged from 
the roller and perch, the body of the carriage then swinging 
into such a position that should the wheels and perch be 
finally upset it will be deposited on the ground in an upright 
position. 

[Printed, 9cl. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1784, May 19.— No. 1434. 
LYDFORD, Robert.— "A pipe box, conically fluted, for all 
" sorts and sizes of wheel carriages, by which they will run a 
" thousand miles or more with one greasing," the arrange- 
ment being such that "the dispersion of grease is equal and 
" gradual to every part, and, from the construction of the 
" boxes, is prevented from working out," various advantages 
being mentioned as attending the use of the invention. 

The invention is thus specified:— " My said new invented 
" pipe boxes, conically fluted, are made of different kinds of 
" metal, viz., cast iron, wrought iron, bell metal, brass, 
" copper, &c, and of leather." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.] 



48 CAEEIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1785, January 12.— No. 1459. 
EDGELL, James. — "New invented axle or center pin, proper 
" and fit for the wheels of coaches, chaises, waggons, carts, 
" and all other wheel carriages.'* 

According to this invention the axles or center pins are 
made of iron or steel, " all of which is applicable to one wheel 
" only, and goes through or is affixed in the stock or nave 
" of such wheel, and is borne or supported at each end of 
" such stock or nave by a bar or rail being placed for that 
" purpose on the outside of the wheel as well as on the inside, 
" so that each wheel turns on its axis within a frame at each 
" side of the body or bed of the carriage by means of which 
" support at each end the said axles are strong, and yet much 
" smaller than has hitherto been accustomed or used for 
" wheel carriages." 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings."] 

A.D. 1785, November 10.— No. 1508. 
BERRIMAN, Robert. — " An intire new apparatus for the 
" purpose of supplying carriage and all other kinds of wheels 
" with grease, without taking them from the axle, and 
" whereby they will be enabled to run considerably longer 
" without fresh greasing than by any other mode hitherto 
" practised." 

In this invention the stock or nave of a cart or carriage 
wheel contains a " box" for the reception of the arm of the 
axle, the interior of the box being provided with variously 
formed recesses or hollows which aid the circulation of the 
oil or grease used for the lubrication of the axle, a reservoir 
being formed or fixed at such end of the stock or nave for the 
reception of the oil or grease, and the reservoir at the outer 
end of the nave being provided with an opening for the 
introduction of the lubricant, such opening being furnished 
with a screw plug by which it may be closed. This open- 
ing is placed directly over the linch pin of the axle, and is 
so contrived that it may be used to remove the pin from its 
place when desirable, a screwed rod being then inserted into 
such opening. Inside the reservoir on the inner end of the 
nave is a collar or washer which is placed loosely upon the 
axle, and serves to defend the inner shoulder of the axle and 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 49 

the end of the box from injury by friction ; another collar 
being fixed on the axle outside the reservoir which assists in 
preventing mud and dirt from splashing into the box, the 
neck or rim of the inner reservoir being bent inwards with 
the same object. The outer reservoir forms a cap which 
entirely encloses the outer end of the axle and the linch pin, 
the latter being furnished with shoulders by which it is kept 
in its place. Collars of leather are also placed at the ends 
of the box, where the latter run into the reservoirs, and the 
result of the whole arrangement is that an efficient lubrica- 
tion of the whole arm of the axle is maintained. 
[Printed, 9cl. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1785, December 9.— No. 1514. 
SHANKSTER, John. — Axles and axletrees. The invention 
relates to an improvement in axles and axle boxes, by the 
use of which friction is intended to be diminished. The wheel 
is securely attached to the axletree, the arm of which, or the 
portion outside the wheel, runs inside an internal box, which 
also works upon a central pin or spindle in an external box 
or bracket frame. The axletree arm " turning six turns 
" faster or more on an average than the internal box, eonse- 
" quently has little or no friction." 

The axletree is made in two parts, working inside a tube, 
so that each wheel revolves independently. Modifications of 
this improvement are shown. 
[Printed, M. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1786, June 13.— No. 1546. 
MOORE, Fhancis. — " A coach with two wheels on a new con- 
" struction and new springs, which by being fixed in a new 
" method, with the addition of new braces, would sustain or 
carry such coach, or any other coach, chariot, chaise, or 
other carriage mounted upon two wheels, with greater ease 
" and safety, and might be drawn with fewer horses than 
" usual." 

In this invention the door of the carriage is placed in the 
back part of the body, the carriage being supported upon two 
wheels only. The " new springs" are composed of curved 
springs which project upwards from a piece of metal welded 
to a crank or corner upon the axle behind the centre of the 



50 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

wheel, the upper ends of these springs carrying braces which 
extend downwards diagonally and are connected at their lower 
ends to loops or shackles by which the body of the carriage is 
supported ; various advantages being set forth as arising from 
this part of the invention. 

The axle is cranked backwards inside shoulders which are 
upon the arms of the axle, inside the naves of the wheels, 
this arrangement causing the bed of the axle to pass below 
the body of the carriage about a foot behind the centres of the 
wheels, the springs, as already mentioned, rising from pieces 
of metal which are welded to this cranked part of the axle, 
such springs being secured by bolts and nuts. 

Below the body of the carriage are " wells or holds" for 
the reception of luggage, there being a space beneath them to 
prevent them from striking the axle in the event of the car- 
riage body vibrating backwards and forwards. On the outside 
of these wells are check or body springs, which fall or bend 
down withinside, and rise up again like hooks on the outside 
of long vertical collars or rollers, placed upon bolts or spindles 
which are sustained by stays fastened to the frame or side of 
the carriage or the bed of the axle, these springs having in their 
eyes bolts or bars which are pressed by them against the long 
collars or rollers, and the result of this arrangement being 
that the body of the carriage is prevented from swinging 
sideways. 

A ' c carriage side frame or double perch" is set forth as 
being screwed to straps which are welded to the under side of 
the axle, the hinder part being prevented from settling by 
means of a stay. Upon the front part of this frame is mounted 
the coachman's seat, as are also the cross and splinter bar, 
rollers, pole, and shaft, and upon this frame, behind the body 
of the carriage, is also a platform, from each side of which 
steps may be lowered at pleasure, so as to give access to the 
door of the carriage ; these steps, when turned up, being 
covered by a board which keeps them dry, such board then 
forming a part of the platform. At the back part of the latter 
is a standard or guard, but in cases in which a footman will 
not be required to stand behind the carriage the platform may 
be dispensed with, and the steps so arranged as to lead to the 
carriage door without the intervention of the platform. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'} 



FOR COMMON EOADS. 51 

A.D. 1786, August 5.— No. 1552. 
SKIDMORE, John.— Ornamenting carriages, &c., by setting 
or inlaying the outsides with "foil stones, Bristol stones, 
<f paste stones, or any kind of pinched glass, lapped glass, or 
" composition." The " stones " may be arranged in borders 
round panels, or may constitute devices, badges, &c. They are 
secured by cement in recesses cut or drilled for them, or they 
may be " set in collets or settings, as other jewellery." 
[Printed, 4d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1786, October 10.— No. 1561. 
MEAEES, Robert. — "New invented swivel and socket for the 
" perches of four-wheeled carriages, which prevents their 
" being overturned, and makes them run easy." 

" The swivel and socket is made of iron and other mettal, 
' ' and is affixed to the perch, which is divided into two lengths 
" for that purpose between the perch bolt and the hindermost 
" axle, by means whereof the foremost part of the perch turns 
" with the rising of a foremost wheel, and the hindermost 
" part of the perch turns in like manner with the rising of 
" a hinder wheel, and thereby prevents a hindermost wheel 
" rising suddenly whilst the foremost wheel passes over an 
" obstruction and leaves the foremost wheel to run safely on 
tl the road whilst the hindermost wheel passes safely over the 
" same obstruction." 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1786, November 29.— No. 1574. 
BESANT, John. — " Certain improvements in wheel carriages, 
" by means of which they are less liable to overturn, will 
" follow with less draft, go down hill without distressing the 
* ' horses, and have less friction on the axletree than any now 
" in use." 

According to one part of this invention a small lever is 
mounted in such a position that the driver of the vehicle 
may easily operate upon it with his foot, a strap passing from 
this lever through the front boot, and being attached to 
another lever, one end of the latter being made to work in * 
connection with a catch at the back of the "sway bar," and 
prevent the fore carriage from locking whenever the driver 



52 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE YEHICLES 

thinks it desirable. Another strap is connected to the back of 
the boot by means of a chain, this strap passing under the 
body of the carriage and over a roller, and thence to a lever 
which is in connexion with a " gripe " or break passing round 
the nave of one of the hind wheels of the vehicle, the result 
of this arrangement being that when the body of the carriage 
inclines forward on descending a hill its pressure upon the 
strap causes the gripe or break to act upon the wheel and so 
retard the progress of the vehicle. The perch is in two parts, 
so put together that one part passes for some distance longi- 
tudinally over the other, certain springs being arranged in 
combination with these parts, and the patentee stating that 
the result of the arrangement is such that the action of the body 
of the carriage "assists the horses." The body of the carriage 
is supported both before and behind by braces and loops in 
connexion with circular springs, the arrangement being such 
" that the overturning of the carriage will only set the body 
' ; down on its bottom between the fore and hind wheels when 
" they lay flat on the ground." 

An axle box and arm are described in which the box is so 
formed that the spokes may be dovetailed into it. The arm is 
provided with a collar, which is enclosed in an aperture in the 
inner end of the box by a plate which is secured to that end of 
the box by bolts, and a tube passes from the axletree bed 
through the collar, and forms the means of distributing 
lubricating matter upon the axle arm. The box is apparently 
lined with metal, and in the outer end of the lining is a screw 
which bears against the end of the arm, and serves to tighten 
the arm when such end becomes worn. 
[Printed, Id. Draivings.~] 

A.D. 1787, January 6.— No. 1580. 
GAENETT, John. — "A method of greatly reducing the 
" friction of an axis or fulcrum, useful for all axles, wheels, 
" beams, levers, pendulums, blocks, pulleys, and other instru- 
t( ments that have a partial, total, or repeated revolution or 
" oscillation." 

According to this invention an axle is surrounded by a ring, 
of much greater internal diameter than the diameter of the 
axle, such ring being called a "container," and there being 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 53 

placed within it a number of rollers which are of sufficient 
diameter to extend between the axle and the interior of the 
ring, but do not touch each other, being kept apart either by 
rings furnished with holes or notches for the reception of the 
axes of the rollers, and such rings, where great strength is 
required in the apparatus, being connected by bars which 
extend from centre to centre of the rollers, or the latter may 
be kept apart by means of chains or bands or other analogous 
contrivances, or by means of smaller rollers interposed between 
them. If this apparatus is placed within the nave of a carriage 
wheel, the container and rollers will revolve around the axle, 
and the rollers act as anti- friction rollers. The container 
may, however, be attached to the body of the carriage, in 
which case the rollers will only revolve on their own axes, the 
axle turning in unison with them. If the axle be hollow 
another axle, of any form, may be placed within it " and re- 
posed on and within any soft or elastic substance. " The inven- 
tion may be applied to various purposes. The rollers may 
be either cylindrical or conical. 
[Printed, M. Draining. 1 

A.D. 1787, March I.— No. 1592. 
GOTTLIEB, Yallentine. — i{ A considerable improvement in 
" the construction of wheels and axletrees, which is calculated 
" to decrease the friction, and consequently to diminish the 

labour, in all sorts of carriages, and may be applied to 
' ' machinery of other kinds where wheels and axles are made 
" use of." 

This invention consists in the first place in forming in the 
arm of an axletree a longitudinal groove, this groove being 
for the reception of a roller of steel or other hard substance, 
the nave of the wheel enclosing this roller, which is on 
the lower side of the axle arm, and the latter resting and 
working upon such roller which thus serves as an anti-friction 
roller. The groove in the axle arm should not extend quite 
to the end of the arm, but the latter should be left solid for 
some distance from the end, in order to receive the screw and 
linch pin by which the wheel is kept in its place. 

The details of the invention may be varied ; in some cases 
a number of small rollers work in combination with one 
larger roller. The inner part of the axle arm is provided with 



M CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

a large collar or washer which not only serves to steady the 
wheel but keeps dirt from getting into the working parts, and 
a small pipe passes from an oil reservoir through an opening 
in this washer and conveys oil to the arm and roller or 
rollers. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1787, May 8.— No. 1599. 

BEODIE, Alexander. — " New-invented iron tier for all sorts 
i( of wheel carriages, whereby the wheels will be much 
" strengthened, and thereby rendered more durable than by 
" any tier heretofore made or now in use for wheel carriages, 
" and whereby the highways and roads will be greatly pre - 
" served," and also meadows and other grounds saved from 
" rutting or being cutt by the wheels of such carriages,, and 
" whereby the horses and other cattle drawing such carriages 
" will be eased of their draught, and the wheels greatly pre- 
" vented of throwing up dirt and soil against the carriages." 

According to this invention an iron tire is formed " either 
" immediately from melted iron, stone, or melted cast iron, 
" or from wrought or hammered iron." 

In preparing to cast a tire suitable patterns are prepared 
not only for the parts of such tire but also for the spokes 
of the wheel, the spokes being apparently meant to be formed 
first, and the tire then cast upon or within them, the inside 
of the tire being "nearly flat, with a rim or ledge on each 
" side, of a depth and thickness suitable to the size and 
" thickness of the wheel, and rounded off on the outside at 
" the edge, over the rim, with a gentle rising from such 
" rounding towards the middle, or square inside and outside." 

In forming a tire of wrought iron the metal is in the 
first place cut into suitable lengths and then operated upon by 
rollers suitably formed until brought into the requisite shape, 
the tire being in this case also furnished with rims, and 
fastened upon the wheel by nails, rivets, or screws, having 
been first placed thereon in a heated state and pressed thereto 
by cramps. A similar procedure is adopted with regard to 
securing a cast tire upon a wheel, the holes for the screws or 
rivets being, however, formed in a cast tire during the process 
of casting, while in the case of a wrought iron tire they are 



EOE, COMMON KOADS. 55 

formed by drilling. The patentee mentions, however, that 
these tires being provided with rims renders them capable of 
being attached to the wheel with fewer screws or rivets than 
usual. 

[Printed, 5d. Drawing.'] f 

A.D. 1787, May 12.— No. 1602. 
GEOBGE, "Watkin. — Anti- friction axle. In one form of axle, 
the axis is surrounded by a number of rollers or cylinders 
which revolve in the reverse direction to the revolution of the 
axis, or, if the axis be stationary, of the nave or " container." 
Each alternate cylinder is smaller than the others and bears 
at its ends on rings or flanges on the covers of the box or 
" container." 

" In another form " every cylinder shall be nicked down or 
'*' made smaller in some places than in others, or notches 
" made at any convenient distance from each other, so that 
" the projection of one cylinder will move in the notches or 
" grooves or cavities in the others." " So the chief principle 
" is, their moving one in the other without touching each 
<c other to cause friction." 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1787, August 11.— No. 1618. 

DAVIS, John. — " A new method of hanging coaches, vis-a-vis 
and other bodies, so that in case the carriage should be 
overturned, the body will remain upright and free from the 
" ground." 

In this invention a certain block in the first place supports a 
large spring of curved form, the ends of which project up- 
wards and are connected by means of loops or shackles to a 
circular frame of iron, certain stays proceeding from this 
frame and sustaining the hinder part of the body of the car- 
riage, while a similar arrangement supports the front part of 
the carriage and the driver's seat. In the shackles or loops 
connected to the circular frame are notches for the reception 
of a bolt or catch, suitably mounted, there being in combina- 
tion with this part of the apparatus a pendulum and certain 
other mechanism, and the result of the whole arrangement 
being that on the framework of the vehicle tending to be 



56 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

overturned, the body of such vehicle will always be retained 
in a vertical position. 

[Printed, 5ti Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1787, October 6.— No. 1623. 
SHANKSTER, John,-—" New method of hanging of coaches, 
" chariots, phaetons, calashes, giggs, chaises, and other car- 
" riages," whereby the lives and limbs of persons travelling 
therein " are rendered more safe and secure than in or by 
" any other carriage heretofore made, built, and hung for 
" the carriage or conveyance of persons travelling and other- 
" wise conveyed thereby." 

According to this invention the axle of the vehicle appa- 
rently projects from each side of the body of the vehicle, 
about midway thereof, the arm of the axle on each side passing 
through a bearing which projects from the top of a cylindrical 
piece of metal mounted upon a pivot, and the two together 
forming what the patentee terms a "jointed swivel," the 
whole resting upon a shackle or loop which unites the upper 
ends of two springs the lower ends of which are connected 
to the carriage framing, and certain small bolts preventing 
the arm of the axle from moving longitudinally in the bearing 
for more than a limited distance. An iron box or frame is 
described as having a bolt passing vertically through it, the 
lower end of the bolt being forked, and, when the box or 
frame is affixed to the body of a carriage, clipping the perch, 
or a roller or rollers mounted upon the perch, the object of 
this bolt being to prevent the body of the carriage "from 
" overturning when entered by passengers, or from being 
" affected by any biass through their sitting on either Bide ;" 
a certain ball, certain moveable inclined planes which the 
patentee terms flyers or regulators, and other minor apparatus 
being so arranged that should the carriage, from any shock 
or obstruction be near overturning the bolt will be drawn up, 
making it " quit the perch and suffer the body to ,flnd its 
" center.'' These arrangements may be varied, in some cases 
the bolt being made to strike into a box or frame instead of 
clipping the perch or a roller or rollers therein. One ar- 
rangement is described in which a circular box contains a 
wheel and two shifters or regulators, the arrangement being 



FOR COMMON. ROADS. 57 

suet that when there is danger of the carriage being over- 
turned the bolt will be drawn up as already mentioned. 

" The coachman's seat and footman's standing board may 
" by this invention be suspended and kept free from danger 
" by the spindles which proceed from the body being made 
" longer, arid having square ends on which may be slipped 
" square eyes to fit, to which irons the seat and standing 
" board may be, agreeable to fancy, elevated or kept very 
" low." 

[Printed, 6cl. Drawing.'} 

A.D. 1787, November 2.— No. 1626. 
COLLINGE, John. — "Making of carriage and other wheel 
" boxes and axletrees, which will be more durable and less 
*' liable to be out of order than any now in use." 

This invention consists in the first place of " a pipe wheel 
" box" which is lined at each end with cast or wrought steel 
or any other hard metal, or " lined in any other form upon 
** the same principle in any number of pieces, or cast solid 
" in any hard metal, with one or more internal projections or 
" bearings for the arm of the axletree to lay upon, to diminish 
" adhesion and friction, and contain oil or grease beneath." 

The arm of the axletree is surrounded by a case or cover 
of hard metal, or " partially covered with any number of 
" cases, either all round or on the under part, to effect 
" the same purpose and diminish adhesion and friction." 
Another part of the invention relates to a cap or reservoir for 
the reception of oil or grease, to be placed at the inner end 
of the wheel nave, this being provided with an aperture for 
the insertion of such oil or grease, and a screw stopper for 
closing such aperture. A plate or bar which is meant to 
" cross the outer end of nave " for the point of the axletree 
cap to bear against is also described, as well as another cap 
or reservoir for the reception of oil or grease and which is 
meant to enclose the outer end of the wheel nave, and which 
will if required, also serve the purpose of the plate or bar 
mentioned above. An ornamental plate for covering the face 
of the cap is also set forth, as well as certain pins, bolts, and 
nuts which serve to unite the parts and keep them in their 
places. The friction between the arm of the axletree and the 
inside of the pipe box may also further be reduced by the 



58 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

introduction of loose collars which will work within the box 
instead of the case or cover already mentioned, and a third 
kind of cap or reservoir for the reception of oil or grease is 
set forth which is provided with "an aperture in the center 
" to permit the end of axletree to pass through to receive a 
" nutt on the outside by which it is secured.' ' 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1788, March 21.— No. 1643. 

HATCHETT, John. — "Making carriages on a new con- 
" struction for coaches, chariots, vis-a-vis, curricles, one-horse 
" chaises drawn on wheels, and also sleds without wheels, 
" chiefly used in Russia, Holland, and other countries subject 
" to much ice and snow." 

In this invention two curved standards are in the first place 
so arranged as to rise from the bed of the hinder axletree of 
a carriage, these standards supporting a cross bar which may 
either be of such length as merely to reach from one standard 
to the other, or so as to project beyond them, and the ends 
thereof " answer for leggs or supporters when the wheels 
" throw over." On the centre of this bar is also fixed a box 
in which works a swivel, this being connected to a standard 
which descends to the perch, the arrangement being such that 
" the perch will swing clear between the wheels." Connected 
to the lower end of the standard is also a curved lt sweep " 
furnished with a tongue which enters a groove formed in 
another sweep connected to the bed of the axletree, these 
arrangements enabling the middle frame of the carriage and 
body to " poize themselves," certain levers, stay braces, and 
springs, aiding to produce this effect. On the swivel men- 
tioned above is fixed a toothed wheel, and over the box in 
which the swivel turns is another toothed wheel, placed hori- 
zontally, there being connected to this latter wheel a circular 
plate having a flap or hand projecting from] it, the result of 
this part of the arrangement being that on the carriage being 
thrown out of its equilibrium beyond a certain point the hand 
so acts upon one or other of the levers already mentioned and 
the apparatus in connection therewith that the body of the 
vehicle, with the coach box, platform, and footman's stage 
" resume their perpendicular situation." 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 59 

The arrangements in front of the body of the vehicle are of 
similar character to those already mentioned. The) pole of 
the carriage rises and falls with the motion of the horses, the 
" splintree " bar or bars to which the pole is connected being 
made to turn in sockets. A " draw out support " is mounted 
below the body of the carriage, " to prevent the body from 
* * giving too much under by the weight of the person on the 
" step," this part of the invention being applicable to old 
carriages, and friction rollers are applied to the perch and 
behind the boot, " to prevent the swivel from being strained." 

In the construction of chariots, vis-a-vis, and phaetons, the 
same system is adopted, but the body of a phaeton may be 
suspended more forward in the framing than in the case of a 
coach. In the case of curricles and one horse chaises the 
hind ends are to be made as in the first arrangement men- 
tioned above, "with this difference; instead of a perch, the 
" two shafts are to be suspended from a swivel in the same 
" manner, and to swing clear between the wheels, and when 
" required to be lighted on the horses to use anaxletree called 
ii a spit axletree," the patentee apparently meaning by this 
" an axletree of which the middle part is bent or cranked 
backwards from the ends. 

In the case of a " sled " the body is to be suspended in the 
same manner as the body of the carriage first mentioned, the 
saddle for the driver turning with the swivel, a lever reaching 
from the saddle to the foot stage " to swing with the body," 
there being also " a spring catch and a pedal lever to it, fiVd 
" to the foot stage, to stay the leaver from under the saddle, 
" and which is to be discharged at pleasure by the foot of the 
" driver treading on the pedal lever." 
[Printed, Sd. Draiving.~\ 

A.D. 1788, May 5.— No. 1649. 
BEAUMONT, John.— Driving waggons, &c. This invention 
relates to several matters, amongst which is an improvement 
in driving coal waggons. The waggon is fitted with a large 
horizontal toothed wheel which is put in motion by a pinion, 
worked by a hand winch. The large wheel shaft puts in 
. motion another toothed wheel which gears with pinions on 



60 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

tlie axes of the wheels. Consequently when the winch is 
turned the wheels are caused to revolve and the waggon moves. 
[Printed, Qd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1788, July 8.— No. 1658. 
YATES, James. — "Multiplying engravings or chasings on all 
kinds of metals, particularly applicable to the engravings 
or chasings in the ornaments of coaches," &c. 
"The design is engraved on a solid block of steel, iron, 
copper, brass, or other mixed metal, made in any form or 
size required. It is then fixed in a dye of iron, steel, or 
other metal, which dye has a ring or collar round it so as 
to form a kind of dish, the ring on the outside of which 
raising higher than the engraved block. A forcer or block 
of metal is then impressed upon the engraving, and with 
thin plates of soft tin or lead or mixed metal, is laid under 
a stamp or press, by the force of which a perfect impression 
is made from the engraved block. Thin plates of metal, of 
gold, silver, plated metal, copper, brass, or other mixed 
metals, are then impressed or stamped, and the raised side 
of the impression of the engraving is then filled with melted 
metal of lead, tin, or other mixed metal, or hard cement, 
to any thickness required, so that the reverse side has the 
perfect appearance of the original engraved block or pattern, 
and any number of impressions may be taken off. For 
some purposes a steel, iron, or other metal roll is engraved 
of any design required, and an impression taken off by 
another counter roll of metal, and then plates of thin metal 
of any kind are passed between the rollers by force of a 
mill, and the raised side of the impression is afterwards 
filled with metal, &c, as before described." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1788, August 12.— No. 1662. 
DTJCREST, Charles Lewis.— Making carriages, sedan chairs, 
&c. of paper. The body of the carriage is made by pasting 
paper over a mould covered with canvas, until the necessary 
strength is obtained. The mould or form is then taken to 
pieces and removed and the canvas taken from the paper. 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 61 

The edges of the body are strengthened for the doors and 
windows by small strips of wood, covered with paper. The 
doors and window frames are similarly made of wood and. 
paper. When dry, the body is varnished, sprinkled with 
pumice powder and. steel filings and. again varnished. " The 
" axletrees are either of wood, making part of the carriage, 
" or of copper or iron, and then each axletree is of two pieces, 
" each piece composed of the fuzee and the tail which goes 
" seven or eight inches into the carriage." The wheels are 
of light w^ood. The naves are entirely of paper pasted together 
" and constructed on the fuzees of the carriages, which serve 
" as moulds." The spokes are covered with paper from the 
" end next the naves to two thirds of their length, the other 
" part of them to the fellies are of wood only." 

When constructed, paper is again pasted over the carriage 
and varnished. The parts liable to friction are protected by 
plates of iron or copper. 

[Printed, M. No Drawings.~] 

A.D. 1788, September 12.— No. 1669. 
ISHERWOOD, John.—" A certain improvement on all car- 
riages, coaches, chaises, carts, &c, but especially carriages 
w T ith tw r o wheels, consisting of a new-invented lock or drag 
" that acts in a superior manner to anything hitherto used or 
" known." 

This improved drag consists in the first place of two bent 
cheeks," placed some little distance apart and connected 
together by means of spurs and cross bars, and sustained by 
a wheel which is apparently meant to run upon the ground in 
front of one of the wheels of the vehicle, the cheeks themselves 
partially embracing the latter, and being further maintained 
in position by a stay which extends from them to one of the 
axles of the carriage. The ends of the cheeks are provided 
with chains, which are passed round the felloe of the wheel 
when it is desired to lock the latter, and secured in that posi- 
tion by " slip links." The chains are connected to the cheeks 
by means of loops, and by the use of the slip links, which are 
provided with suitable " fingers," they are made to act upon 
the wheel or are disengaged therefrom at pleasure. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing. ~] 



62 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1789, August 27.— No. 1697. 
NOB/TON, James. — "A profluvium box, for the purpose of 
" supplying carriage and all other kind of wheels with oil, 
" by which means there is a constant flowing, or flux and 
" reflux." 

In the absence of the drawing which appears to have been 
originally annexed, or meant to be annexed to jjiShe specifica- 
tion of this invention, it is difficult to give an accurate 
description of the invention, which is set forth under various 
modifications. One of the main features of the invention 
appears from the specification to consist of a t( spring ketch " 
which may be operated upon by hand when it is requisite to 
introduce oil into a receiver with which the nave of the wheel 
is provided, a funnel being used in the introduction of the oil, 
and various arrangements of ribs, channels, mortices, and 
other details being mentioned as applicable to the purposes of 
the invention. The latter is set forth as being " applicable 
" to all sorts of wind or water mills, steam engines, cranes, 
" blocks, capstones, and all machines turning on an axis or 
'■' a pin for any purpose whatever, and which may be made of 
" wood, or any kind of metals." 

[Printed, 3d. Drawing wanting.'] 

A.D. 1789, November 7.— No. 1710. 
GrOUT, Ealph. — " Certain machinery for the purpose of 
" measuring distance, and which will not only ascertain with 
" the greatest precision the number of miles a person travels, 
" but will also afford security to the passenger in a carriage 
" and preserve the body thereof from injury, in case either of 
t( the springs or any part to which they are attached should 
" break or give way." 

The main feature of the invention appears to consist in 
the employment of a tooth which is connected to a plate car- 
ried by the nave of one of the wheels of the carriage ; this 
tooth, at each rotation of the wheel, acting upon certain 
cranks, chains, wires, and other apparatus, and so giving 
motion to a "pedometer," which, according to one of the 
numerous figures in the drawing annexed to the Specification, 
is provided with a dial, having one large face within which are 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 63 

three smaller faces, no particular description of this dial, 
however, being given. 

The invention includes certain " supporters of ironwork, 
" which not only conduct every revolution the wheel makes 
" to the pedometer," but also serves as a preventive against 
accidents, the arrangement being such that " if an accident 
" should happen whereby the springs or leathers should 
" break, the carriage could not fall against the wheels, there 
" being full six inches space between the carriage and wheels, 
" and the ironwork being in centre of the six inches must 
" of course keep it full three inches from the wheels, which is 
" not the case in other carriages/* 

An "equestrian pedometer" is described as being appli- 
cable to a saddle, pillion, or other article, used by a person 
riding on horseback, for the purpose of showing "the exact 
** number of paces a horse shall make in any rate of travel- 
" ling." There is nothing in this part of the invention, how- 
ever, which belongs to the subject of the present series of 
abridgments. 

[Printed, Id. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1789, November 10.— No. 1711. 
LYDE, Geoege. — " Ooach trumpet." 

A metal tube is adjusted inside the roof of the carriage, 
under the lining or not as preferred. One end passes through 
the front of the carriage to the other, at about the middle of 
the roof, is attached a mouthpiece. This mouthpiece hangs 
from the tube by a flexible or universal joint, so that it may 
be carried to any part of the carriage, and when not in use, is 
kept out of the way by a hook or spring. 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1790, January 20.— No. 1723. 
HOOPER, Samuel. — Artificial leather for carriages, &c. 
Scraps, cuttings, and parings of leather are converted into 
pulp in an engine, after having been previously washed. When 
great smoothness is required, size is mixed with the pulp. 
The pulp is pressed in wire or metal moulds, again pressed 
between sheets of felt or like material, dried, and finally pressed 
or rolled to give a good surface, 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.] 



64 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1790, February 23.— No. 1727. 
HANDS, Samuel. — A " method of ornamenting all kinds of 
" buckles, straps, coaches, chaises, phaetons," &c. 

The invention consists in " making and in laying any or all 
" of the above-mentioned articles with ornaments made of 
<c gold, silver, and all other metals, glass, pearl, ivory, or 
" other substance whatever, inlaid by cutting, drilling, chas- 
" ing, or pressing; and those inlaid by cutting, drilling, or 
" chasing, are fixed in or upon the article intended to be 
" ornamented with a cement, but with respect to those pressed 
" the ornaments are fixed upon the article with a glutinous 
" substance, rivet, screw, or any other fastening, and then 
" the whole is put into a pair of moulds made to the shape or 
" form of the article intended to be made and ornamented, 
" which article is softened by making the moulds hot in water 
" or steam, and then the moulds are pressed together till the 
" ornaments remain perfectly secure and fast in the article 
" intended to be made and ornamented." The patentee 
" also causes any kind of ornaments to be stamped, sunk, or 
" engraved in the moulds above mentioned, which by being 
" pressed gives the impression desired, and whether such im- 
" pression be raised above or sunk below the surface the same 
" may be inlaid or not at pleasure." He likewise causes 
" ornaments of the like kind and nature to be made and inlaid 
" in horn or any kind of pulp by the like or similar processes 
" for the above-mentioned uses." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1790, July 28.— No. 1767. 
BESANT, John. — " New invented carriage, so constructed as 
" to save in the labor of horses, to be less destructive to roads, 
" and better calculated for the conveyance of merchandize 
■' and the accommodation of passengers, than any now in 
" use." 

This invention is described under various modifications. 
The first consists of a carriage having six wheels and three 
sets of springs, and having also a slider or moveable centre 
which admits of " the shortening and lengthening of the 
" under carriages when any of* the wheels drop into a hole or 
(i have to raise over an obstruction." In another case the 



FOE COMMON" EOADS. 65 

carriage has eight wheels and three sets of springs, with one 
slider. In another case the carriage has ten wheels, and two 
Bliders, placed fore and aft. And another carriage is described 
as having twelve wheels, and three fore and aft sliders, it 
being proposed that this carriage shall have a chimney in 
front, and be divided into two or three compartments, " or 
" that a family of fifteen or twenty, by sleeping by turns, may 
" travel for months or years without leaving the carriage." 
A carriage of this description may be variously modified, one 
arrangement being set forth in which the body of the carriage 
is divided into three main portions, these resting upon fram- 
ing which is braced together by diagonal rods, and the perches 
and other mechanism being so contrived that the vehicle may 
easily turn. Such a carriage may be adapted for the transport 
of merchandize as well as of passengers. The springs of all 
such vehicles may be either connected directly to the under 
framing, so that the bodies of the vehicles may rest upon them, 
or they may be so arranged that the bodies may be suspended 
from them by means of chains. And such vehicles, if made 
of sufficient size, may be used as pleasure houses, suttling 
booths, or dining rooms, and may rest upon twelve, or fourteen, 
or more wheels. 

A carriage is mentioned as being " a double carriage, which 
" may have from eight to forty-eight wheels in length and 
*' breadth," an end view of this carriage being given, from 
which it would seem that such a carriage is meant to have 
the axles made short, and be arranged in pairs, each axle 
having upon it two wheels, the carriage moreover being pro- 
vided with apparatus which answers the purpose of sails, and 
which will, upon the wind being brought to act upon it, either 
serve for the propulsion of the carriage, or greatly aid the 
horses in such propulsion. The patentee mentions that post 
chaises, and all other four-wheeled carriages may, at very 
little expense, have the additional advantage of two, four, or 
more wheels, and that the seats of carriages made according 
to this invention may, if desired, be arranged " after the 
" manner of seats or galleries in theatres." 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.] 

G239. 



66 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1791, October 12.— No. 1829. 

SHARPLES, James. — Antifriction axles. These improve- 
ments relate to various devices for the purpose of reducing 
friction in machinery. The principle lies in the interposition, 
between the revolving axis and the bearing point, of a series 
of rollers, so arranged that the axes of one bear against the 
periphery of the next, and so on. By adjusting the relative 
proportions of bearing surfaces the friction is reduced. The 
bearing point of the system is so contrived as to adjust itself 
to the line of thrust. 

The invention is shown applied to the axle of a carriage. 
Each wheel is secured to the axletree, which is in two parts, 
so that each wheel revolves independently of the other. The 
two portions of axletree are set at an angle to one another to 
provide for the proper portion or inclination of the wheel. 
They are stepped in the centre of the framing, where they are 
free to revolve. Adjoining the nave of the wheel and on the 
inner side, a set of antifriction rollers, as described above, is 
fixed so as to bear on the rotating axle. 
[Printed, 5d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1791, November 26.— No. 1840. 

LEEDHAM, William. — " An improvement for preventing 
" the splinter bars of wheel carriages from being out of 
" order." 

According to this invention " the splinter bar is to contain 
" in front a rod or bar of iron (or other metal), the ends of 
'■" which are to pass through the splinter bar sockets for the 
" purpose of each receiving a nut or key ; the rod or bar thus 
" stationed is to be confined in the middle of the splinter bar 
" by one (or more) bolts, screws, or rivets, and such extremity 
" of the rod or bar prepared for and supplyd with a nut, bolt, 
" key (or other instrument), that will by its force or pressure 
"' applied thereto cause the splinter bar to remain straight; 
" or the fore side contracted, for the purpose of keeping the 
" wheel irons tight to the axletree and splinter bar and free 
" from noise/' 

[Printed, 3$. No Drawings."] 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 67 

A.D. 1792, February, 11.— No. 1851. 
B ARBOR, William.— " Certain machinery for the purpose 
" of hanging of doors and windows or lights in a manner 
" entirely new, particularly those of coaches, chariots, and 
" other carriages." 

According to one part of this invention a carriage window 
has screwed to each lower corner of its frame an angular 
plate, each plate having a stud projecting horizontally from 
it, and there being on each stud a grooved pulley and also a 
plain pulley. To each grooved pulley is connected a line or 
cord, one end of the cord passing around it and being formed 
into a noose, and these cords, when the window is lowered, 
pass upwards and over grooved guide pulleys, and thence 
again descend to a balance weight which is placed in a recess 
in the carriage door, and which is equal or nearly so to the 
weight of the window, with its frame, angular plates, and 
pulleys. The object of this arrangement, apparently, is that 
the window may be raised and lowered into any given position 
with very little exertion, the plain pulleys, moreover, acting 
as antifriction rollers. When the window is entirely raised, 
however, the lines or cords connected to the pulleys on the 
frame pass backwards from the grooved guide pulleys over 
other pulleys in order to allow the window to pass over the 
" fence of the middle rail " of the door, the antifriction rollers 
then turning upon a semicircular frame or casing, which is 
above the grooved guide pulley. If the window is too deep 
to allow the balance weight to rise to a sufficient height the 
weight itself may be furnished with carrier pulleys, and the 
line lengthened and be passed around such pulleys, being then 
attached to the door rail instead of to the weight itself. 

Another part of the invention relates' to a concealed or secret 
door hinge, which consists of one flap, from which a curved 
arm projects, and another flap furnished with a projection 
having a recess therein for the reception of the end of the 
curved arm, a pin here uniting the projection and the arm. 
The flap carrying the projection has an opening through 
which the arm passes, and this flap is let into the door pillar, 
while the flap with the arm is attached to the door itself, a 
cavity being also formed in the pillar for the reception of the 

c 2 



68 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

curved arm, and the result being that when the door is shut 
the hinge is invisible. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing."} 

A.D. 1792, May 25.— No. 1885. 
MARCH, John. — " Making a coach, chariot, landau, berlin, 
" phaeton, post chaise, one horse chaise, and caravan, upon a 
" new construction, the bodies of which cannot overturn, and 
" which in other respects are more safe and convenient than 
" any carnage now in use." 

This invention embraces a large number of details. A 
chariot is in the first place described, the body of which is not 
mounted upon the springs in the ordinary manner, the springs 
rising to a considerable height both in front of and behind the 
body, and the latter being connected to them by what the 
patentee calls a " centrical suspension," the object of this ap- 
parently being that should the vehicle be overturned the body 
will be deposited on the ground in an upright position. A 
futeheli is fixed to the front axletree, which turns upon a 
wheel plate and is joined to a transum by means of a perch 
bolt. Certain springs and rollers are set forth as being placed 
below the body of the carriage, apparently for the purpose of 
preventing such body from swinging improperly from side to 
side owing to its " centrical suspension," and both the coach- 
man's seat and the footman's standing board are also mounted 
on springs, there being also a " spring seat" for the inside of 
the vehicle which is supported by hooks and straps, as well as 
other seats or stools inside the vehicle which turn upon hinges 
eo as to be raised or lowered at pleasure, and likewise a " drop 
" table." Pointed " dragstaffs " are also set forth, the 
pointed ends of which are apparently meant to be lowered to 
the ground so as to check the progress of the vehicle when 
requisite, these dragstaffs being capable of turning in different 
directions, and so obstructing the movement of the vehicle 
either forwards or backwards. A lanthorn is described as 
, being capable of turning in a socket, and so arranged as to 
give light both within and without the carriage, and the steps 
of the carriage are furnished with a ' * hinge stay," which, 
when they are let down, descends with them, and rests 
against a "crane" or projection from the perch of the car- 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 69 

riage, the body of the carriage being thus prevented from 
" making any angle " when persons are getting into it. The 
" imperial" is fixed to the body of the carriage by means of 
a single screw bolt, which also serves to lock such imperial. 

The front axletree and perch bolt are of iron, "all in one 
" piece." The arms of the axles are grooved, and the axle 
boxes are provided with holes through which oil may be intro- 
duced into the boxes, such holes being furnished with screw 
bolts or plugs by means of which they may be closed. Certain 
" scapes " are mentioned as being employed for the purpose 
of liberating the horses from both the splinter bar and the end 
of the pole when necessary, these " scapes " apparently con- 
sisting of certain levers, catches, and other apparatus which 
may be acted upon by means of strings leading from them to 
the interior of the vehicle, and a " drag shoe " is set forth for 
the purpose of being applied to one of the wheels of the vehicle 
when going down hill. Certain locks for the carriage doors 
are also set forth, and also a chain which is provided with a 
hook at one end and a swivel bolt at the other, and which is 
to be used for fastening a trunk upon the top of the carriage. 

The details of the invention are partly set forth in the body 
of the specification itself, and ^partly by means of short de- 
scriptive sentences written in connection with the numerous 
figures in the drawings annexed to the Specification, and 
many of the details are such that they will only be clearly 
understood with the aid of such drawings. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawings.'} 



A.D. 1792, June 6.— No. 1886. 

VULLIAMY, Benjamin. — Two-wheeled carriages. — Part of 
this invention consists in fitting such carriages, intended for 
use with two horses, with a pair of shafts in addition to the 
pole. These shafts may be hinged laterally to the draught 
bar. The pole is supported by the horses by means of suit- 
able harness, which, being also attached to the shafts, tends to 
prevent overturning of the vehicle. 

The invention also relates to an arrangement of spring shafts 
or poles. Plate springs are fitted into the shafts or poles near 



70 CABBIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

their extremities, and means are provided for controlling their 
action. The supporting springs of the carriage are attached 
to the blocking which fixes the shaft to the axletree. 
[Printed* lOd. Drawing,'] 

A.D. 1792, July 17.— No. 1899. 
OOLLrNTG-E, John. — "New invention of and • improvements 
" in and upon carriage and other wheel boxes and axle- 
" trees." 

According to one part of this invention, an axle box is 
formed which is cylindrical in the interior for the principal 
part of its length/there being at each end of the cylindrical 
part an enlargement or "female cone/' At the verge of the 
female cone at the inner end of the box is a reservoir for oil, 
this being partially enclosed by a ring or partition, the end of 
the box beyond the female cone being greatly increased in 
size, and there being a ' ' marginal recess " outside the parti- 
tion into which a leather ring or washer is inserted, the front 
of the axletree collar also entering such recess. Beyond the 
female cone at the outer end of the box is a female screw for 
the reception of the screwed part of a cap which closes the 
end of the box, and which cap itself forms a reservoir for oil. 
Around the verge of the female cone at the inner end of the 
box is a projecting ring which serves to prevent the oil from 
the reservoir at that end of the box from passing too freely to 
the axle arm. The arm itself is shaped in conformity with 
the inner parts of the box almost as far as the female cone at 
the outer end of the box, but is furnished with grooves for the 
distribution of oil, one such groove being immediately behind 
the part which enters the fe'male cone at the inner end of the 
box, and another about midway of the length of the arm. The 
part of the arm which passes through and beyond the female 
cone at the outer end of the box is reduced in diameter, there 
being placed thereon in the first instance a ring of metal 
which at one part fits into the female cone, this ring beinjg 
secured in its place by a nut which screws on a part of the arm, 
an outer nut having its thread in the contrary direction, 
being placed beyond the first as a lock nut. A ring of 
leather is applied in screwing on the cap to the outer end of 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 71 

the box, tlie cap being furnished with an opening by which oil 
may be introduced into its interior, such opening being pro- 
vided with a screw plug. The leather ring prevents the es- 
cape of oil from the cap, and a smaller ring is placed below 
the shoulder of the screw plug. In addition to the cap being 
screwed to the end of the box, it is secured to the nave of the 
wheel by screws passing through a flange with which it is 
provided, and on the collar at the inner end of the axle arm is 
secured a projecting rim " to cover the prominent part of the 
" box beyond the wheel nave, and as an additional protection 
" from wet and dirt." 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1792, October 10.— No. 1909. 
MTTNNS, John. — Carriage trumpet. — From this specification 
it appears that a tube is fitted in the carriage, leading from 
the inside to the outside, where it is provided or not as pre- 
ferred, with a trumpet mouth. The mouthpiece appears to be 
attached to a length of tubing joined to the other in such a 
manner that when not in use, a spring or pulley raises it to its 
proper place, or to the roof of the carriage, as most conve- 
nient. The junction piece may be made to serve the purpose 
of a valve to shut out cold air when the tube is not in use. A 
tube is also described, to which two mouthpieces are attached ; 
when one is used the other must be stopped by a plug. The 
tube is also arranged so as to be capable of being used in com- 
municating with both coachman and footman, and simulta- 
neously if desired. = 
[Printed, 4<d. JVb Drawings.] 

A.D. 1792, November 20.— No. 1918. 
CLAY, Henry, — Panel for carriages. — The following are the 
directions of the patentee for the working of his improve- 
ments : — " Take a block or piece of slate, blue stone, portland 
" stone, or other stone, and slit, saw, cut, or otherwise divide 
" or make it into thin pannels or plates, which pannels or 
" plates are then to be ground or rubbed in the manner of 
" plate glass upon aflat stone or other proper material for the 
" purpose, with sand and water or other ways, till the surface 
■ f f is become perfectly true and even ; after the pannels or plates 



72 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" are thus reduced and made very thin and even, they are to 
" be japanned, painted, gilt, varnished, or otherways orna- 
" mented, for the use of or to be used as pannels and plates 
" for coaches and other carriages, and the pannels or plates if 
" not strong enough of themselves, may be put on, be ve* 
" neered to, or otherways laid on with glue or other cement 
" upon wood, paper, cloth, or other material that will suffi- 
" ciently strengthen and support them for the above several 
" purposes ; or may be put on, be veneered to, or otherways 
" laid on with glue or other cement upon wood, paper, cloth, 
" or other material before they are japanned, painted, gilt, 
" varnished, or otherways ornamented for pannels or plates 
" for coaches, &c. 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings."] 

A.D. 1793, March 25.— No. 1942. 
WILDEY, Henry. — " New method of improvement of a 
" wheel iron for a coach, chariot, chaise, phaeton, or any other 
" four-wheeled carriage, by virtue of a screwed box, nutt, or 
" eye to an improved plan to screw and affix on the fore axle- 
" tree, and with the aid of a screwed box nutt to receive a 
" screw or screws horizontally, as occasion may require, 
" through the fore wheel bar (commonly called the splinter 
*' bar), and to be screwed to the inside of the said splinter 
" bar, will completely keep the same in its proper position, 
" and also prevent the fore wheels of such carriage ever com- 
" ing off while in action or use ;" also a " new-invented axle- 
" tree double box for all kind of wheel carriages, which by 
" means of its present construction will contain and supply 
" itself with oil for several months without the occasion of 
" being taken off to oil the same, as the common box now in 
" use requires. ,, 

The double axle box which forms part of this invention con- 
sists of an inner box which works upon the arm of the axle, 
and has at each end an outside collar, there being about mid- 
way of its length a third collar of less diameter than the other 
two, a " check bar " or outer rib also passing along the box, 
between the two outer collars, such rib or bar being of the 
same height as the latter, and there being a row of holes in 
fche box near to the bar. Outside the inner is an outer box, 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 73 

this being of tbe same internal diameter as tbe collars at tbe 
ends of tbe inner box, and being brazed or soldered to tbem 
and to tbe " cbeck bar," a space being tbus left between tbe 
two boxes, wbich forms a reservoir for oil, sucb oil being in- 
troduced througb a bole in tbe end of tbe outer box, and being 
tbrown into tbe boles mentioned above by tbe cbeck bar as 
tbe bar rotates, tbe boles being countersunk, and tbe oil pass- 
ing down through them to tbe arm of tbe axle. Outside tbe 
outer box are pins or snugs which, wben tbe complete box bas 
been inserted into tbe nave of tbe wbeel, prevent it from 
turning round tberein. Tbe other box is also provided at eacb 
end witb an "over jett or barbour " projecting beyond tbe 
inner box, " wbereby tbe arm of tbe axletree, at tbe lincb end 
* e thereof, as well as tbe body end, is protected from dirt or 
" sand getting between tbe box and tbe arm of tbe axle- 
" tree." 

Tbe " wbeel iron " wbicb forms anotber part of tbe inven- 
tion, consists of a bar wbicb is curved somewbat into tbe 
sbape of the letter S, one end of wbicb is connected by means 
of " a screwed box, nutt, or eye," to tbe lincb or outer end of 
tbe axletree arm, outside tbe wbeel, the otber end being pro- 
vided witb a " screwed box " for tbe reception of a screw or 
screws by wbich it is connected to the splinter bar of the 
vehicle. A T or an L flap may, however, be substituted for 
tbe screwed box. It is apparently meant that one of these 
" wheel irons " shall be placed outside both of the fore wheels 
of a vehicle, thereby effectually preventing such wheels from 
leaving the axle. 

[Printed, 6d, Draiving.'] 

A.D. 1794, May 24.— No. 1991. 
DE LOLME, John Lewis. — " New invented instruments or 
" implements for the safety and convenience of wheel car- 
" riages, and also for their greater expedition, by the lessening 
" of friction." 

This invention embraces a large number of particulars, 
which are set forth at great length. The invention consists in 
the first place of a " stepper" or ladder which is to be used 
by persons in entering and leaving carriages, this ladder con- 
taining any requisite number of steps, and being hinged at 



74 CAEEIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

the upper end to the carriage, or to suitable apparatus con- 
nected thereto. When not in use the stepper is turned back- 
wards below the body of the carriage, and retained in that 
position by a catch, such catch being liberated, when the 
stepper is required for use, by pulling a wire (which may act 
upon the catch through the medium of a crank or cranks, or 
otherwise), the stepper then swinging downwards and for- 
wards, and assuming a position in which it is suitable for use, 
being prevented from returning backwards by means of other 
catches which are brought to bear against certain ' 'hanging 
" pillars," which project downwards from the carriage, and 
which retain the stepper in position while required for use. 
The different catches, as well as the stepper itself, may be 
aided in its operation by means of springs or weights, and the 
arrangement may be such that a person in the carriage, by 
pulling at one wire or string, may liberate the steps from 
below the carriage, in order to descend therefrom, and upon 
returning to the carriage may, by pulling at another wire or 
string, liberate the catches which have been sustaining the 
stepper in its forward position, and cause it again to retire 
below the carriage. These arrangements are set forth at great 
length, and under various modifications, different forms of 
catches, along with certain sliding hinges, sliding slips, and 
Other minor apparatus being mentioned as applicable to the 
purposes of the invention, the lower end of the stepper being 
in some cases made to rest upon the ground in order to pre- 
vent it from swinging backwards by the weight of the person 
using it. 

Another part of the invention relates to springs for car- 
riages, and the main features of this part of the invention are 
set forth as consisting in forming the spring in the first place 
by bending a thin slip of steel or other metal first in one 
direction and then in the other until it resembles in form a 
flattened helix or spiral, and then connecting the upper end 
Of such spring to some fixed point in the framing of the car- 
riage, the body of the latter being suspended by means of a 
link from a vertical rod which is connected to the lower end of 
the spring, and which is capable of sliding up and down in 
suitable bearings, the patentee terming this rod and link the 
" sliding settler" and the " swinging link." 

Another part of the invention relates to apparatus for 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 75 

enabling persons in a carriage to release the horses therefrom 
in case of necessity. The traces of the horses are connected 
to the framework of the carriage by means of bolts which are 
capable of being raised upwards by means of a " turning 
" piece " furnished with studs or projections, and a long lever 
projecting upwards to which a cord is connected and passed 
into the interior of the carriage. By pulling at the cord, the 
lever and turning piece are made to cause the studs or projec- 
tions to raise the bolts, and so liberate the traces from them. 
The horses are at the same time disengaged from the front 
end of the pole by means of a long rod carried by the pole, 
the hinder end of which rod is furnished with a hook which is 
acted upon by a stud in the turning piece already mentioned, 
and the front end of the rod then releasing the harness from 
the front end of the pole, the particular arrangements for 
which release may be varied according to circumstances, 
various hooks, rings, retaining pieces, and other mechanism 
being set forth as applicable for this part of the invention. 

The invention further consists in fixing such of the wheels 
of a carriage which in this case are not "dished," upon a 
separate axle, these axles being of such length that those of 
each pair of wheels nearly meet below the carriage, each axle 
being mounted in two separate bearings or "gudgeons," one 
near to the wheel, and the other near the inner end of the 
axle, and the ends of the axles being enlarged outside the 
gudgeons, and a stopper placed between them, by which 
means the axles are prevented from sliding to and fro in the 
gudgeons. The openings in the latter, through which the 
axles pass, being either circular, semicircular, or square, and 
provided, if necessary, with receptacles for oil. 

Another part of the invention consists in placing a lanthorn 
for lighting the road before horses and carriages in such a 
position that none of the light therefrom can be intercepted 
by either the horses or any part of the carriage, the lanthorn 
being carried by the front end of the pole or shafts of the 
carriage, being connected thereto by means of a hook and a 
catch, which may readily be disengaged, and prevented from 
oscillating by means of a spring or springs, or by connecting 
it to more than one point of suspension, or by both. In the 
case of a horse "that runs single foremost," the lanthorn 



76 CAEBIAGES AND OTHEK VEHICLES 

may be carried by a <( bow " fitting upon the horse's 
shoulders. 

A luggage box suitable for being attached to a carriage is 
described, which is meant to be suspended from the axle tree 
bed or transome, being well secured thereto, but by means 
which will allow the box slightly to oscillate, such box being 
furnished with folding doors, and arranged in the inside for 
the reception of a ready packed trunk or set of trunks, which 
are then secured in the box by locking the doors. 
[Printed, Is. 4d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1794, August 12.— No. 2006. 
VAUGHAN, Philip. — " Certain axle trees, axle arms, and 
" boxes for light and heavy wheel carriages." 

In this invention each arm of the axle is provided with two 
grooves, one of which is near the end of the arm, and the 
other same distance therefrom, these grooves being meant for 
the reception of balls which serve as antifriction rollers, the 
nave of each wheel being provided with grooves corresponding 
with those in the arm of the axle, and which partially enclose 
the balls in the grooves of the latter. In order to enable the 
balls to be inserted into and removed from the nave or box 
and axle arm certain " dovetail " pieces of cast iron are made 
to form parts of the circumference of that part of the nave 
or box surrounding the balls, these dovetail pieces being 
grooved on the lower sides to correspond with the grooves in 
the nave or box, and being maintained in position, when the 
parts are in working condition, by means of wedges of wood, 
by the removal of which, and of the dovetail pieces, the balls 
can at any time be removed from the grooves. 
[Printed, Bel. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1795, July 20.— No. 2057. 
EBGrELL, James. — " Axles on an entire new construction for 
t( wheel carriages carrying heavy loads, with wheels com- 
" monly called friction wheels, applied to such axles in a 
" method not hitherto used or applied to wheel carriages." 

In this invention the axles are of iron or steel, of proper 
size and strength, each axle having a wheel fixed upon each 
end thereof, such axle and the wheels revolving together. The 



FOE COMMON BOADS. 77 

axle gradually diminishes in diameter from the centre towards 
the ends, being round in section, and is furnished at or near 
each small end with a hole for a key or pin, or a screw for the 
reception of a nut, in order to keep the wheels in their places, 
" and prevent them from spreading." The arms of the axles 
pass under pieces of wood which support the body or bed of 
the waggon, and are kept in their places there by means of 
staples or collars fixed in the woodwork near the small ends of 
the axles, and the key, pin, or nut mentioned above, and also 
by means of wheels called friction wheels, which are applied 
to the axles, such friction wheels being of as large size as can 
conveniently be used, and working upon the axles near to the 
insides of the principal wheels, the patentee stating that by 
these arrangements " heavy loads will, on level or nearly level 
" roads, or on railways, be drawn and conveyed from place to 
" place with very little power." 
[Printed, 3c?. No Drawings.'} 

A.D. 1796, February 27.— No. 2092. 
CLAY, Henry. — " A method of making a carriage or machine 
" for the conveyance of and for the shooting and discharging 
" thereout coals, lime, soil, manure, stones, gravel, sand, 
" rubbish, and other materials, in a construction entirely 
" new." 

According to this invention the body of a cart or waggon is 
formed in two parts which are sustained by a frame mounted 
upon four wheels, each part of the body being capable of 
turning upon a pivot or axis passing across the frame, and the 
contents discharged therefrom, those of the hinder part passing 
down between the hinder parts of the frame, and those from 
the front part of the body passing down between that and the 
other part of such body. Each part is provided with suitable 
tail boards and other necessary appendages, including sup- 
porters which keep them in position until it is requisite to 
discharge the contents from them, but which may be turned 
aside to allow of such discharge; certain bars being also 
contrived for the purpose of preventing the parts of the body 
from turning over too far when such discharge is being 
effected. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing.} 



78 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1796, April 6.— No. 2103. 
GODFREY, Samuel.-—" A machine winch in operations of 
".•draft and burden will relieve the labour of the animals 
" usually employed." 

In this invention there is mounted in bearings carried by 
framing , which rises to some height above the wheels of the 
machine or vehicle, an axis upon which are two fly wheels and 
a toothed pinion, there being a toothed wheel on each side o£ 
the pinion, in gear therewith, and these wheels carrying on 
their axes other pinions from which trains of wheels proceed 
to tw;o " sphero-eoncentric ■" wheels, one of which surrounds* 
the front and the other the hind axle of the vehicle, such 
wheels, however, not being fixed upon the axles, but being* 
provided with rings connected by cross bars which surround 
balls or spheres through which the axles pass, the balls being' 
provided with projecting bolts or stops which enter between 
the cross bars, the result of the whole arrangement being that 
upon rotary motion being given to the axis mentioned above 
and the pinion thereon motion is also communicated by means 
of the intermediate gearing to the " sphen>coneentric "' 
wheels, the rings and cross bars thereon then acting upon the 
projecting bolts of the balls, and causing the latter, with the 
axles and bearing wheels of the vehicle to rotate also. The 
bolts of the balls are provided with rollers or rings which 
reduce the friction thereon. The perch of the vehicle is 
furnished at each end with a "cradle," the position of which* 
may be adjusted by a screw, these cradles being furnished 
with plates or rings and other apparatus through which the 
axles and their appendages pass, and which allow the axles 
"to turn to a sufficient angle ; " certain cords or chains con- 
nected to " directing levers, "■ and other mechanism attached 
to the latter, serving to move the axles into different positions, 
and so direct the progress of the machine. 

The bearing wheels are not fixed upon the axles, the naves 
being provided with catches or stops, and acted upon by pro- 
jections from the axles, this arrangement allowing each wheel 
to make part of a rotation independent of the axle, certain 
ratchets, racks, or screw joints and other appendages being 
mentioned as provided for the purpose of liberating the wheels 
from the axles and again connecting them therewith when 



FOE OOMMOK EOADS. 79 

requisite. Besides the bearing wheels upon the front and 
hind axles of the vehicle, there are other wheels placed upon 
a central axle which is independent of the others, and is meant 
solely to support ' ' the principal weight or burden to be con- 
" veyed," and so relieve the other wheels to a large extent 
therefrom, this part of the arrangement constituting " one of 
" the material identities "of the invention. 

The vehicle maybe put in motion, '* either constantly or 
*' occasionally," by a windlass, or by levers, racks and pinions, 
or any other suitable mechanism brought to bear upon the 
axis first mentioned, a suitable seat being provided for the 
conductor or director of the machine. The axes of all the 
gearing are provided at the ends with balls, which rest in 
hollow cylinders forming the bearings of such axes, the posi- 
tions of such cylinders being regulated by means of screws, 
and a " friction board" or break is so arranged as to be 
pressed at pleasure against the fly wheels by means of a cord, 
certain governor balls, covered with elastic material, being 
also so arranged as to be brought into contact with projections 
from those wheels in case the speed of the machine should 
become too great. These fly wheels may be varied in form, 
and may be provided either with fC stop hinges in the radii or 
" flaps on their circumference," by means of which their 
centrifugal force may be varied. The mechanism forming 
this invention appears to be meant for use in aid of animals 
drawing the vehicle, but not entirely to supersede the labour 
of such animals. 

[Printed, Is. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1796, October 25.—No. 2142. 
THOMASON, Edwakd. — "Itfew invented and improved 
" method of making steps for coaches, landaus, chariots, gigs, 
" curricles, chaises, and all other carriages to which steps are 
" used." 

One object of this invention is to enable a person who may 
be within a carriage to raise or let down the step or steps of 
such carriage without the assistance of the driver, or any 
other person. A small stud or " nose " is in the first place 
fixed inside the door of the vehicle, and from the door case is 
also suspended a small lever, having thereon a projection 



80 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

which is acted upon by the stud when the door is opened or 
closed, and the lever thus caused to act, through the medium 
of teeth or cogs with which it is provided, upon a small 
wheel mounted upon a short shaft, one part of the latter 
being of square section and passing into an opening in one 
side of a frame which carries a step, this frame being thus 
lowered by the opening of the carriage door and again raised 
when the door is shut, being then enclosed within the vehicle. 
The frame is furnished with two cross bars, and upon one of 
these the step turns, falling outwards when the frame is 
lowered, and being turned upwards when it is again raised by 
means of a small rod, a crank, a spring, and other minor 
appendages. A second and a third step may also be con- 
nected to the apparatus, and worked by means of a chain or 
chains passing down from the first or upper step, each lower 
step being mounted in a frame of its own, and one frame 
sliding within another when the steps are being lowered or 
raised. The details of the invention are very fully set 
forth. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1797, November 9.— No. 2201. 
OVEREND, Heney. — "A certain wheel carriage or machine 
" which may be used as a waggon, cart, or dray, in a more 
" perfect and expeditious manner and with fewer horses than 
" usually and heretofore done." 

According to this invention a frame composed of two sides 
united by cross bars is mounted upon four wheels of such size 
that the bars are only about one foot from the ground , 
although this may be varied, there being placed below the 
frame also " castor wheels " which are " fix'd on to the center 
" of the bars of the machine, and like the others, neither 
" projects outside or inside of the bars." An iron " receiver," 
or bent bar, is used to connect the shafts for the horse to the 
frame, this receiver being so arranged as to be capable of 
being placed at either end of such frame, certain pins being 
employed to prevent the receiver from " playing or turning 
'* beyond the limited point." 
[Printed, bd. Draiving.'] 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 81 

A.D. 1798, January 16.— No. 2208. 
ECKHARDT, Anthony George. — Cushions, backs and seats 
for carriages, &c. This improvement consists in fitting the 
stuffed seat or cushion in a frame resting on pivots or axes, so 
that it may be turned so as to bring the underside uppermost 
if desired. The backs are similarly arranged, and a back and 
a seat may be connected so as to turn together. The seat or 
cushion is held in a ring or frame of metal to which a cover- 
ing may also be attached to preserve the cushions* 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing. ~\ 

A.D. 1798, August 3.— No. 2254. 
HALL AD AY, Stephen. — "The draught or moving of car- 
" riages of all descriptions that move on wheels, or any thing 
" that may be used for the draught or moving of carriages, 
t( adding or diminishing more or less wheels than the present 
" mode; axletree, linspin, and every part of the carriage, 
" being on a new principle ; the power which is applied for 
" the above action is entirely new," and of the patentee's own 
contrivance, " and may be applied to the above by the assis- 
* ( tance of men or horses, and is equally applicable to mills 
" of all descriptions, barges and boats on canals, printing 
" and calendering of linen, and may also be applied to 
" various other useful purposes." 

One main feature of this invention is set forth as consisting 
in the use of a fly wheel, which is put into rapid motion by 
means of suitable gearing with the view of facilitating the 
motion of a carriage or any other machine with which it may 
be connected. Various parts of mechanism applicable in the 
construction of a carriage are described. The axle, which 
may be either cranked or otherwise, is square at one end, for 
the reception of one of the bearing wheels which is fixed 
thereon, the other arm of the axle being circular in section, 
but tapering towards the end, the wheel thereon being loose. 
The axle itself revolves on gudgeons furnished with antifric- 
tion rollers, and on the axle is a toothed wheel which commu- 
nicates with a train of gearing in connection with which is a 
fly wheel, a winch, crank, or handle, being mentioned as 
being applicable " to set the whole in motion," and which 



82 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

" may be placed in any position whatever to strike with." 
Apparatus which consists apparently of several broad flaps 
hinged together is set forth as being for the purpose of sup- 
plying atmospheric air to the bearings of the axles, such air 
being directed thereto by pipes, and serving to keep such 
bearings cool, a " perpetual greasing tube, with a worm 
" spring inclosed," being, however, also mentioned. Certain 
shafts, which are for the purpose of assisting the fly wheel 
V for hand labor or for hills " are included in the details of 
this part of the invention, although the manner of using these 
shafts is not mentioned, and these details also include a * f dis- 
" charging shaft or liberating striker, to throw off the power 
" applied at pleasure ; " and also apparatus for steering the 
carriage which consists of a vertical shaft having a handle at 
the? top and a toothed pinion at the lower end, the pinion 
being in gear with teeth formed upon a circle or segment 
which is apparently meant to be connected to the front axle 
of the carriage. A linch pin is also described, which is 
furnished with a cottar at the lower part, to prevent it from 
being lost. 

The invention is set forth at some length, and as being 
applicable not only to carriages, but also to mills, ploughs, 
harrows, and in various other situations. 
[Printed, lid. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1798, November 10.— No. 2266. 
SHOETEE, Edward, and ANTHONY, William. — " New 
" and improved method of easing, equalizing, and facilitating 
•'■' the draught of carriages of every description, and for easing 
" the body of carriages of every description in the hanging of 
■" the same, and for the more securely fixing tents and marquees 
" and preventing the inconvenience attending the present 
<c mode of fixing the same." 

This invention consists in the first place in the employment 
of a spiral spring, similar to that of a watch but of much 
greater size and strength, one end of which is connected to an 
•axis or arbor, and the other to the inside of a barrel which 
encloses the spring, there being on the end of the arbor, 
outside the barrel, a snail to which a strap is connected, any 
weight or tension applied to this strap causing the snail and 



JfOE COMMON KOADS* 8§ 

arbor to rotate and so coil the spring around such arbor, the 
resistance of the spring increasing as it is wound up. Instead 
of a snail a pulley may, if desired, be used, the strap being 
coiled spirally around it, and an effect being thus produced 
which is nearly the same as that produced by the snail. This 
apparatus is described in the first place as being applied to 
the splinter bar or any other part of a carriage to which it 
may be desired to connect the traces, the result being that in 
case of the wheels of the carriage meeting with an obstacle in 
the road the resistance to the progress of the horses will not 
be attended with the usual injurious jerk to the traces, the 
spring winding up and giving out a portion of its strap, and 
the effort of the spring to unwind afterwards aiding the 
progress of the vehicle. The apparatus is also described as' 
being applied in various forms to the main braces which 
support the body of the carriage, either as a substitute for or 
in addition to the ordinary springs. And such apparatus may 
also be applied **to collar braces and every other brace or 
" support used to the body of carriages in general." 

The invention is set forth under a great variety of modifica- 
tions, and illustrated by a drawing containing a large number 
of figures. In some cases springs of the helical and also 
of the " grashopper " form may be used as substitutes for* 
the spiral spring and barrel. In one arrangement, a gra- 
duated index plate is employed to show the weight of the 
carriage. 

'[Printed, Is. 3d. Drawing.'] l 

A.D. 1798, December 22.— No. 2282. 
THOMASON, Edward. — "Improvements in the making of 
'• steps for coaches, chaises, chariots, landaus landalets, gigs,, 
" curricles, and all kinds of carriages to which steps are 
"■ used." 

This invention relates to improvements upon that for which, 
a patent was granted to the present patentee on the 31st of, 
October, 1796, No. 2142, and consists in the first place of a 
different mode of causing the steps to rise on the closing of 
the carriage door, this being effected by means of a shaft or, 
arm which passes through the hinge of the step, and is acted 
upon when the door is closed through the medium of a bent 



84 CABKLAJGKES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

lever and a roller, the latter being carried by a piece of metal 
attached to the door. The steps are pulled down, when the 
door is opened by a chain which is conneced to this bent lever 
and also to a loop screwed into the door of the carriage. The 
lower is connected to the upper step by means of jointed legs, 
instead of by a chain, as in the former invention, and the 
steps are, when folded up, held together by a hook which 
prevents them from rattling. 

Another mode of raising and lowering steps is described in 
which a lever furnished with a handle is placed upon a bar 
fastened to the upper hinge of the steps, the latter being 
raised and lowered by moving such lever, this arrangement 
being set forth as more particularly applicable to ' * gigs, 
" curricles, landaus, and two wheel pleasurable carriages." 
[Printed, hd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1799, April 16.— No. 2307. 
WILDE Y, Henky. — " An improved method of applying springs 
" to the poles or shafts of two- wheeled carriages," the inven- 
tion being denominated by the patentee " an antimobile, or 
" destroyer of the disagreeable sensation produced by the 
*' motion of the horses in all two-wheeled carriages, and to 
" remedy which the methods hitherto adopted have proved 
" ineffectual." 

The advantages of this invention " are obtained by making 
" the pole, or shafts, as occasion may require, move on a 
" horizontal bolt or bolts passing through a socket or sockets, 
" or flaps, or side cheeks, which confine the pole or shafts 
" and a spring or springs, extending from the pole or shafts, 
" to the axletree ; or a flap or flaps, stay or stays, socket or 
" sockets, bar or bars, brace or braces, or other bearing or 
" bearings may be adopted, on which the spring or springs 
" may rest, act, or move." 

The patentee mentions that by these arrangements the 
great pressure of the fore part of the vehicle, arising from 
the lever which the pole forms acting on the front bars, and 
which exists in vehicles of the ordinary construction, "is 
" totally done away, and the weight made to act on the 
" axletree." 

The invention is illustrated by a drawing, with certain 
explanations written thereon. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 



FOR COMMON EOADS. 85 

A.D. 1799, August 8.— No. 2337. 
DODSON, George, and SKIDMORE, John.— 4 ' Method of 
" making and casting with cast-iron, brass, or mixed metal, 
" knaves or stocks for all sorts of wheels, to be used for all 
" sorts of carriages, as well for pleasure as for burden." 

In carrying out this invention a pattern is in the first place 
to be formed, suitable to the figure of the nave required, such 
pattern being either in one piece only, or in three for the 
greater convenience of moulding. The pattern is to be 
provided with core stays to produce the mortice holes for the 
spokes, and when the moulding takes place an iron spindle, 
perfectly smooth and round, and greased over, is to be 
inserted into the centre of the moulding flask, the result 
being that when the flask is closed and the metal poured into 
it a nave or stock is produced " in one piece, with a perfect 
" cylinder, in the common way of pipe boxes." In order to 
form a nave or stock with internal cavities for the reception 
of oil a core pattern is first formed, with the parts split and 
pegged together, and then turned to the exact size of the 
" axletree arm on which the nave is to work, " swells or 
" lumps " being then placed upon it corresponding with the 
cavities required in the nave, and a mould of plaster of Paris 
being formed from this core pattern, in which after the 
removal of the pattern, a core mould of metal is cast. In 
this mould a core of sand or loam may then be formed, and 
inserted into the flask in which the nave is to be cast by 
means of the spindle already mentioned, such core of sand or 
loam having projections thereon corresponding with the 
" lumps or swells" on the wooden pattern mentioned above, 
and such projections producing the required cavities in the 
nave. The outer end of this nave is closed by a cap screwed 
thereto, which cap, being air tight, keeps out dirt from the 
interior of the nave, and prevents the escape of oil therefrom. 
This cap may be of iron or brass, or of silver, or other metal, 
as required, and the screw thread in the nave by which it is to 
be secured may be formed either by the employment of a 
" screw core " when the nave is cast, or by dies, or in a 
suitable lathe. The patentee mentions that the interior of a 
nave thus cast will be very hard and durable, but that to remove 
any doubts which may be felt as to such durability the inte- 



86 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

rior of the nave may be lined with a box or boxes of hard 
metal, holes being provided in such box or boxes for the 
passage of oil from the cavities in the nave to the arm of the 
axle. Or such a nave may be provided with anti-friction 
rollers in the interior, by which the friction upon the axle 
will be reduced. 

[Printed, 5d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1800, May 30.— No. 2408. 

TURNER, William.— "A new machine to be applied to and 
" adopted in the construction of wheel carriages, for im- 
l< proving the principle and increasing the power of the 
" draught, so as to reduce the active force necessary to be 
" employed therein." 

This invention is set forth at some length and is of a some- 
what complex character. In the arrangement described 
certain upper traces pass from the collar of the horse employed 
to draw the vehicle to the ends of a splinter bar which is 
jointed at its middle part to a horizontal sliding bar, this bar, 
by the first movement of the horse in starting the carriage' 
being drawn forward, and a catch attached thereto operating 
upon a certain strap or connecting rod and so turning a crank 
which is formed in a vertical axis on the lower end of which 
is a worm. The latter gives motion to a grooved nut or worm 
wheel fixed upon the front axle of the vehicle, and so causes 
the axle to rotate, and with it one of the bearing wheels of the 
carriage, the hole through the nave of which is square, and 
fits upon a square arm of the axle, the other arm of the axle 
being of circular section, and the wheel thereon being loose. 
By the rotation of the axle and the wheel first mentioned the 
first impulse is given to the carriage, and when the sliding 
bar has been drawn forward for a certain distance the latch 
carried by it is disengaged from the strap, and the movement 
of the vehicle is then continued by means of other traces, 
which are connected at the front ends to a splinter bar 
mounted at the ends of the shafts, or as to " play loosely with 
" the motion of the shoulders of the horse or other active 
'* force," and thence pass backwards and around pulleys to 
the arms of a ■" compound treddle," with which they are 
connected through the medium of short links. The compound 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 87 

treddle itself is composed of two arms or levers which, are 
mounted at their outer ends on pivots carried by the framing 
of the carriage, the inner ends being connected to the two 
ends of a short link to the middle of which is also jointed the 
strap or connecting rod passing to the crank and apparatus 
already mentioned, and the motion of the shoulders of' the 
horse giving alternate motion to the parts of the compound 
treddle and so continuing the movement of the crank, worm, 
worm wheel or nut, and axle and bearing wheel which was 
commenced by the action of the sliding bar and catch. The 
axis of the crank is provided with a fly wheel to equalize the 
motion, and on the axle of the vehicle is a ratchet wheel, 
upon which a click is brought to bear when* the carriage 
stops, the latter being thus prevented from running back- 
wards. This click is connected by means of a cord to the 
foot board, and is mounted upon a pivot carried by a quadrant 
shaped piece of metal from which a chain passes to the 
sliding bar, this quadrant shaped piece being made to draw 
the sliding bar back into its first position after the carriage has 
been properly started, a stop or brake being also provided 
which is brought to bear upon the fly wheel by means of a 
cord connected to the footboard. 
[Printed, Is. Id. Drawing.'] 

AJD. 1800, July 8.— No. 2423. 
LOCKETT, John. — " Making of boxes and axletrees for 
" carriages of every description, and for lathes and grind- 
" stones, upon a new and improved plan and construction." 

In this invention a cast iron box is placed upon the arm 
of the axletree, a wrought iron collar is then placed 
and works upon the box, being fastened to the axle by 
means of bolts or screws. The nave of the wheel has a hoop 
screwed to it after being slipped upon the axletree, the 
patentee stating that this ' ' completes (and is a double security 
" to) the whole work/' serving also to prevent dust or sand 
from getting into the boxes ; the wrought iron collar being 
apparently intended to act as a guard to one side of the 
wheel, and the hoop on the nave to the other. 
[Printed, 5d. I)rawmg.~\ 



88 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1800, August 2.— No. 2431. 
MEDHURST, George. — " A new improved method of driving 
" carriages of all kinds, without the use of horses, by means 
" of an improved Molian engine, and which engine may also 
" be applied to various other useful purposes." 

" The power applied to the machinery is compressed air, 
" and the power to compress the air " is obtained " generally 
" by wind, assisted and improved by machinery." In 
order to render the invention " universally useful " the 
patentee proposes to adopt certain machinery and magazines 
in such manner that the latter may be charged either by 
hand, by a fall of water, by a partial vacuum obtained by 
wind, or by the use of explosive and effervescent substances, for 
the rapid conveyance of mails, passengers, artillery, and other 
articles, wind or water mills being erected at proper intervals 
along the roads for the purpose of charging large magazines 
with compressed air, the site of each magazine forming a 
" station," or large reservoirs of water being raised by the 
wind, &c, by the power of which smaller portable magazines 
may be charged, when required, by machinery for that 
purpose. 

The details of the invention are set forth at some length, 
and embrace in the first place a single pump for condensing 
air into a magazine, which pump consists essentially of a 
solid piston connected to a rod to which are jointed two con- 
necting rods, these proceeding to cranks mounted upon axes 
on which are also toothed wheels, the latter being in gear 
with each other, and motion being given to the whole by a 
winch fixed upon one of the axes on which is also a fly wheel, 
the piston working in a suitable cylinder, having valves at 
the foot thereof, a ' ' double pump " which is to be worked by 
a windmill, various levers, racks, rods, and other mechanism 
being here used, and an arrangement consisting of toothed 
wheels, a barrel spring, and a " vibrating ball" and lever 
with a pall at the end of the latter, being employed to adjust 
the stroke of the pistons to the strength of the wind and the 
density of the air in the magazine. Another machine is 
described in which the piston is worked by means of a screw, 
this machine being meant for use in charging small machines 
to a very high degree by hand. Other parts of the invention 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 89 

embrace various arrangements of pistons and cylinders which 
are intended to be mounted, along with reservoirs of con- 
densed air, in the framework of carriages, and to give motion 
thereto by operating upon one of the axles of each carriage. 
In some cases such an axle has one of the bearing wheels 
fixed thereon, while the other is driven round by means of 
ratchet wheels, this arrangement affording facility in turning, 
one ratchet wheel being placed upon a square part of the 
axle near to the nave of the wheel, and the other being 
attached to such nave, the wheels having " side teeth," and 
the wheel on the axle, which is capable of sliding to and fro 
thereon, being pressed into gear with the other by means of a 
spring. 

The details of the invention include a large number of 
cranes, springs, levers, quadrants, wheels of various forms, 
and other mechanism, the various arrangements of which 
will only be understood with the aid of the drawings annexed 
to the Specification. One arrangement is described in which 
the motive power consists of compressed air, the compression 
of which is effected by the explosion of gunpowder, or the 
action of effervescent substances, this arrangement being 
applied to work the hinder axle of a vehicle resembling a 
phaston, the body of the vehicle being raised to a considerable 
height above the perch by the application of long springs 
which apparently rise from the perch, the middle of the front 
axletree being furnished with a horizontal circle on which 
the front bed of the perch rests. The fore part of this circle 
is furnished with bevil teeth, a bevil wheel being in gear 
with these teeth, and this wheel apparently acting aB a worm 
wheel also, being actuated where it is necessary to turn the 
carriage, by means of a worm upon the lower part of a 
vertical shaft having at its upper end a pulley round which 
" reins" are passed, by pulling at which "reins" the front 
axle is "set to any angle required." 
[Printed, Is. 2d, Drawings/} 

A.D. 1800, August 2.— No. 2434. 
EEDDELL, Isaac Hadley. — " A new method of constructing 
" carriages for the conveyance of merchandize, either by 
" land or water, which carriages may be removed (either 



90 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

" loaded or unloaded) from the land to the water, or from 
" the water to the land, with ease, expedition, and safety." 

According to this invention the bodies of carriages are made 
*' to any form or size required," being composed chiefly of 
wood, and the parts being secured together and strengthened 
by pieces of metal, the bottoms, ends, and sides, being made 
" as watertight as possible." Each carriage is mounted upon 
a suitable number of wheels and axles, the patentee recom- 
mending that the bottom of the carriage shall be near the 
ground. The wheels may be arranged to work in recesses 
formed in the sides of the bodies of the carriages, there being 
placed over their centres, either a broad plank, or some strong 
iron work, in order to protect them, and such recesses may, 
if desirable, consist of narrow water-tight compartments or 
boxes ; the number of compartments, as well as of wheels, 
being varied according to circumstances. Carriages of this 
description may be used as boats, and a number of them may 
be linked together and drawn along through the water by a 
horse, being raised out of the water when they are re- 
quired to travel on land by the use of inclined planes, and 
being returned to the water from the land by similar means. 
The vessels may have square ends, and may be linked, tied, 
or grappled to each other by means of ropes or chains, by 
which, through the medium of steam or some other motive 
power, they may be moved in any direction required. 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 



A.D. 1800, August 13.— No. 2439. 
EEDPELL, Isaac Hadley. — " A new method of constructing 
" travelling carriages, which are more safe and in many 

.."• respects more eligible than those which are now in common 

.".use." 

According to the first part of this invention the bodies of 
such carriages as are meant to accommodate outside passengers 
have affixed to them "commodious seats, at a distance from 
" the top, or, in other words, in as low a situation as they 
* * can properly be placed, which seats may be calculated to 

;" hold two or three persons each, as circumstances may 
" require ;" there being placed, for the further accommodation 
" of outside passengers in general, a light covering of wood, 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 91 

" leather, oil ease, or some other suitable material over the 
" seats," in order to defend them from the weather, and 
likewise " a proper covering for their legs and feet, which 
" may be used or not as occasion may require." 

According to another part of the invention a sufficient space 
is left between the bottom and the [top of the carriage to 
admit of the inside passengers " standing upright whenever 
" they may think proper." 

According to a third part of the invention the seats of 
carriages are so mounted with the aid of hinges, joints, 
swivels, braces, and chains, that they may be leaned back 
or raised up at pleasure, the bodies of the carriages being 
adapted thereto. 

Another part of the invention relates to a mode of ventilating 
carriages by means of a small instrument which is worked 
from one of the wheels of the carriage, this instrument 
causing fresh air to enter into and foul air be expelled from 
the interior of the carriage ; the air which in hot dusty 
weather is introduced into the carriage being forced to pass 
through either a small' vessel of cold water or through "a 
" piece or pieces of cloth or any other material that has a 
" tendency to render it more fit for respiration. " 

According to another part of the invention a carriage wheel 
gives motion, when the carriage itself is moving, to a finger 
which is attached to mechanism by means of which the 
distance which has been traversed by the vehicle is " pretty 
correctly " shown. 

Further, the invention relates to apparatus for warming 
passengers inside the vehicle, this being effected by means Of 
a fire which is " either after the nature of a lamp or promoted 
" by means of any matter or substance that will burn in *a 
"■proper manner;" one small opening, or a pipe or tube, 
serving to convey fresh air to the lamp or fire, and another 
opening, pipe or tube serving to carry off the smoke and 
smell to the outside of the carriage. 

Another part of the invention relates to setting fre£ horses 
from carriages, the arrangement being such that the "turning 
"of the carriage out of its right position" is made the means 
of liberating certain catches, sliding bolts, stays, or other 
equivalent mechanism, different modifications of this part 
of the invention being set forth. 



92 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

The seat for the coachman is affixed to the front part of 
the body of the carriage, and may be made large enough to 
hold two or three persons, a boot or boots being also con- 
nected to the carriage body, as convenient. And the patentee 
states that in most cases he intends the body of the carriage 
to rest upon springs connected directly to the axles, or to 
cross pieces hung below them, without there being any perch, 
pole, or framework of any kind below such carriage body, 
all these arrangements being modified according to circum- 
stances. 

[Printed, 4<d. Woodcut.'] 

A.D. 1801, August 31.—NO. 2536. 

KOSTEE, John Theodore. — "A new method of building 
" wheel'd carriages." 

This invention consists " principally in making use of shafts 
" connected together by transoms or cross pieces, so as to 
" form a frame or frames, in place of a perch or a crane neck, 
" proportionate in size, strength, and exact form to the body 
" it is intended to carry, and that the wheels run within the 
" said frames, which will rest upon supporters of wood or 
" metal, one on the out and one on the inside of each wheel, 
" and these upon axis of the wheels. The hind springs may 
" be placed either upon the shafts on the outside of the 
" wheels, directly over the wheels, or upon the cross pieces 
" within side the wheels, as may be found, on experience, 
' * most convenient, and the fore springs on the fore part of the 
" carriage, nearly in the usual place. It is intended that the 
" wheels shall run upon spindles or gudgeons that turn with 
" the wheel in holes or grooves at the bottom of the sup- 
" porters, but they may run two and two upon the same axle- 
" tree, or each upon a separate axle-tree and the supporters 
" fixed thereto, or the hind wheels may run upon spindles, 
" and the fore wheels upon an axle-tree, if found more con- 
" venient. It is proposed to fix the fore transom to the fore 
" axle-tree, on the point answering thereto, by a ball and 
" socket, to turn within or round each other, the socket to be 
" fixed either on the axle-tree or the transom, as by experience 
*' maybe found most convenient; but the carriage may be 
" built without this contrivance, or the ball and socket may 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 93 

" be adapted to any four wheeled carriage of the usual con- 
" struction. It is also intended that the wheels should be 
" greased by a small vessel filled with oil, placed against or 
" within the supporters, and dropping upon the ends of the 
" spindles. By making the supporters of a greater thickness 
" two friction wheels may be introduced, on the circumference 
' ' of which the ends of the spindles may turn. The construc- 
" tion of a waggon, wain, or other carriage of burthen must 
" be nearly the same ; the body must be built upon its shafts 
" and transoms, and an opening or hollow left for the upper 
" part of the hind wheels." 

The invention is illustrated by "a plan of a frame;" a 
view of the fore frame, "if the fore wheels are on gudgeons ; " 
" a side geometrical view of the carriage ; " a view of " the 
" front of the carriage, if on gudgeons, with a ball and 
" socket ; " and " one of the supporters, on a large scale.'* 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1801, September 12.— No. 2538. 

GERMAN, Thomas.— Carriage on rollers. This invention is 
intended, primarily, to dispense with the necessity of replacing 
the rollers upon which a bulky body is moved, and which 
otherwise would be left behind. It also relates to the con- 
struction of a carriage running upon rollers instead of 
wheels. 

The drawing shows such a carriage mounted on four sets of 
six rollers each. The rollers of a set are linked together and 
pass round and under bearing pieces or sledges, fixed by 
strong framing to the carriage. Each bearing piece or 
sledge always rests on two rollers, which having passed to the 
rear, are picked up by the links and guided over the top of 
the sledge to the front again. In passing over the top of the 
sledge, they are cleared of adherent earth, which falls into a 
cavity in the top of the sledge and is thence guided away 
from the rollers. The framing carrying the leading pair of 
sledges, turns on a pivot like an ordinary carriage axle. The 
rollers may be skidded in descending hills. 
[Printed, 7d. Drawing.'] 



94 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1802, February 27.— No. 2587. 

POTTINXxER, Richard. — " Engine and apparatus whereby 
" persons riding in carriages may, on occasions and in cir- 
" eumstances of imminent danger, liberate themselves, and 
" escape impending mischief, by freeing the horse or horses 
' ' instantly from the carriage, and in case of two-wheel car- 
" riages by causing them to stand in the same horizontal 
" position as they were before the horse or horses were freed 
" from them, by the carriages stopping in the space of a few 
u yards," without any violent concussion or danger of over- 
turning, the person in the carriage sitting the whole time 
with perfect ease and safety. 

According to this invention, for a curricle, the splinter bar 
is to be " made of the best seasoned ash, with an hollow sunk 
" in the back of it to receive an iron shaft or spindle of about 
" half an inch diameter, in two lengths, to which must be 
" fixed four iron hooks, one at the end of each shaft, to move 
" in a circular position; also an iron leaver with two flanges, 
" one of which is fixed to each shaft by nuts and screws. 
" That part of the engine which falls to the ground in order 
"to assist in supporting and stopping the carriage may 
" appropriately be called the anchor, which may be part 
'" woo r d and part iron, or wholly of iron, and is fixed to the 
" axletree by two couplings screwed to it at about eighteen 
" inches asunder, or nine inches from the center of the axel- 
" tree, projecting about one inch from the axletree, with a 
" small hole in it sufficient to admit an iron pin of about half 
" an inch diameter, which pin, passing through the two iron 
" flanges attached to the anchor, as well as through the 
" couplings, the anchor by that means moves from the centre 
. " of the small iron pin at the axeltree, the leaver resting on 
" the anchor, as it may either be inclosed in a grove made to 
" receive it on the upper side the said anchor, or the leaver 
" may be so constructed as to lay on each side of the anchor, 
(t and be supported by small bolts or rollers to rest on it." 
A small strap is so arranged in conjunction with a spring bolt 
that by pulling at the strap the bolt is made to liberate the 
anchor, the latter then staying the progress of the carriage, 
and the "lever" mentioned above so acting upon the hooks 
named above as to liberate the traces of the horses from the 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 95 

splinter bar. In order to set them free from the pole also 
there is provided a leather or iron socket to receive the end of 
the pole, this being called the pole piece, and having con- 
nected to it certain straps, which are combined with a 
certain plate, a rod, a trigger, and other apparatus so arranged 
that in the dropping of the anchor and the movement of the 
hooks as already set forth the trigger sets free the horses from 
the pole. 

The invention is mentioned as being slightly modified ac- 
cording to the nature of the vehicle to which it is applied. 
[Printed, 3d. Nq Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1802, February 27.— No. 2588. 
LEWIS, John.— Disengaging horses. The apparatus described 
by this Specification is intended to be applied to all kinds of 
vehicles. 

For two wheeled carriages, the harness tugs are fitted with 
loops or rings which are attached to the shafts and splintree 
by means of sliding or catch bolts. These bolts are all con- 
trolled by chains passing round pulleys. When drawn the 
horse is released, and a pair of legs or props are dropped from 
under the carriage to support it. The latter have little wheels 
attached to them to prevent a too sudden stoppage. 

In the case of curricles, the suspending harness is similarly 
attached to the pole, and the latter has a spring at the end for 
the pole chains. This carriage has also props. 

Two horses are similarly attached to other carriages, and 
when four horses are employed, the swingletree is put onto a 
dropping hook at the end of the pole, so that it can be readily 
released. The wheels of all these carriages may be fitted 
with ratchets on their naves, so that they may be locked at 
will without descending from the vehicle. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.} 

A.D. 1802, March 9.— No. 2590. 
ELLIOTT, Obadiah.— Spring curricle bar. This invention is 
described only in connection with a drawing, which however 
is not on the file. It appears that, for the purpose of easing 
the horses, the curricle bar is attached to the saddles through 
the intervention of springs, both on the saddles and directly 



96 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

under the bars themselves. On the saddles are fixed small 
springs, having " eyes on the top for the bar to slide through." 
The eyes are fitted with small rollers, as are also "saddle 
" stands" for the same purpose. The invention is also 
described as applicable to one horse. 
[Printed, 3d. Drawing.'} 

A.D. 1802, March 24.— No. 2596. 
MEYER, Philip James.— Controlling horses and locking 
wheels. This invention consists in fitting to the nave of the 
wheel a small toothed wheel which always turns with it. A 
barrel or drum held in bearings under the vehicle has, on one 
of its gudgeons or axes, a small pinion, and by means of a foot 
lever, this pinion may be thrown into gear with the toothed 
wheel on the nave. The drum will then rotate and will wind 
up a pair of reins thereby putting pressure on the horse such 
as he cannot resist. For the purpose of preventing backing, 
a toothed or notched strap may be dropped over the toothed 
wheel on the nave. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1802, March 24.— No. 2599. 
TREVITHICK, Richabd, and VIYIAN, Andrew. — Steam 
carriage. Part of this invention relates to the construction 
of a carriage for common road purposes to be propelled by 
steam. The engine, which is carried by the framing of the 
carriage, drives a crank shaft, fitted at each end with toothed 
pinions, which may singly be thrown in and out of gear with 
other pinions or wheels on the naves of the main wheels of the 
carriages. Thus the carriage wheels are driven and by 
throwing either wheel out of gear, turning may be facilitated. 
By attaching the toothed driving gear to the naves of the 
wheels, the axletree may be fixed and may be bent to suit the 
design of the carriage. The peripheries of the wheels may be 
roughened by nails or studs and may be contrived to work on 
railroads. " In cases of hard pull " a " lever, belt, or claw " 
is caused " to project through the rim of one or both of the 
" wheels." ftie leading wheels are steered by a lever, and a 
c * check " lever *' can be applied to the fly wheel in going 
" downhill." 

[Printed, Is. Id. Drawing.] 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 97 

A.D. 1802, March 24.— No. 2600. 
WILLIAMS, John. — Disengaging horses. The splinter bar 
to which the traces are attached, " rolls " or rocks in loops or 
bearings secured to the fixed splinter bar. The loops at the 
ends of the traces fit over the studs on the rocking bar and 
partly encircle the bar so that they cannot come off so long 
as the bar is secured. The bar is secured by means of a 
spring bolt pressing on the end of a curved lever, part of the 
bar. The bolt being drawn back by a cord, the bar rocks or 
rolls so as to allow the trace loops to free themselves. The 
pole is fitted with a moveable end or cap, to which the pole 
chains are attached. This readily leaves the pole when the 
horses are free and put a forward strain upon it. If any 
draught is to be applied to the pole, the cap is held on by 
means of straps buckled tightly to the traces. Shafts may be 
similarly fitted with caps when the rolling splinter bar is 
used. The patentee does not however claim the use of these 
pole and shaft caps as his invention. To prevent the end of 
any pole or the shafts catching the ground when released from 
the horses, little wheels or broad metal pieces are attached to 
them. 

[Printed, 6cl. Drawing J] 

A.D. 1802, May 5.— No. 2615. 
BAUER, Geoege Frederick. — " Certain new improvements 
" in the construction of carriages and the wheels of car- 
" riages." 

This invention relates, in the first place, to rendering the 
bodies of waggons much lighter than usual without diminish- 
ing the capability of such waggons for carrying heavy loads. 
Arrangements are set forth by which it would seem that the 
body of a waggon consists mainly of certain frames w r hich 
cross each other, these frames not resting upon axletrees of 
the ordinary character, but each wheel working loosely upon a 
separate short axle, which is supported in bearings on both 
sides of the wheel, each axle being secured in its place by a 
nut screwed upon it, and being prevented from turning round 
with the wheel by a " hook-like bend" at the outer end which 
fits between two " eminent nails " in the framing. The 
patentee states that by these arrangements the axles may be 

G 239. D 



08 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

made much lighter than is customary. In order to reduce the 
friction of the wheels upon the axles they are in the first place 
bored out to such a sizse that the openings in the naves are 
m&ch larger than the diameters of the axles, brass boxes or 
bushes being then driven into the ends of the naves, and these 
fitting and forming the bearings of the wheels upon the axles, 
the outer end of each bush being flanged, and slightly 
rounded, so as to offer little friction to the bearings of the 
axle on each side the wheel. Between the bushes of each nave 
there is thus a chamber or space around the axle which serves 
as a receptacle for lubricating matter. The invention is 
described as being applied to waggons with two as well as 
with four wheels, and different arrangements of the shafts 
and other parts by which the traces of the horses are connected 
to such waggons are set forth. 

Several modes of constructing wheels are also described. 
In one case an iron " spigot" or bar is driven through the 
nave of a wheel, projecting therefrom at each side and forming 
pivots on which the wheel turns "in boxes of brass." This 
wheel appears to have a rim of considerable breadth, the tire 
being in three separate bands or rings, but another wheel is 
set forth in which the tire consists of one narrow band only, 
the tire being rounded on the exterior. Another wheel is 
described in which the nave consists of " one solid piece of 
il brass," being, according to the drawing, in the form of a 
tube with large bosses and flanges at the ends, the spokes of 
this wheel being composed of straps of leather which are 
passed through holes in the flanges and also through holes in 
the inner rib of a large iron circle or ring which forms the 
rim of the wheel, the straps being so arranged as to be much 
further asunder at the nave than at the rim. These wheels, 
being elastic, are intended merely for carriages, ll or for the 
" transportation of sick persons." Strings or chains may be 
used instead of straps in forming the spokes, if preferred. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1802, June 26.— No. 2630. 

TATE, James. — "An improvement of great importance, to 
" be added to or used in the construction of wheel car- 
" riages." 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 99 

This invention relates to an improved arrangement of fric- 
tion wheels, applicable to the bearings of the axles. An axle 
is described which is furnished with shoulders upon which rest 
the edges of friction wheels which are formed into the shape of 
inverted cups, these cups having vertical axes passing through 
them, the lower ends of which work in bearings mounted 
above the axle, while the upper ends of the axes are them- 
selves formed into small cups for the reception of the lower 
ends of screws which pass downwards from the upper parts of 
frames surrounding the friction wheels, such frames being 
connected to a cross bar which sustains the body of the car- 
riage through the medium of springs or otherwise. The 
small cups in the upper ends of the axes of the larger cups 
form reservoirs for oil by means of which the ends of the 
screws are lubricated, and the frames which surround the 
wheels contain cisterns of oil for the lubrication of the lower 
ends of the axes of the wheels, the shoulders of the axle of 
the carriage, and the other parts of the apparatus, the arrange- 
ment including the application of friction wheels below the 
axle itself, the axes of which are horizontal, and which serve 
to sustain the axle in its proper position, The bearing wheels 
of the carriage may either be fixed upon the axle or be loose 
thereon, and in the latter case, should it be necessary to retard 
the movement of the carriage when going down hill, or in any 
other situation, a stop may be applied which will prevent the 
axle from turning, in which case the improvements which con- 
constitute the invention no longer being in operation, " the 
" carriage moves on with its usual impediment of friction." 
The friction wheels below the axle may, if desired, be dis- 
pensed with, and a staple substituted for them ; and in some 
cases an additional friction wheel may be placed on the top of 
the axle, " in aid of the other to sustain a great weight." 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1802, November 29.— No. 2664 
ROBERTS, James, and BRINE, Ed wakd.— Brakes, disen- 
gaging horses, &c. — This invention is described only in con- 
nection with a drawing which is not on the roll, and in conse- 
quence it cannot fully be understood. It relates, firstly, to a 
spring and screw brake applied through the nave of the wheel, 

d2 



100 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

and also to a drag with "a small roller that works in the 
bottom part." Also to a method of securing wheels to their 
axles by means of screws running in grooves on the axles. The 
disengagement of the horses is effected by releasing a number 
of catches which hold the, loops of the traces to the carriage. 
A releasing apparatus is also to be fitted to the pole. The 
reins may be so detained in the carriage that when the horses 
are released the whole weight of the vehicle will be upon 
their mouths. To steer two- wheeled vehicles when the horses 
are released, awheel carried at the end of a bar falls down 
into the required position, and at the same time adjusts a 
steering handle. Apparatus for steering may be applied to 
four-wheeled carriages. 

[Printed j 4d. No Draiving on the roll.'] 

A.D. 1803, January 20.— No. 2675. 
JACOB, Joseph. — Axle box. — A plate or bar of steel is welded 
to a similar plate or bar of iron. The whole is then rolled to 
the required thickness, and bent into the necessary shape for 
an axle box, the steel side being inwards. 
[Printed, 3d. Woodcut] 

A.D. 1803, February 28.— No. 2685. 
MASON, Robert. — "Certain improvements on a common 
" waggon, whereby the same may occasionally be separated 
" and used as two carts," the patentee denominating the 
whole vehicle " The Patent Hampshire waggon." 

This waggon is composed of "two distinct frames or parts," 
which the patentee terms "the fore and hind carts, as they 
" correspond with the fore and hind parts of a common 
" waggon, with the exception only as to the pole, those carts 
" having one each; that of the fore cart turns upwards from 
" the main pin. On the under side thereof a roller may be 
" fixed for the sweep of the hounds to lock on until it reaches 
4t the back shudlock, to which it is secured, and extends 
" about fQur inches behind the extreme thereof, which projee- 
" tion passes under the fore shudlock of the hind cart, through 
" which and the said projection of the pole an iron pin is to 
" pass, and secured on the under side by key or nut and 
" screw." The pole of the hind cart passes from the hind 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 101 

shudlock through the pillow or axletree, " turning upward to 
" the front shudlock, being secured thereto, and extending 
" about four inches from the extreme thereof, which projec- 
" tion passes under the hinder shudlock of the fore cart, 
" through which, and the said projection of the hind pole, an 
" iron pin is to pass," and be secured to the pole of the fore 
cart. These pins may be removed from the shudlocks and 
poles, and passed through the bed of the vehicle into the fore 
axletree, " to prevent its locking when used as a cart." The 
sides and shudlocks of the carts are united by hooks and eyes, 
or other substantial fastenings, such as straps with "union 
" eyes," an arrangement of which is described. The shafts 
of the hind cart are united thereto in the usual way, and pass 
under the bed and upon the pillow of the fore cart, " the front 
" bolt of the hounds to be brought forward near to the ex- 
" treme end or nose thereof, which will tend to resist the 
" strain in locking, as the hounds pin passes behind the said 
" bolt in securing the shafts to the hounds." When the 
waggon is divided for the purpose of being used as two carts, 
the shafts of the fore cart are to be removed back on the 
hounds about ten inches, " to other holes which now come in 
iS contact for the hounds pin to pass through to secure the 
ss shafts to the hounds," the nose of the latter being thus 
brought nearly to the hind bolt of the shafts, but being pre- 
vented from passing through the latter by a piece of wood or 
metal arranged for the purpose. The shafts of the hind cart 
are to be fixed by means of hooks and eyes, or other suitable 
fastenings, and the head board of this as well as the tail 
boards of the fore cart may be secured by ' ' starts " passing 
into the shudlocks, and, if necessary, may be secured to the 
" naves " also, and various arrangements of struts, hooks, tip 
straps, tip irons, ladders, and other mechanism may be lised 
in carrying out the invention, which is set forth at some length 
and under different modifications. 
[Printed, 4<d. JVb Brmvi?igs."] 

A.D. 1804, August 4— CTo. 2777. 
BEOWIST, John.— Antifriction axle. — On each side of the nave 
of the wheel, the inventor lets in or secures a pair of plates or 
discs perforated in the centre for the axle, and having between 
them and surrounding the axle a series of small rollers, the 



102 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

axes of wliicli fit in holes in the parallel plates. These plates 
are kept a proper distance apart by studs on the screw bolts, so 
that there shall be as little resistance as possible to the rotation 
of the rollers ; and collars or washers are put round the axle, 
between the ends of the rollers and the cheek or parallel plates, 
to keep out the dirt. 

[Printed , Is. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1805, April 25.— No. 2841. 
ROWNTREE, Thomas. — "An axletree and box for carriages 
" on an improved construction," which the patentee calls his 
" mobile collar axletree and box." 

The " mobile collar" which forms part of this invention is a 
broad collar which at the inner end works upon a shoulder on 
the axle arm, there being within that part of the collar a 
recess in which a ring of leather is placed to prevent the 
escape of oil from that part. The other part of the " mobile 
" collar," which is of smaller diameter than the part which 
embraces the shoulder of the axle, is furnished with a screw 
thread on the outside, and upon this part the inner end of the 
axle box is screwed, the box being larger at that than at the 
outer end, and being furnished with an internal thread for the 
reception of the thread upon the collar. The arm of the axle 
is slightly reduced in diameter, at a short distance from the 
shoulder, a second small shoulder being thus here formed, 
against which a conical ring is pressed by means of a nut, a 
short portion of the arm being screwed for the reception of 
such nut, and this part of the arrangement preventing the 
mobile collar, and consequently the axle box also, from leav- 
ing the axle arm. The box, for a considerable part of its 
length, is of larger internal diameter than the axle arm, a 
chamber being thus formed for the reception of oil, which is 
apparently meant to be supplied thereto through an opening 
in a cap which is screwed upon and incloses the outer end of 
the axle, the latter being also provided with a small collar, 
which, however, does not work in contact with the box. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1805, May 11.— No. 2846. 
ELLIOTT, Obadiah.— " Certain improvements in the con- 
s< struction of coaches, chariots, baroush, landaus, and various 
" other four-wheeled carriages." 



FOR COMMON" ROADS. 103 

This invention consists in " constructing or making coaches 
" or any four-wheeled carriages without a perch or cranes." 

One arrangement is Bet forth in which the springs of the 
vehicle, which are each composed of two plates or sets of 
plates, one placed above the other and the ends connected by- 
links, rest upon the beds of the axles, and sustain the body of 
the carriage through the medium of pieces of timber which 
project from the boot in front and the body of the carriage 
behind. This arrangement may be modified in accordance 
with the particular character of the vehicle to which the in- 
vention is applied. The front part of the body, or boot, is 
furnished with the usual "top horizontal wheel," " for the 
" purpose of turning or locking round," and one arrangement 
is described in which such " top " wheel rests upon a corre- 
sponding wheel fixed to the bed of the front axle, the front 
springs being secured to the same bed, as also are the futchells 
to which the splinter bar is connected. In another case the 
springs are mounted upon blocks connected with the axletrees. 
Another arrangement is described in which the front part of 
the vehicle is supported by springs placed as in the first 
arrangement, while the hinder springs pass from loops or 
sockets fixed below the body of the carriage, under the doors 
to blocks upon the hind axle, to which they are secured by 
clips or bolts, a cross spring passing in this case from one of 
these springs to the other, such spring being secured in the 
middle to the body of the carriage, and connected at the ends 
to the other springs by loops, shackles, or traces, ' ' to give it 
" side play or swing if required." In another case the hinder 
springs are arranged as in the case last mentioned, while the 
front springs consist of two side springs which are mounted 
upon blocks fixed upon the front axle, there being also cross 
springs connected to the ends of the side springs and also to 
the futchells, the latter being " framed into a bed fixed to the 
" bottom of the horizontal wheel." The arrangement of the 
springs may be otherwise varied, and a brace or braces, rope 
or ropes, chain or chains, may pass from any convenient part 
of one axle to the other, and from the fore axle to the splinter 
bar. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 



104 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1805, May 27.— No. 2854. 

MILLER, Samuel. — " An improvement upon and machinery 
" to be attached to coaches and various other carriages for the 
" better accommodation of passengers." 

One part of this invention relates to a post chaise, and con- 
sists in applying a " moveable back " to the seat which may 
be " set to any angle the passenger may find conducive to his 
" ease, either by a bracket behind or a catch at the side," or 
any other suitable fastening. Instead of the back of the seat 
being moveable the back of the chaise, from the seat upwards, 
may be arranged to move, pieces of leather attached to the 
sides of the chaise following the movements of the back, so 
that no openings are formed in the body of the chaise by such 
movements. These arrangements are applicable to coaches 
and other vehicles as well as to chaises, and in the case of a 
coach may be adapted to either one end of the vehicle or to 
both ends. Another part of the invention relates to the ap- 
plication of springs, which are connected to the perch of a 
carriage and meet or nearly so under the body of such carriage, 
these acting " as counter springs to the fore and hind springs," 
" to check the irregular motion on rough roads." In some 
cases one only of these check springs is used, and such spring 
may act upon the body of the carriage through the medium 
of a pad or cushion, or of rollers, castors, or other mechanism. 

Another part of the invention relates to the spokes of wheels, 
and consists in so forming the inner ends of the spokes that 
they fit close against each other, and do not require to be 
morticed into a nave, a circular plate of metal or wood being 
placed at each side of the inner parts of the spokes when laid 
together, and the whole being thus secured together. These 
plates are described as being in one case fixed upon a short axle, 
" which, in this case, runs with the wheel." In another case 
the plates are connected together by a tube which extends be- 
tween them, being in this case loose upon the axle, there being 
grooves in the tube for the reception of the inner ends of the 
spokes, and the inner plate has a large boss projecting from it 
having a flange at the end, a " box " being fixed upon the axle 
and an internal collar carried by the box embracing the boss 
of the plate, thus keeping the wheel in its place on the axle, 
and this arrangement being intended also " to secure the 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 105 

" body of the carriage in case the axletree should give way." 
Another arrangement is set forth in which one of the plates is 
furnished with divisions for the reception of the inner ends of 
the spokes, this arrangement being such that a broken spoke 
may be readily removed and replaced without disturbing the 
felloe of the wheel. 

Another part of the invention relates to " a machine for 
" regulating the fares of figured hackney coaches in the cities 
" of London and Westminster." The nave of one of the hind 
wheels is so formed as to act as an eccentric, and at each re- 
volution raises one end of a lever, this lever, through the 
medium of apparatus connected therewith, moves a catch and 
thereby turns a ratchet wheel forward ^through the space of 
one tooth, the lever being depressed after each upward move- 
ment by means of a spring. On the axis of this ratchet wheel 
is a pinion which gives motion to a large toothed wheel car- 
rying a circular plate marked with figures which are succes- 
sively brought opposite to an opening in a case which encloses 
the apparatus, the figure which appears at the opening in- 
dicating the fare for the distance already travelled. Different 
modifications of this part of the invention are described, in 
one case the lever being dispensed with, and the apparatus 
worked by a toothed wheel connected to the wheel of the 
carriage, and in another case the apparatus being provided 
with an additional wheel with figured circle, " which is to be 
" locked up for the private information of the master hackney 
" man, shewing the distance his horses have gone through 
11 during the day." 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1805, August 9.- No. 2874 

COLLINS, William. — Ventilating carriages and communi- 
cating therein. The patentee thus described his invention : — 
" I take or provide a circular box, made of brass, or any othex' 
" proper material, of about an inch in depth, or four or five 
" inches in diameter, consisting of two rims, one larger than 
" the other; the larger one has the bottom to it, the lesser 
" one I make to turn in the larger one, to which I affix a 
" pierced or perforated front or tap, which may be done to 
" any pattern ; to the outer or larger rim I affix two or more 



106 CAEKIAGES AND OTHEE YEHIOLES 

tubes of a convenient length, at right angles, as large as 
the depth of the box will admit of. On the inner rim I 
make holes corresponding to the size of the tubes, which by 
turning round are made to close any one or more of the 
tubes at pleasure. I also make an index on the outside of 
the pierced or perforated front to shew which of the tubes 
are closed or which are open, or I make my ventilator with- 
out such index, as required. This box or ventilator may 
be fixed (if for close carriages or sedan chairs) between the 
lining and the roof, the pierced or perforated front to be 
visible ; the tubes are then to be extended to the extremity 
or outside of the carriage or sedan chair. The tube which 
extends to the back of the carriage where the servant stands 
will serve to convey any orders that may be given to the 
servant from the passengers within, but may be closed at 
pleasure, when the other tubes will be left open for the 
purpose of letting the warm air escape." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.] 



A.D. 1805, November 16.—Np. 2890. 
MILTON, William. — "A mode of rendering carriages in 
" general, but particularly stage coaches, more safe than at 
" present, and various other improvements upon such car- 
" riages." 

This invention consists essentially in the application of what 
the patentee terms " idle wheels " below the framing or body 
of a coach or other vehicle, these " idle wheels," which are so 
termed to distinguish them from the bearing wheels, which 
the patentee calls " active wheels," not being in action during 
the ordinary working of the vehicle, but being mounted so as 
to be then a few inches from the ground, and only coming 
into operation in case of one of the bearing wheels leaving its- 
axle, or an axle itself breaking, in which case the overturning 
of the vehicle will be prevented, as its descent for a few inches 
will bring one or more of the "idle wheels" into contact 
with the ground such wheel or wheels then supporting the 
vehicle. 

A mode of applying the invention to a stage coach is de- 
scribed in which a large box is placed below the hinder part 
of the body of the vehicle for the reception of luggage, the 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 107 

axle of the hinder bearing wheels passing through this box, 
and this part of the arrangement itself being set forth as 
rendering "an overturn much less likely than at present." 
At each lower corner of this box is an " idle wheel," near to 
the ground, other idle wheels being carried by framing which 
projects below the front axle. The opening in the box through 
which the hinder axle passes may either be furnished with 
framework and springs, or the axle may be rigidly fixed 
therein. If there be no luggage box the hinder idle wheels 
may be carried by framing supported by the hind axle. When 
a luggage box is used a lever may be mounted below it, and 
be made to act as a drag when the vehicle is descending a hill. 
The idle wheels may be variously arranged, according to the 
particular construction of the vehicle to which they may be 
applied, and should be so mounted that " they may be vertical 
" when an accident brings them into work." 
[Printed, hd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1806, July 24.— No. 2949. 
DE BEREN&ER, Charles Random.— S tuning carriage seats, 
&c. This invention relates to the preparation of hog's hair 
as a substitute for horsehair. After the hair is removed, by 
scalding and scraping, from the animal, it is treated with lime 
water and washed. It is then " divided into a cord of about 
" the thickness of a goose quill, which cord is forced into a 
" tin, glass, or other tube, while it is twisted." The tube is 
to be about three-quarters of an inch in diameter. When full, 
it is closed and immersed in boiling water. " The hair is 
" then taken out of the tubes and left to cool in solid pieces ; 
" these are afterwards unpicked, when the hair will be quite 
" curly." The hair is finally dried in pans between layers of 
hot sand. 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1806, October 2.— No. 2971. 
COOKE, William. — " Certain improvements in the construc- 
" tion of waggons and other carriages which have more than 
" two wheels." 

This invention consists in so arranging the wheels and axles 
of a waggon or carriage having more than two wheels that 



108 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

one pair or more of such wheels may be either raised or de- 
pressed by coming upon irregularities in the road "without 
" requiring or causing the bed of the carriage, or any ap- 
" pendage belonging or fixed to the same to deviate from the 
" ordinary position of the said bed or appendage," unless 
such elevation or depression of the wheels shall exceed certain 
limits. And the invention is carried into effect by " the form- 
" ing or adaptation or addition of a part or parts of the 
" apparatus at or about the place where the axis of such pair 
" or pairs of wheels shall be connected with the carriage, so 
* i that the said part or parts may produce or admit of the 
" effect of an hinge or joint, by which the said axis may be 
' ' allowed to have either of its ends raised or depressed w r ith- 
" out affecting the carriage within the limits before mentioned, 
" and so that this effect may take place in all the practicable 
" or convenient angles of obliquity formed between the pole 
" or perch and the said axletree in turning or backing or in 
" any other part of the working of the same." 

The patentee states that from " the before-mentioned effects 
" and purposes " of the invention the mechanical arrange- 
ments requisite will be ' ' easily deducible " by men of com- 
petent skill and experience in works of this kind and nature. 
He mentions, however, an arrangement in which the upper 
part of the "main pin" consists of " a knob or piece of a 
" circular figure with respect to the central line or axis of the 
" said main pin (that is to say) : — All the sections of the said 
' ' knob that can be made at right angles to the said axis will 
" be circular, but of a conical or spherical or other bilging 
" figure in its longitudinal section, in order that when the 
" said knobs shall be placed or inserted within an hollow 
' ' cylinder of the same diameter as that of its greatest circular 
" section the said main pin may be at liberty to move side- 
" ways out of the direction of the axis of the said cylinder." 
This knob is inserted into "a cylindrical hole in the bed of 
" the carriage, or flying pillow, or other fit part or appendage 
" taking care by a nutt or other suitable means to prevent the 
" same from coming out " a connection between the axletree 
and the rest of the carriage which produces or admits of the 
effect of a hinge or joint, the pole or perch or other part which 
may be used to support or steady the lower end of the main 
pin having a little play to the right and left and the main pin 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 109 

a slight motion up and down in the holes through which it 
passes. The '"' bearing part, which is usually circular, and 
" called the sweeps or hanging pillow, or spring bed," is made 
" somewhat prominent " and so as to be " lowest in the 
" middle, and to admit the face of the lower pillow or axle 
" bed to shift its place of bearing accordingly as the tilt or 
" inclination of the axletree is greater or less, and by all 
" the said contrivances the before -described effect is pro- 
" duced." 

In other arrangements the knob maybe cylindrical, and the 
hole in which it works " widening one or both ways from its 
" smallest perforation ;" or the knob and the hole may each 
be " bilging or conical in contrary directions ;" or the main 
pin, or a piece or pieces answering the purpose thereof, may 
be formed in such manner as not to allow of any side motion 
or angular change of position in the same with relation to the 
bed of the carriage, the pole or perch being connected with 
the same and there being also applied to such pin, or piece or 
pieces, another piece which shall be capable of moving round 
against the sweeps or their equivalents. This last-mentioned 
piece is provided with pivots or gudgeons forming right angles 
with the main pin or its equivalent, such gudgeons passing 
into sockets attached to and forming right angles with the 
axle of that pair of wheels to which it is desired to give play 
or liberty. Instead of using pivots or gudgeons in the last- 
mentioned arrangement, an actual hinge or joint, or socket 
and bearing pieces, may be employed, by which a similar effect 
may be produced. 

[Printed, 3d. No Dmivings.'] 

A.D. 1806, November 6.— No. 2986. 

YAZIE, Robert. — Indicator for vehicles. Part of this -inven- 
tion relates to an indicator for public vehicles, by the use of 
which it can be shown whether the carriage is for hire or not. 
The indicator consists of a flap working on a hinge, like that 
of a knife blade. The flap bears the necessary words, and 
when the vehicle is unhired, the flap is placed vertically. 
When the carriage is hired the flap is folded down. In the 
night time, a lantern with similar but transparent flap or 
shutter is used. 



110 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

Another improvement consists in the preparation of a 
lubricating oil for wheel axles. This oil is made by heating 
whale blubber by steam, after which the extracted oil is 
" put into a separate steam pan with water, and is then 
" purified." 

The use of this oil in the above-mentioned lamp is recom- 
mended. 

[Printed, M. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1806, November 20.— No. 2988. 
LLOYD, John William. — "Antifriction rollers or wheels, to 
" assist all sorts of carriage wheels." 

In this invention, instead of the wheels of a carriage re- 
volving upon fixed axletrees, as customary, the axles are so 
arranged as to revolve with and bear between antifriction 
rollers or wheels, which the patentee recommends to be made 
as nearly one-half the size of the bearing wheels of the 
carriage as may be convenient. Such antifriction wheels may 
be composed of suitable metal, or of wood surrounded by 
metal, and they may be variously arranged according to cir- 
cumstances, in some cases turning upon fixed pivots mounted 
in suitable framing, while in other cases the pivots are fixed 
in the wheels, and turn in suitable sockets. In order to 
reduce friction the wheels may turn upon pins or gudgeons 
so arranged that the wheels only bear upon the ends of their 
naves, and not upon the central parts. Oil may be supplied 
to the antifriction wheels if desired by means of an oil box 
suitably arranged, all the details of the invention being fully 
set forth. 

The invention further includes a mode of relieving the 
wheels of carriages working upon fixed axletrees by causing 
each wheel and its axis or axletree to turn round together, 
this being effected by the use of a spring catch, bolt, pin, 
fork, or wedge, connected with the nave of the wheel, and 
entering a notch or opening In the axle. By releasing the 
catch or pin of the wheel from the axle it may be allowed to 
revolve thereon as usual, and by chaining one of the wheels 
a "drag" may be produced. Axles made to revolve are 
described as being provided with collars, and if desirable 
washers also, these bearing against balls or rollers mounted 



FOE COMMON EOADS. Ill 

in suitable framing, and this arrangement preventing the 
axles from moving out of their places endwise. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1807, March 7.— No. 3020. 
HOULDITGH, John.—" Certain improvements in the con- 
" struction of four-wheeled carriages of different descrip- 
" tions." 

In this invention the patentee, instead of fixing or connect- 
ing the cranes of a crane necked carriage "to or with the sett 
" of wheels in the usual manner/' interposes springs between 
the axles or framings or other apparatus to which the wheels 
are usually attached and the cranes, the body of the carriage 
being secured by means of bolts, screws, keyed pieces, or 
other suitable mechanism to such cranes, and in such manner 
that the body may be removed and another substituted for it 
at pleasure. Two cranes are by preference used (although 
more may be employed if desirable) such cranes being placed 
in the longitudinal direction, parallel to each other, or nearly 
so, and at such a distance asunder that the body may be well 
and effectually supported by them. In some cases the cranes 
may each be composed of two pieces and be screwed or 
otherwise joined to the body of the carriage without being 
joined together. 

The springs of the carriage may be variously constructed 
and arranged, the patentee stating however, that he prefers 
to use in his vehicles springs which each consist of " two 
if bows, joined at the ends, and disposed longitudinally, such 
" as have been commonly used and applied in curricles, gigs, 
" and other carriages, under the denomination of grasshopper 
" springs." 

The invention is illustrated by a drawing exhibiting various 
modifications of the details thereof. 
[Printed, hd. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1807, April 21.— No. 3034. 
DALTON, James Forbes.— " Certain improvements in the 
fe construction of four-wheel carriages." 

According to this invention, in constructing a landau, 
landau barouche, or other four-wheeled carriage, in which 



112 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

the upper part is to fall before and behind, the roof is to be 
formed of wood or other proper materials, and separated 
either into two parts by a division from side to side, or into 
three (as customary) or more, the patentee stating, however, 
that he prefers a single division, at about the middle of the 
roof. The roof and sides are to be sustained by moveable 
pillars, joints, or other supports, formed of wood, iron, or 
other proper material, the arrangement being such that on the 
removal of the supports and the bolts or fastenings at the 
joint or division, the roof or head will separate, each side 
turning upon its own pivot, and the pivots being arranged on 
each side of the door, at about one half the height thereof 
from the carriage floor, the patentee stating that by this 
arrangement the parts of the head are freed from the obstruc- 
tions which are usually placed at the back and front of the 
carriage body. Different methods of removing the supports 
may be adopted, but an arrangement is described in which 
the supports are jointed to the front and back of the carriage 
body, and so as to turn inwards and downwards, crossing 
each other and the carriage and ultimately assuming a hori- 
zontal position. 

In constructing a landaulet the back part of the head is to 
be arranged according to this invention, but the fore part may 
be formed " according to the present custom." 
[Printed, hd. Dr awing. ~] 

A.D. 1807, May 5.— No. 3039. 
CABANEL, Ritdolphe.— " Considerable improvements in the 
" construction of wheels and axletrees," for which the patentee 
claims "material advantages." 

In this invention an axletree is in the first place composed 
of two pieces of equal length, there being at the inner end of 
each piece or half axle a shoulder or cap, the end of which is 
convex or spherical, and has inserted into it a steel or other 
metal pin, there being between the caps of the half axles a 
metallic plate against which the pins bear. These parts are 
all enclosed within a central axle box, in which are chambers 
or spaces of suitable dimensions for their reception, these 
chambers being separated by the metallic plate, which is fixed 
in the box, the latter being in two parts, which are united, 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 113 

after the introduction of the ends of the axles and the metallic 
plate, by means of flanches or otherwise. The chambers are 
of such size as to leave space around the ends of the axles for 
a supply of oil or grease, which is introduced into the box 
through an opening formed for the purpose. This box is 
firmly secured to the axle bed or other part of the carriage, 
and the result of the whole of this part of the invention is 
that two swivel or socket joints are formed which keep the 
half axles in their places. The naves of the wheels are placed 
upon the ends of the half axles, each of the latter having upon 
it a shoulder inside the nave, and against which the latter 
bears, each half axle working in an axle box, placed near to 
the shoulder, and secured to the axle bed or some other part 
of the vehicle, the chamber of this box containing four semi- 
circular collars which fit the axle, but have between them a 
chamber for the reception of oil, and the half axle having 
upon it by preference pegs or pins, or a rim of leather or some 
other material by which the oil is carried round in the box. 
The box of the nave differs from those in ordinary use only 
in being lighter, the nave being shorter than usual, and being 
secured to and revolving with the half axle by means of screw 
pins which pass through the nave and its box, the ends of 
these pins entering recesses in the half axle. In case of an 
accident happening to a wheel with a short nave, such as 
mentioned above, and necessitating the substitution for such 
wheel of a wheel with a longer nave, the end of the axle arm 
is provided with a projecting screw, upon which an additional 
piece may be secured, a stay pin passing through both, there 
being at the end of the additional piece a short octagonal 
piece, beyond which projects a screw, the octagonal piece 
receiving a square plate through which is an octagonal hole, 
a nut being then placed on the screw, and the nut being 
secured to the plate by screws, the nut being thus prevented 
from coming loose. 

The invention includes various modes of adapting wheels 
to axles when the bore of the nave is larger than the diameter 
of the axle, additional rim boxes or collars, melted lead, fer- 
rules, collars or boxes with flanching straps, wedges, and 
other minor apparatus being used in different forms in carry- 
ing out these parts of the invention. 
[Printed, Is. 9d. Drawings.'] 



114 CAKBIAGES AKD OTHEB VEHICLES 

A.D. 1807, July 21.— No.' 3063. 

BIECH, Charles Lucas. — " An improvement in the construc- 
tf tion of the roofs and upper quarters of landaus, landaulets, 
" barouche-landaus, barouches, barouchets, curricles, and 
" other carriages, the upper parts of which are made to fall 
" down." 

This invention is thus set forth : — "Frame and fix in the 
" top quarter rails to the tops of the standing pillars and 
' { slats, and fix the slats to the neck-plates, rabbit the 
" inner parts of the standing pillars, the top quarter rails 
" and the slats, and board them with thin deals or any 
" other proper material. Let the crown pieces or cornice 
" rails be long enough to bevel or mitre into the corners 
" of the top of the standing pillars, and let in the hinges 
" and thimble catches on the top of the crown pieces 
fs and top of the quarter rails; fix on the hoop sticks and 
" back and front rails, and board them all up except the two 
" hoop sticks which are nearest to the hinges, which may be 
" placed as close as possible to admit of the head striking 
" conveniently low. Conceal or let in one or more boxed 
" locks to the centre hoop sticks, or at least the hoop sticks 
" which unite the thimble catches, and fix them so as that 
" they may Be opened by a key on the inside of the carriage. 
' ' Stretch strong canvass or other fit material, and nail it or 
" otherwise fasten it, both on the inside and the outside of 
" the slats and elbows, and stuff it between with flocks or 
" tow or other fit material. Likewise stretch and nail on or 
" fasten canvas or any other proper material to the top hook 
" sticks on the roof which are nearest to the hinges, before 
" you put on the leather covering." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings."] 

A.D. 1807, November 6.— No. 3079. 
HAWKS, Geoege.— Cast-iron wheels. Instead of casting 
wheels complete in one piece, a practice which often results 
in irregular contraction and consequent cracking of the wheel, 
they are by this invention to be cast in two or more parts and 
are then to be joined by bolts, screws, or otherwise. 
[Printed, hd. Drawing.'] 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 115 

A.D. 1807, December 9.— No. 3086. 
WILLIAMS, John. — " A new mode of covering and enclosing 
" all kinds of carriages." 

According to this invention a carriage cover is formed by 
the employment of a moveable frame which is " capable of 
" being disposed between grooves or within a cell or space 
" in the body of the carriage, and of being drawn up by one 
' ' or more straps or webs suitably disposed so as to act nearly 
{{ in the manner commonly adopted with regard to the glasses 
" or blinds of carriages." This frame or cover is composed 
of any suitable materials, and may be furnished with apertures 
or windows if required. If the material is inflexible the frame 
or cover is " of such a form or figure as shall be capable of 
" mathematical description about a real or imaginary axis," 
being either spherical, spheroidal, cylindrical, or such other 
figure " as shall in its own nature have reference to an axis." 
And such frame or cover may be of any desired magnitude, 
and so as to cover either a part or the whole of the carriage, 
stops, pins, or holes in the straps or webs already mentioned, 
or other suitable contrivances being provided by which the 
frame or cover may be drawn out of the grooves, spaces, or 
receptacles to such extent as may be needful, and fixed in the 
position so obtained. Instead of making the cover of inflexible 
materials it may be composed of small rods or bars of wood 
or metal, joined together by tying or sewing, or by glueing 
them to a cloth, or otherwise. In this case it is not necessary 
that the grooves or receptacles should have a figure referable 
to an axis, but leaders or supports should be provided by 
which the frame or cover can be sustained in any requisite 
position. 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1807, December 19.— No. 3091. 
WILLIAMS, John. — Preserving equilibrium, and preventing 
carriages from overturning. 

In this invention, instead of each pair of the wheels of a 
carriage being mounted upon one inflexible axis, or frame 
answering the purpose of such an axis, they are mounted 
upon the ends of levers, each wheel having its own lever, and 
the levers each passing inwards under the body of the carriage 



116 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

to the perch, and being connected thereto by a hinge, or joint 
which answers the purpose of a hinge, " so fixed and applied 
" that each of the said levers shall be allowed to move in a 
(i vertical circle, or up and down, but not at all sideways." 
The body of the carriage is supported upon springs of any 
suitable form, such springs bearing or acting upon or being 
affixed to the levers, the body of the carriage, when the 
springs are not so affixed, being connected with the framing 
beneath by means of an upright bolt or pin which admits of 
play or movement of the body up and down to the requisite 
extent. In some cases, besides the ordinary springs, other 
springs are applied, which support the fore and hind parts 
of the carriage body, such springs bearing upon the perch or 
middle bar or framing of the carriage, these springs, however, 
not being required in four wheeled carriages, although they 
may be used if desired. 

The patentee states that by these arrangements the passing 
of a wheel over an obstruction in the road will not disturb 
the equilibrium or cause the same danger of oversetting which 
would result under the ordinary arrangement. 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings."} 



A.D. 1808, February 4.— No. 3106. 
DUMBELL, John. — Propelling and steering carriages and 
preventing overturning. A large part of this invention 
relates to various applications of motive power derived from 
the action of heated air, gases, steam, &c, upon vanes or fans. 
This motive power is also shown applied to the propulsion of 
a carriage, upon which are borne the furnace, air chamber, 
fan apparatus and bellows. The latter may be furnished with. 
a horn or organ pipe to serve as a warning signal to passengers 
by the road. The carriage is steered by a hand wheel, work- 
ing ropes attached to the pole, by which the fore carriage is 
turned in either direction. 

A system of throwing in and out of gear, or clutch for 
machinery, is also described and its application to carriage 
wheels and axles pointed out. The wheels may be fixed to the 
axletree or severally released therefrom, so as to turn inde- 
pendently, as desired. 

In order to prevent overturning spheres or portions of 



FOE COMMON BOADS. 117 

spheres, or similarly shaped bodies, are to be used instead of 
wheels. The drawing shows a waggon supported on four 
spheres, each rolling in a frame, which may be fitted with 
adjustable anti-friction apparatus. The use of a large single 
sphere, divided infco compartments, is suggested instead of 
the ordinary waggon. 

[Printed, Is. Draiving.'} 



A.D. 1808, September 24— No. 3169. 

PATON, Thomas. — " Certain new improvements in the con- 
" struction of wheels for carriages." 

In this invention the stocks or naves of carriage wheels are 
formed of wrought iron lined with steel, or of bell metal, 
hard brass, gun metal, or cast iron, with or without a 
steel lining, or even of cast steel itself. When a wrought 
iron nave is used spokes of metal have their inner ends in- 
serted into it, and are secured therein by wedging, screwing, 
keying, or pinning. When a nave of cast metal is used, the 
spokes may be similarly fixed, or they may have their inner 
ends laid in the mould in which the nave is to be cast, and the 
metal be run into the mould around them ; in the casting of a 
cast-iron bush a steel bush may be fixed therein by the same 
means. 

The " filly " or rim upon which the tire is to be fixed is com- 
posed of iron or other metal, the " filly "and spokes either 
being of "one solid piece/' or being connected together by 
rivets, screws and nuts, or other convenient means. When 
the wheel is wider than usual two or three rows of spokes may 
be used, or brackets may pass from a single row of spokes to 
the edges of the felloes. 

Contrivances for keeping the oil in the bushes of wheels are 
also described, one of these consisting in putting a ring of 
leather at the back of the nave, a ring being screwed on be- 
hind it which projects against the inside of a collar upon the 
shoulder of the axletree or arm, this arrangement not only 
preventing the escape of oil from but , the access of dirt to 
the bush. Another arrangement consists in placing a ring of 
leather upon the outside or front of the collar of the axletree, 
" to turn in and wear against the nave of the wheel, which 
" will answer the same purpose." 



118 CARRIAGES AJSTD OTHER VEHICLES 

The invention is illustrated by a drawing in which wheels 
of different kinds are shown. 
[Printed, 7d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1809, January 23.— No. 3193. 

STRACEY, Edwabd. — " An improved method of hanging the 
" bodies, and of constructing the perches of four-wheeled 
" carriages, by which such carriages are rendered less liable 
" to be overturned, and of constructing perch bolts and collar 
" braces." 

In this invention this perch of the carriage is formed either 
of tough wood or of metal, and of the usual size, the fore part 
of the perch being fixed to the transom bed in front in the usual 
manner, but the after part of the perch, instead of being fixed 
in the hind axletree bed, as usual, is connected thereto by certain 
cylindrical boxes of metal in which it is allowed to turn freely 
or it may work in a box fixed in the hind spring bed. The 
result of this arrangement is that the fore and hind axles may 
assume different degrees of inclination from the horizontal 
line without inconvenience. The same result may be pro- 
duced by fixing the perch to the hind axletree and allowing the 
other to turn in the transom bed in front, or by " making the 
" perch revolve on an axis at each end." 

A mode of hanging the body of a carriage upon the springs 
is described, the main feature of which consists in so forming 
the body loops that their ends come nearly under the shackles 
of their respective springs, each end forming an axis on which 
a shackle for the reception of one of the main braces is placed, 
such shackle being so jointed to their boxes or sockets as to 
be capable of working to and fro in the direction of the perch, 
and the body of the carriage being connected to the braces in 
the usual manner. The result of this arrangement is that 
should any of the wheels ascend an obstacle in the road or 
descend into a hollow so as to cause danger of the vehicle 
being overturned the body loops will turn on their axes and so 
preserve the equilibrium of the body sufficiently to prevent 
such an accident from occurring. 

The invention also includes a " collar brace " which consists 
of a cylinder or roller mounted on an axis which is supported in 
standards fixed to the perch or other part to which collar brace 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 119 

rings are usually connected, certain straps connected to collar 
brace rings which are attached to the body of the carriage being 
attached to opposite sides of the cylinder or roller, and the 
diameter of the latter being adjusted in accordance with the 
amount of motion which it is desired that the body of the 
carriage shall have from side to side. If desired, the roller 
may be connected to the body of the carriage and the brace 
rings to the perch. 

Another part of the invention relates to the perch bolt, 
which is made shorter than usual, and has about midway of 
its length a projecting collar, that part of the bolt above the 
collar being formed into a right hand and the part below the 
collar into a left hand screw, these screws being each fur- 
nished with a flanged nut or threaded socket one of which is 
sunk into the under part of the transom bed, and the other 
into the upper part of the fore axletree bed. The patentee 
states that by this arrangement the fore axletree bed may be 
turned either to the* right or the left with greater ease than 
would be the case if the common perch bolt was used, the 
friction between the beds and the wheel plates being almost 
wholly removed " from their being gradually separated by 
" the lifting of the screw in the act of turning,'' the move- 
ment of the carriage being also rendered more steady by the 
transom bed being screwed to the fore axletree bed. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.^ 

A.D. 1809, September 26.— No. 3266. 
FLIGHT, Benjamin. — " A new metal nave, axle, and box, for 
" wheeled carriages, by means of which the danger of over- 
" turning and the concussion arising from carriages coming 
" in contact at the nave is considerably lessened," the nave 
being stronger, while having a lighter appearance than those 
in general use, the rattling of the carriage being moreover 
reduced, and the oiling of the wheels facilitated. 

In this invention a metallic nave, having mortice holes 
therein for the reception of the inner ends of the spokes, forms 
the centre or block of the wheel. The end of the axle is fixed 
in the centre of the nave, and the axle box, in which the axle 
works, forms a part of the axletree, and the axle is kept in its 
place in the box by means of a pair of " chaps " and a bolt 
which passes* through them, these " chaps " consisting in fact, 



120 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

of two hollow semi -cylinders, provided with internal flanges 
which enter a groove in the axle. A reservoir for oil is formed 
in the outer end of the axle, and oil is introduced into this 
reservoir through a hole in the cap of the nave which is fur- 
nished with a screw plug, a passage being formed in the axle 
which directs a supply of oil from the reservoir to the interior 
of the axle box. 

[Printed, hd. Drawing. ,] 

A.D. 1809, November 2.— No. 3270. 
BRAMAH, Joseph. — ' * Certain new improvements in the con- 
" structing and making wheels for all kinds of carriages, and 
" also a new method of locking or sledging the wheels of 
" carriages when passing down steep declining hills." 

The object of the first part of this invention is to prevent 
the destruction of young trees for the purpose of forming the 
stocks or naves of carriage wheels, this being accomplished 
by making such stocks or naves of cast iron. And in order 
to effect a saving of timber in the formation of the spokes 
and fellies of such wheels the patentee proposes that the parts 
of such fellies shall not be produced by chopping or sawing a 
straight piece into a curved form, but by bending pieces of 
wood into the shape required, while the spokes shall be pro- 
duced by cutting them out of the tree " by circular saws in 
" longitudinal lines, and in a radial direction, without that 
" loss of wood occasioned by the usual method of splitting 
" them." 

The nave of the wheel is cast with an opening through it 
for the axletree, and mortices for the reception of the inner 
ends of the spokes, the mortices being left open in front for 
the reception of the spokes, and the latter being parallel in 
their thickness as far as they enter the nave, instead of being 
of wedge form, and being forced into the nave either by 
blows or by the action of a powerful press, the arrangement, 
however, being such that if desired the spokes may be of 
dovetail form at the inner ends. When placed in the nave 
the spokes are secured therein by means of a plate or ring, and 
a nut which is screwed upon the outer end of the nave, a 
metal cap completing the whole. 

That part of the invention which relates to locking or 
sledging the wheels of carriages consists in the first place in 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 121 

fixing to the axle of a carriage a round block of wood, the 
centre of the block not, however, corresponding with the centre 
of the wheel. Around the block is passed a hoop or ring 
connected to a lever at one end of which is a hook which 
embraces the front or leading periphery of the wheel, the 
arrangement being such that so long as the lever is in a hori- 
zontal position the hook is free from the wheel, but is pressed 
against it with great force should the lever fall into an angular 
position owing to the movement of the ring or hoop on the 
excentric block. Various modifications of this part of the in- 
vention are set forth, in some cases the lever being retained 
in position when not required to act by means of a balance 
weight, while in other cases levers, cords or chains, and other 
appendages are used in connection with the apparatus, several 
arrangements being set forth in which sledges are forced under 
the wheels, instead of the hooked lever being employed. 
[Printed, Sd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1809, November 6.— No. 3273. 

RANDOLPH, David Meade. — " Certain improvements in the 
tl construction of wheel carriages of every description." 

This invention is set forth at some length, and embraces a 
large number of particulars. A mail or stage coach is 
described, which is mounted upon four wheels in the usual 
manner, the body accommodating four inside passengers, and 
the windows being arranged to " slide back horizontally," 
and being furnished with bolts which secure the doors and 
prevent them from opening when the windows are shut. The 
specification of the invention is accompanied by several sheets 
of drawings, but the references to these drawings are so in- 
accurate and confused that it is difficult to give with certainty 
the precise particulars of the invention, which embraces 
various arrangements of spring, stays, and other mechanism, 
set forth in a variety of forms. The coach already mentioned 
is provided with a seat in front for the accommodation of the 
driver and others, and also with seats on the top of the body 
and behind the latter. A curtain of oiled silk or canvas, or 
other suitable material, is so arranged at the back of the 
vehicle, as to serve as an apron for those passengers who sit 
upon the outer and hinder part of such vehicle, while it will 



122 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

entirely cover those who occupy a seat which is mounted 
behind the body and which serves for the accommodation of the 
guard as well as passengers. One of the main features of the 
invention appears to consist in causing the front part of the 
body of a vehicle to be somewhat lower than the hinder part, 
a line drawn from the front to the hinder part forming an 
angle of about three degrees with the horizontal line. The 
object of this part of the invention is not quite clear. The 
swingletrees, the axles, the perches, and other parts of 
the carriages are minutely set forth. The wheels may be 
composed of wood, or of wood and metal combined, one 
arrangement being described in which a cast-iron nave is 
combined with wooden spokes and felloes, wedges securing 
the spokes in the nave. Gigs, curricles, and other vehicles, 
including carts and waggons, are mentioned as having the 
invention applied to them, and the invention also includes 
" a road scraper and earth porter," which is intended " for 
" the several purposes of scraping loose matter," and 
" removing the loose earth after having been prepared for 
" the purpose by ploughing or digging." The details of this 
invention will not, however, be at all understood without an 
inspection of the drawings annexed to the specification. One 
particular relating to wheels which is set forth as a novelty 
consists in so forming wheels " that all shall have an unequal 
" number of spokes." 

[Printed, Is. 2d. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1810, February 12.— No. 3303. 
WYKE, George. — " Certain improvements in the construc- 
" tion of wheel carriages of various descriptions." 

This invention relates, firstly, to arrangements by which the 
body of a carriage may be retained in a vertical position, 
although the axles and framework may be overturned. An 
arrangement is described in which the body of the carriage is 
suspended from the centres of two bars which pass horizon- 
tally between the ends of springs rising from the framework, 
there being two springs before and two behind the body, 
each pair carrying a bar, and the body being connected to 
them by braces in such manner as to be capable of swinging 
freely from side to side. In order, however, to keep the body 
steady, unless danger should arise of the vehicle being over- 



FOR COMMON" ROADS. 123 

turned, a certain arrangement of collar braces which are 
attached to the lower part of the body, and certain staples or 
rings connected to such braces, and which act in combination 
with hooks' and a weight which is suspended from the perch 
are employed, the result of this part of the arrangement being 
that so long as the axles and framing remain in a horizontal 
position, or nearly so, the braces, rings, and hooks retain the 
body in its vertical situation, while on the framing being 
thrown into such a position that the vehicle is in danger of 
being overturned the weight so acts upon one or other of the 
hooks, through the medium of a quadrant-shaped piece of 
metal with which it is provided, as to disengage that hook 
from its ring and brace, and permit the body of the carriage 
to turn upon its points of suspension and retain its vertical 
situation. These arrangements are capable of various modifi- 
cations, several of which are minutely set forth. In one case 
the body of the carriage is suspended from two springs only, 
one in front and one behind the body. In another case, 
instead of the weight for disengaging the braces being in the 
form of a pendulum, it is composed of a leaden ball placed in 
a cylinder, and moving to one end or the other of the cylinder 
as the latter is diverted from the horizontal position, the 
braces being here released by the ball acting upon a certain 
bolt and a spring. 

Another part of the invention relates to apparatus for lock- 
ing the hind wheels of a carriage, and consists in the employ- 
ment of certain Locking bolts which are attached to flat plates 
mounted under the axletree of the wheels, these plates being 
acted upon when requisite through the medium of certain 
rods, cranks, and other mechanism which is brought into 
operation by a pedal pressed by the foot of the driver, the 
result being that the locking bolts are thrust outwards and 
between the spokes of the wheels, stopping the rotation of the 
latter. This apparatus may be arranged to act either upon 
both wheels simultaneously, or npon one wheel only. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1810, February 26.— No. 3311. 
LE OAAN, Charles. — " Certain apparatus to be added and 
" united to the axletrees and wheels or naves of wheels of 
■" carriages, so as to impede, resist, or check their action." 



124 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

This invention consists " in causing the wheels, or either 
' ' wheel singly, of any carriage whatsoever to be stopped or 

I i become stationary at the pleasure of the driver thereof, by 
" means of bolts or slides of iron or any other metal or eom- 
' ' pound metal, attached to an axletree of any kind or sort, 

II which bolt or bolts, slide or slides by means of levers, with 
11 or without the assistance of springs, come into contact 
" with a plate of iron, or any other metal or compound metal, 
" on which one or more projections are formed, which plate 
" or stop plate, being let in and fixed to the nave of any wheel 
" will answer the purpose required by impeding the motion 
" of any carriage to the wheel or wheels of which the same 
" is applied. The said levers are or may be connected with 
" the body of any kind of carriage, and to such part thereof 
" as may prove most convenient, by either chains, strings, 
" cords, leather, or any other substance necessary for the 
" purpose." 

The details of the invention are illustrated by a drawing 
annexed to the Specification, which details may, however, be 
varied. 

[Printed, M. BvawrngJ] 

A.D. 1810, May 9.— No. 3336. 
BOSWORTH, John. — "An improvement in carriages to 
" facilitate the unloading of heavy goods, coals, and other 
" things." 

According to this invention, the carriage has by preference 
four wheels, as being best calculated to aid in carrying out 
the main feature of the invention, which relates to a mode of 
forming and fixing the frame or bottom of the carriage. The 
front wheels may be made so small as to admit of their run- 
ning under the body of the carriage, for convenience in turn- 
ing within short distances, or they may be of any size which 
may seem best adapted to the particular purpose for which the 
carriage is intended. " The hindermost wheels must be suffi- 
" ciently high so as to make or leave space enough to contain 
* ' the load after it is let or dropt down between the wheels. 
" The bottom of the body of the carriage, cart, or waggon is 
" formed of two or more parts which may be called doors or 
" drops, fastened to the sides of the body by hooks, hinges, or 
' * any other convenient fastening, and supported by levers or 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 125 

" bars which may be fixed or fastened to either of the doors 
" or drops near or at the centre of the levers or bars, which 
" with pleasure may be thrown into hooks, catches, &c, 
" fastened to the sides of the body of the carriage for that 
" purpose." In order to unload the vehicle, the levers or bars 
which sustain the bottom are removed from their fastenings to 
the sides, and the load is then let down either by levers, 
pullies, screws, rollers, " or tooth and pinion wheels with 
" rollers," this being the mode which the patentee prefers, 
and the mode of carrying out which he thus describes : — "At 
" the front and hinderrnost part, or any other convenient part 
" of the carriage, is a roller or rollers made of wood or iron, 
" or any other proper metal or material, but I prefer two iron 
" rollers, one placed before and the other behind the body of 
" the carriage, which rollers communicate by rope, chain, or 
" tumbling shaft, and also to the ends of the doors or drops 
" by ropes or chains which wind round the rollers when 
" turned, to one or both of which rollers are fixed'toothed and 
" pinion wheels, which are worked by a windlass, by turning 
" which (the levers or bars being removed) I let down the load 
" gradually with pleasure. (By letting go the windlass it 
" will unload itself suddenly, but the former mode I prefer.) 
" "When the load is thus let or dropt down, the two or more 
" doors or drops will be found, by the pressure of the goods, 
" near the wheels of the carriage, which will then form a sort 
' ' of box or space which will contain the loading, and which 
* ' box or space should be as large or larger than the dimen- 
" sion of the body of the carriage which previously contained 
"it. I then draw the carriage on until clear of the load let 
" or dropt down, then I turn the windlass the contrary way 
" to that of letting or dropping down the load, and the doors 
" or drops are raised and replaced in their former situation ; 
" then I pull the levers or bars at the bottom of the carriage 
" into their fastenings, and the whole is compleated. A break 
" such as is used in windmills, or in many other works, may 
" be used to advantage in very heavy loading, to prevent its 
" going down too rapidly." 

[Printed, M. No Draiuings.'] 



126 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

A.D. 1810, June 8.-— No. 3344. 
WILLIAMS., John. — " Certain apparatus or additional parts 
u to be applied to and used with, wheel carriages, in order to 
" render the same more safe and commodious." 

This invention consists essentially of a certain apparatus 
called a te preserver," the object of which is to prevent a car- 
riage from tilting or overturning in case of the horse falling, 
or any part of the vehicle giving way. According to one 
modification of the invention, the preserver consists of two 
arms curving outwards and downwards from a socket, which 
by means of a clip plate, a spindle, and other minor details, 
may be connected to the axle of the carriage. The arms or 
branches curve downwards until within a short distance from 
the ground, the ends being then turned upwards, and the front 
arm or branch being by preference made longer than the 
other. In case of any accident occurring which might tend 
to tilt or overturn the vehicle, these arms or branches come 
down upon the ground and preserve the vehicle from being 
either overturned or dangerously tilted. This arrangement 
applies more particularly to vehicles with two wheels, but in 
the case of vehicles with four wheels one such preserver passes 
down from that part of each axle inside the wheel, and the 
lower parts of the branches of each preserver are braced 
together and covered with some material which causes them, 
when they come to the ground, to act as a sledge. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1810, September 17.— No. 3378. 
YAETY, Jonathan. — "Certain improvements in the axletree 
" of carriages." 

The patentee sets forth this invention as follows : — " In 
" making the arm of the axletree I divide the bottom half of 
u the axletree into several parts, according to the weight 
" intended to be carried. I then cut out of the two upper 
" thirds, supposing the under half to be divided into three 
te parts, sufficient to take the bearing of those parts, so that 
" the friction and weight rest only on the sixth part of the 
" axletree ; the bearing part I leave larger or smaller agree- 
" ably to the weight intended to be carried. In some cases I 
ts fix small rollers, two or more, as occasion may require, in 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 127 

" recesses cut for that purpose in the bottom of the axletree. 
" These rollers turn on their own axes in pieces of steel or 
" any other hard metal also fixed in the said recesses. In 
* ' this case the bottom of the axletree must be flattened in 
" order to throw the weight on the rollers. I then make a 
" groove the length of the arm on the top side, with small 
" holes through the axletree to admit of oil flowing through 
'• to supply the axes of the rollers with sufficient moisture. 
li In this case the box or bush must be made with a cap at 
" the point or shoulder, or with caps both at the point and 
" shoulder, to contain oil, as is frequently practised on different 
" principles ; or I supply the axletree with oil through a pipe 
" introduced through the shoulder waster, at the upper end 
" of which pipe I screw a can, cap, or hollow ball to contain 
ie oil. These several improvements may be used either sepa- 
" rately or collectively. In cases where the box or bush is 
' * a fixture, instead of cutting away the axletree I make the 
" alteration in the bottom half of the box in the same way as 
" described for the axletree. When horizontal axletrees are 
" used, the arm of the axletree should be of the same size at 
" the point as at the shoulder, and the wheel made perfectly 
" upright without any dish." 
[Printed, 3d. No JDrawmgs."] 

A.D. 1810, October 15.— No. 3396. 
WHEATLEY, John.— " An improved axletree for wheels of 
" carriages, and also improved wrought or cast iron boxes and 
" cast-iron hocks to receive the spokes of the wheels." 

The specification of this invention consists merely of a 
drawing containing certain figures which are accompanied by 
references. An axletree is represented, in which a cylindrical 
arm projects from each end of a central piece or bed, there 
being at the inner end of each arm a collar, which is meant 
to retain the box of the wheel in its place upon the arm, a 
cap being screwed to the inner end of the box which embraces 
such collar, a washer of steel between two washers of leather, 
being, however, interposed between the back of the collar and 
the inner end of the cap, the object of these washers appa- 
rently being to prevent the escape of oil from the box, which 
is provided in its interior with a reservoir for such oil, the arm 
of the axle being grooved to assist in the lubrication of the 



128 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

parts. According to one figure the outer end of the box is 
closed by a cap which is screwed upon it, although in another 
figure a box is shown as having the end closed in casting, or 
otherwise forming the box. From this figure it would appear 
also that the inner ends of the spokes are secured into the 
recesses formed for them in the box by pins passing through 
them, and also through a projecting ridge in which the 
recesses are formed, bnt this part of the invention is not very 
clearly set forth. 

[Printed, 6cl. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1811, March 9.— No. 3410. 
COLLING-E, John. — " Certain improvements in and upon 
" carriages and other wheel boxes and axletrees." 

In this invention an axletree is formed by preference of 
wrought iron, case hardened, the arm of the axle being 
cylindrical for the greater portion of its length, but having at 
the outer end a short portion of much smaller size than the 
rest. The axle box is formed by preference of cast iron, case 
hardened, but may be composed of brass or other metal, and 
is made to fit the arm of the axle, a " bridge " or projection 
in the interior of the box coming against the shoulder which 
is formed where the larger joins the smaller part of the arm, 
and there being placed upon the small projecting part of the 
arm, beyond the bridge, a ring or collet, there being beyond 
this, again, a linch pin, which may be composed of one part, 
or of several pieces suitably united, there being through the 
head of this pin, however, a hole through which a pendant 
ring is passed, such ring hanging over and embracing the 
small part at the end of the arm, and effectually preventing 
the linch pin from rising out of its place. To the outer end 
of the box a cap may be screwed or otherwise attached, such 
cap forming a reservoir for oil, which may be introduced 
thereto through an opening furnished with a screw plug, the 
oil passing thence into certain cavities by which the bridge 
and ring are lubricated, a supply of such oil, moreover, 
passing along the arm of the axle and into a reservoir formed 
in the inner end of the box, a metal cap fixed upon the bed of 
the axle covering that end of the box, and . preventing the 
access of dirt thereto, a certain groove or cavity formed in the 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 129 

box, and corresponding with a similar groove in the arm of 
the axle, aiding in the same object, which may be further 
facilitated by the use of a leather washer. If it should be 
thought that a reservoir for oil at the outer end of the box is 
unnecessary the cap at that end may be dispensed with, and 
a common linch pin may be used instead of that mentioned 
above ; or screw nuts may be used, either with or without a 
linch pin, the main feature of the invention being the bridge 
mentioned above. That part of the projection at the end of 
the axle upon which the ring is placed is slightly flattened, 
the ring fitting thereon, and being thus prevented from 
turning round. 

[Printed, 5d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1811, March 14.— No. 3413. 

COOPER, Thomas Willis. — "A certain apparatus to be 
". fixed on the naves of wheels and beds of axletrees of car- 
" riages, so as to prevent accidents from the axletrees break- 
" in g," or the linch pins or cap screws getting out of their 
places. 

According to this invention there are fixed to the carriage 
or to the beds of the axletrees, and secured in their places by 
bolts and clips, straps of metal projecting forward over the 
naves of the wheels, there being also secured to the axletrees, 
or their beds, other straps which project below the naves. 
The latter have also affixed to them grooved flanched hoops, 
or the boxes of the wheels may have flanches upon them to 
form the grooves, and "joint hoops" are connected to the 
straps under the naves of the wheels, and pass loosely 
upwards between the flanches of the grooved hoops or of the 
boxes of the wheels, the joints being connected to the lower 
straps, and the upper parts of the hoops being secured to the 
straps above the naves, covers being applied to the hoops to 
prevent the access of dirt to the parts. The result of this 
arrangement is that should an axletree break the body of the 
carriage is supported by the naves of the wheels through 
the medium of the straps and the joint hoops and flanched 
and grooved hoops, or grooves in the boxes of the wheels, 
while in case of a linch pin or wheel cap becoming displaced 
the wheel is by the action of the same parts prevented from 
G 239. e 



130 CARKIAGES AND OTHEK VEHICLES 

leaving the axle. Instead of the arrangement described above 
the naves of the wheels may be provided with hoops of metal, 
having three or more " necked studs " on each hoop, there 
being fixed to the tops or bottoms or sides of the axletrees, or 
their beds, straps of metal formed at the ends next the naves 
as hoops round the axletrees or beds of such, the hoops on the 
naves having connected to them internal flanch hoops with 
mortices in them to receive the necked stubs, the internal 
flanch hoops projecting backwards from the naves of the 
wheels and covering the hoops of the straps on the axletrees or 
beds of axletrees, and working around them. In case of the 
breaking of an axle, or the displacement of a linch pin or 
wheel cap this apparatus will produce the same effect as that 
already set forth. 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1811, March 26.— No. 3421. 
CBAIGTE, John. — "Certain means and improvements on 
" waggons, carts, and other wheel carriages, whereby fric- 
il tion may be saved, labour facilitated, and a greater degree 
" of safety obtained." 

The " principle " of this invention consists in " making the 
" load a live instead of a dead weight." Instead of the load 
being placed in a vessel, receptacle, or carriage body mounted 
upon rigid framing, a moveable framing is formed for its 
reception, this framing being suspended by means of braces 
from longitudinal side pieces mounted upon suitable axes, 
and the latter being provided with wheels in the usual 
manner. By this arrangement the braces "will give tem- 
" porary way on any impediment to the motion of the 
"carriage, and thereby operate in the nature of a spring, 
" while the centre of gravity moving forwards there will be a 
" propelling power in the load." Moreover, the effect of the 
arrangement will be that in ascending or descending a hill 
the centre of gravity of the load will remain the same, instead 
of, as in ordinary vehicles, being thrown backwards in the 
first case, and forward in the second. Stays may be connected 
to the upper part of the body of the carriage, "in order to 
" keep it steady and prevent rocking in uneven roads.' ' 
[Prwted, M. No Drawings.] 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 131 

A.D. 1811, April 10.— No. 3431. 

BLENKINSOP, John. — Propelling carriages. This invention 
relates to the construction of a rail or tramway upon which 
a carriage having a toothed or studded wheel is to run. It 
also relates to the driving of such carriages by means, 
preferably, of steam power carried with the vehicle and 
acting through a crank directly on the axle, or through 
gearing. 

The invention also consists in moving other carriages by 
attaching them to that upon which the engine is placed. 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1811, April 11.— No. 3432. 
TAYLOR, John.—" Certain improvements in the construc- 
" tion of wheels for carriages of different descriptions." 

This invention consists in the first place of an apparatus 
which is applicable to the wheels of carriages, and so con- 
structed as to facilitate and render secure the fastening of 
the box into the stock of the wheel, and the wheel on the 
axletree, and to loosen or tighten the wheel on the axletree 
as circumstances or convenience may require, to reduce 
friction and prevent "stickage," arrangements being also 
made for supplying the apparatus with oil without taking off 
the wheel from the axletree, and in such a proportion or 
quantity as to render a supply necessary not more than once 
or twice in a year. The apparatus consists in the first 
instance of a wheel box formed of suitable metal, and of some 
length, being adapted for the reception of an axle arm which 
may either be cylindrical or conical in figure, the outer end of 
the box being solid, and having thereon a screw thread, an 
inverted point being added if required, "for the purpose of 
" being fastened into the stock by means of a nut." The 
inner portion of the box is much larger in diameter than the 
rest, and has inside it a screw thread for the reception of 
certain half nuts and a collar on the inner portion of the arm, 
these half nuts serving to retain the arm in the box, certain 
clickers, or stops, or pins in the half nuts being arranged for 
the purpose of loosening or tightening the wheel on the axle 
as required. In the large part of the box is a hole through 
which oil may be poured into the box, and a bead is formed 

e 2 



132 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

on the arm in addition to the flanch already mentioned, such 
bead superseding the necessity for a linch pin. The half nuts 
run upon a part of the arm behind the flanch, which is adapted 
for their reception, and this part of the arm is lubricated, as 
well as the other parts, by the passage of oil from a reservoir 
formed in the arm itself, through certain holes and along 
certain grooves arranged for the purpose, this reservoir being 
supplied through the hole in the box mentioned above. 

The invention also includes a spanner, for slackening and 
tightening the half nuts, for conveying oil into the box of the 
wheel, and for cleaning out the reservoir in the arm, this 
spanner being composed of three essential parts, adapted to 
these three objects. A spring is so arranged that when the 
half nuts are inserted into their places they are prevented 
from leaving such places by such spring. 
[Printed, bd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1811, May 1.— No. 3440. 

THOMPSON, George Alexander. — "Some machinery for 
<l dragging, locking, and scoating the wheels of carriages." 

In this invention an " iron strop " is fixed around the bed of 
the axletree of the hind wheels of a carriage, the upper part 
of the strop being formed into a shoulder, and the latter 
inclining inwards, or from the wheel. To this shoulder is 
connected, by a pin, or screw and nut, or any other suitable 
contrivance, a locking bar, such locking bar being " a little 
" bent outwards " from the pin or fulcrum on which it works, 
and being so bent at the end as, when required, partially to 
embrace the rim of one of the wheels. At rather less than 
half the length of the bar from the fulcrum is a swivel hook 
or eye, to which is attached a cord or chain, the latter pro- 
ceeding thence either to the seat of the guard or to that of the 
driver of the vehicle, and being furnished at the end with a 
handle, and a loop which, being placed upon an eye bolt or 
stud will retain the apparatus in any requisite position until 
required to act, the arrangement being such that by slacken- 
ing the cord in one direction the locking bar is made to act 
upon the front part of the wheel, and so to check the onward 
progress of the carriage, while by again drawing up the cord 
and then slackening it in another direction the bar may be 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 133 

turned over and made to act upon the back part of the wheel, 
in which position it will counteract any tendency the carriage 
may have to run backwards when ascending a hill. The 
locking bar may, if desired, carry a shoe or " scoat pan," 
which by the lowering of the bar may be made to pass 
between the wheel and the ground. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1811, August 7.— No. 3474. 
BROWN, Houstown Rigg. — " Certain improvements in the 
" construction of wheel carriages, wheels, axles and boxes." 

This invention relates in the first place to ''the simpli- 
" fication of the construction of wheel carriages of every 
" description by the adoption of metal in the construction 
" of the perch, the wheels, and other parts thereof " 
which have hitherto been made of wood only, or wood 
strengthened with iron, such wheels being thus rendered both 
stronger and lighter than those in ordinary use. Another 
part of the invention relates to axles, and is calculated to 
render the fastenings of the wheels much more secure, " by 
" removing them from the outer end of the axletree where it 
iC is weakest and most liable to an accident, to what is called 
" the inhead, where the axletree is strongest and less exposed 
" to injury;" the invention further comprehending " a new 
" and easy method of oiling the wheels, and at the same 
" time of securing by a close ended brush a supply of oil suffi- 
" cient for the longest journey." 

The perch of the carriage is composed of wrought iron, 
steel, or other fit metal, and may either consist of one piece, 
or of several pieces, which latter may be either put together 
by themselves, or have interposed between them cloth, leather, 
felt, or some other similar substance, such pieces being con- 
nected together by means of screwed hasps, hoops, rivets, or 
other fastenings. A perch may be thus constructed the 
outside bars of which may diverge sufficiently from the centre 
to become the support of the spring stays, a transome bar, 
and a hind axletree bed, with their respective mountings. 
The latter may be composed of wood, or of wrought iron, steel, 
or other metal. The under carriage may be composed of 
wrought iron, steel, or other metal, as also the spokes of the 



134 CARRIAGES AKD OTHER VEHICLES 

wheels and sometimes the felloes, the invention being set 
forth as consisting in " the use of iron, steel, or other metal, 
" to the total exclusion of wood, in one or more or all the 
" principal parts of a carriage, properly- so called, and 
li wheels." In the construction of wheels of metal the nave 
may be of cast iron, brass, wrought iron, or other metal, in one 
solid piece, or in two pieces, and be made to answer both as a 
nave and a brush, or it may be provided with a separate brush, 
fitted into its centre by ordinary means. In fixing the spokes 
various methods may be employed. They may either be 
soldered into the nave, or driven into the latter, or be fur- 
nished with shoulders and fastened by means of hoops and 
wedges. The axles may be composed of ordinary materials, 
and are by preference made "perfectly cylindrical, without 
" any screw at the end or outhead," each arm of the axles 
being formed " with the inhead, washer, or collar in the solid 
tc of the pin, about two and a quarter or two and a half inches, 
" more or less, according to the strength of the axletree, 
" larger in diameter than the pin," there being another 
collar, smaller than that already mentioned, formed nearer to 
the point or end of the arm of the axle, a collet working 
between these collars, such collet being contained within the 
bush of the wheel, and preventing the wheel from leaving its 
place on the axle arm. At the back of the largest collar is a 
" dust hoop," the bush at the outhead being " solid or close, 
" and made a little longer than the pin of the axletree, by 
" which means there is a vacuity when the bush is put on, 
(( which, being filled with oil, supplies the necessary waste." 
The pin of the axletree. is formed into ' ' a hollow cylinder up 
" to the shoulder," and oil is admitted thereto "by a hole 
" made in the shoulder of the axletree on the inside of the 
'■' largest collar, and fitted with a screw," such oil being 
poured into the hole after the removal of the screw, and 
finding its way down the centre of the pin, " and when a 
*' fresh supply is wanted there is no occasion to take off the 
" wheel or use letters to turn up a particular part of it." 
Other modes of oiling these axles may be adopted. In using 
these axletrees with wheels of which the spokes consist of 
metal the nave may either be bushed or otherwise. In the 
case of a common wooden wheel with a wooden nave the 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 135 

patentee occasionally cuts a groove " at the out end on the 
" outside of the bush," a circular plate of iron, made in two 
halves, being placed in such groove, and then made fast to 
the nave as a further security, li in addition to the common 
" wedging up of the bush." 

[Printed, 4d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1811, August 7.— No. 3475. 

TAYLOR, William. — " A certain machine or apparatus to be 
attached to the axletree and nave of wheel carriages, 
whereby their motion may be gradually checked and 
stopped, and also again loosened or unstopped at the plea- 
sure of the driver or passengers, during the progress of the 
carriage." 

According to one part of this invention a brake is composed 
of two bent pieces of metal, mounted upon a fulcrum on one 
side of the nave of the carriage wheel, and one piece extending 
over while the other piece extends under the nave, in such man- 
ner that when brought towards the nave they almost entirely 
surround it. When this apparatus is required to act the two 
pieces are brought together by a screw which passes through 
their ends, such screw being either a common screw with a 
shoulder, or a right and left hand screw, the shaft of this 
screw extending upwards, and being connected by means of a 
" compound joint " to a rod at the upper end of which is a 
handle, by turning which the brake may be brought into and 
taken out of action at pleasure. The object of the joint is to 
allow the rod to move in accordance with the oscillations of 
the carriage, the screw being " fixed and not elastic." 

In another arrangement the carriage wheel has affixed to 
the spokes a ring or small wheel around which is loosely 
passed a spring hoop, one end of which is connected to an arm 
fixed to the axletree, wbile the other end is connected to a lever 
which extends upwards, and by moving which the hoop may 
be tightened around the ring or small wheel and so act as a 
brake. 

In another arrangement an oval hoop is placed around the 
nave of the wheel, this hoop being supported in suitable bear- 
ings, and, when required to act as a brake, being drawn 



136 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

upwards by a screw so as to press the inside of the lower part 
of the hoop against the nave, this screw being worked by a 
rod and winch, as in the first arrangement, a sliding and a 
socket joint here enabling the rod to oscillate with the motion 
of the body of the carriage without affecting the screw and 
hoop. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1811, September 14.— No. 3490. 
SILVESTER, Edward. — "A new drag or skid to be applied 
" to the wheels of carriages of different descriptions." 

This skid consists in the first place of two parallel arms or 
sides, suitably connected together, and having jointed to them 
at one end an iron pan which is meant to pass under the wheel 
when the apparatus is used, the sides curving upwards from 
that part towards the middle and then again curving down- 
wards, and being provided at the other end with a small 
wheel mounted in a swivel, this wheel serving to sustain that 
end of the apparatus by resting on the road. Near the pan 
the sides are provided with certain jaws, and a catch by which 
the apparatus may be secured to the felloe of the wheel when 
it becomes necessary to apply the skid other jaws embracing 
the sides of the felloe, and the catch, when applied, being 
secured in its place by a spring. The pan, as already men- 
tioned, is jointed to the sides or arms, and in order to prevent 
it from falling out of position it is bent upwards at the inner 
end, the bent part bearing against the lower parts of the 
sides. 

This skid is " equally applicable to two-wheel carriages as 
" to those having more wheels than two, without bringing the 
" weight upon the horse when the wheel is skidded." 
[Printed, Bd. Drawing.] < 

A.D. 1812, January 13.— No. 3514. 

NICHOLSON, William. — -" Certain improvements in the 
" method or manner of supporting or suspending the bodies 
" or principal parts of wheel carriages." 

[No Specification enrolled.'] 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 137 

A.D. 1812, January 20.— No. 3520. 
WHITE, George. — ' ' A new or improved method of prevent- 
" ing accidents from carriages." 

This invention relates to improvements upon an invention 
for which a patent was granted to John Williams, dated the 8th 
of June 1810, No, 3344, and which consisted in the application 
of certain " preservers " to wheeled carriages, such preservers, 
according to the present invention, being constructed " so as 
" to be capable of being raised or folded up, instead of being 
" kept constantly in one situation," for which reason the 
patentee of the present invention denominates them " invisible 
" preservers." 

The details of the invention may be varied, but an arrange- 
ment is described in which the ''preservers" are fixed to the . 
" scrole irons of the springs, or if there be no scrole irons, 
" then to the understay heads, or other fit and convenient 
" part or parts of the carriage," each preserver being pro- 
vided with a spring which gives it a tendency to assume " the 
" downright position when at liberty to do so, and also with a 
" rack or ratchet and catch to prevent it from returning 
" unless allowed by discharging the said catch." As set 
forth, the invention embraces a large number of pins, collars, 
bars, levers, and other mechanism, the combination of which 
will only be understood with the aid of the drawing annexed 
to the specification, the " preservers " not only serving to set 
free the horse or horses from the vehicle when desirable, but 
having also combined with them a " ladder " which will sup- 
port the shafts or pole of the carriage after the disengagement 
of the horse or horses therefrom. 
[Printed, 6d. Draiving.'] 

A.D. 1812, February 6.— No. 3536. 
PALMER, William. — Using rollers instead of wheels. These 
improvements relate to various applications of rollers in lieu 
of wheels. The rollers may extend from side to side, the 
whole width of the carriage, or they may be short and fitted 
in sets on each side of the vehicle they support. Each set of 
rollers, of either kind, supports a block or sledge fixed to the 
carriage. This block, which may be of wood or iron or both, 



138 CARRIAGES AJSTD OTHER VEHICLES 

presents a plane surface underneath and a curved top. The 
rollers in each set are linked together by chains or bars and 
as the vehicle progresses the rollers, after the block has passed 
over them, are picked np and pass over the block from the 
rear to the front and are deposited again on the ground for the 
block to pass over. G-uides are fitted to the block to keep the 
rollers in place, and the block is made hollow at the top so 
that dirt may fall off the rollers and be led away, by inclined 
planes. The rollers may be of wood or iron or both. The 
front sets may be made smaller to allow of their locking under 
the vehicle in turning. The shape of the block may be varied 
to suit the requirements of the traffic and carriage. 

One form of truck or carriage is shown, in which rollers pass 
from the rear completely over it to the front. This truck is 
very low and is intended for the carriage of heavy bodies, 
which may then be more easily loaded. 
[Printed, 7d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1812, July 28.— No. 3589. 

BELLINGHAM, John. — " Certain improvements in the 
<s make and construction of axletrees for all descriptions of 
" carriages." 

In this invention the arm of the axle is conical in form, but 
fixed in such a position that the lower side of the arm is hori- 
zontal. About midway of the arm is a broad groove, a passage 
in the arm leading from this groove to a reservoir formed in 
the shoulder of the arm, this reservoir being provided at the 
top with a valve, which may be lifted when a supply of oil is 
required in the reservoir, but which is kept closed at other 
times by a chain connected to a spiral spring. At the outer 
end of the arm is a screw thread for the reception of a nut, 
having a collar thereon by which the wheel is kept in its place 
upon the arm, this nut, as well as the screwed end of the arm, 
being slotted for the reception of a spring linch pin. The 
axle box is plain in the interior, and corresponds in form with 
the conical part of the arm, excepting that it is not grooved, 
the exterior being furnished with a screw thread by which it 
is secured in the nave of the wheel. 
[Printed, Sd. Drawing.'] 



FOR COMMON ROADS, 139 

A.D. 1812, November 26.— No. 3616. 
BRAMAH, Joseph. — " Certain improvements in the con. 
struction of various parts of wheeled carriages, one of which 
improvements is applicable to other machinery where a 
" rotary motion is necessary." 

According to the first part of this invention each wheel of 
a carriage has its own axle, and is fastened thereon in the 
manner in which a " chuck " is connected to the mandril of a 
common lathe, the axle revolving therewith, and working in 
double bearings," and being adjustable by a back centre 
screw in the same manner as a mandril. The " double bear- 
ings " consist of a front and a back bearing which are united 
together by means of an oil -tight cylinder, the internal dia- 
meter of which is larger than the diameter of that part of the 
axle which is within it, the cylinder being supplied with oil 
from an outside feeder, and the axle thus constantly running 
in oil. A modification of this part of the invention is described 
in which the wheels are both placed on the arms of one axle, 
the latter running in oil as mentioned above, the wheels being 
sufficiently tight upon the axle arms to revolve therewith 
under ordinary circumstances, but being capable of s ( moving 
" stiffly " thereon " when the stress of a sudden turn is felt," 
this arrangement being more especially applicable to two 
wheeled vehicles. 

Another part of the invention relates to improvements upon 
a former invention of the present patentee, and has reference 
to the construction of wheels. The rim consists of two flat 
rings of iron, placed outside felloes of wood, the rings forming 
the sides of the rim, and the spokes being shouldered, the 
shoulder of each spoke coming under the rings, and the heads 
of the spokes fitting tightly between the felloes, the whole 
being secured together by rivets. The fibres of the wood com- 
posing the felloes may, if desired, be arranged radially, and 
such a wheel may either be used without any tire or outer 
covering, or may be surrounded with leather, the wheel in 
either case running " mute." 

Another part of the invention relates to the application of 

pneumatic springs for carriages, the patentee stating that the 

details of this part of the invention may be varied, but that 

the most obvious method " and that which he purposes in 



140 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

most instances to adopt, ' ' is, tlae simple cylinder and piston 
" connected with an air vessel " from which the cylinder is 
^supplied with condensed air. He states, however, that he does 
not confine himself to any " precise apparatus," but rests his 
claim to novelty upon the " principle of employing air to useful 
" purposes instead of steel or other metal." 
[Printed, lid. JDrawing.~\ 

A.D. 1812, November 28.— No. 3618. 
ROGERS, Thomas. — Wheels. The spokes are first made of 
wrought iron in any convenient shape. Their outer ends are 
suitably prepared to receive a cast rim. This rim is cast with 
or without a central or inner ring of malleable iron, which 
may be attached to the spokes, and may be shod as are ordi- 
nary wooden wheels. As soon as the rim is cast and cold, the 
nave is cast round the inner ends of the spokes. This may be 
cast solid, or hollow with an oil cavity. It is completed by 
boring and turning or otherwise. 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1812, December 19.— No. 3627. 
HEFFER, George. — " An improvement in the construction 
" of four-wheel carriages." 

This invention consists mainly in the employment of a 
curved " brace " which passes from the front to the hind axle- 
tree, bolts connected to the ends of the brace passing through 
the axletrees, about midway of their length, and moving up 
and down by the play of the carriage springs, or the ends of 
the brace clasping and moving up and down upon bolts con- 
nected to the axletrees. 

The brace is curved so as somewhat to resemble in form the 
letter S, and is connected about midway of its length to the 
bottom of the carriage body. The bolts are covered by orna- 
mental worm springs, which work in unison with the ordinary 
bearing springs of the carriage, there being inside these worm 
springs certain short leather pipes, one capable of working up 
and down within another, and these pipes, along with certain 
metal plates, serving to prevent the access of dirt to the holes 
in the axletrees through which the bolts pass. An iron stay 
is fixed to the bolt which passes through the front axletree 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 141 

below the brace, "to prevent the pole from swagging," there 
being a joint in this bolt between the wheel plates, to prevent 
any " twist" on the carriage when the front wheels pass over 
uneven ground, that part of the bolt which is within the tran- 
sum being square, " to turn it as the carriage locks." There 
is also a joint in the hind bolt, " as near the head as possible, 
" to admit either of the hind springs to play separately as well 
" as both. together." 

[Printed, 5d. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1812, December 30.— No. 3632. 

CHAPMAN, William, and CHAPMAN, Edward Walton.— 
Working carriages by ropes, &c. This invention relates to a 
system of propulsion by means of a fixed rope, passing round 
a rotating drum on the carriage. The invention is described 
as chiefly applicable to railways, but its use on common roads 
is also claimed. The rope or chain, which is fixed at each end 
of its length, passes round a drum or pulley, worked by ma- 
chinery from the carriage. On each side of the drum or pulley 
is another pulley, attached to a lever, in such a way that by 
putting a weight over from one side to another, either pulley 
may press on the chain or rope and keep it in proper friction 
contact with the drum or pulley. At intervals in the road 
small upright V pieces are planted. These serve to hold the 
chain or rope and to preserve a sufficient length thereof tight, 
without the necessity for tightening up the whole. 

A system of tramway and common road upon which such a 
rope could be laid is described. 

The invention also relates to a method of supporting car- 
riages on a bogie, for the purpose of facilitating easy turning 
of curves. 

[Printed, Is. 2d. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1813, March 13.— No. 3665. 

KITTOE, Eoeinson. — " A double-coned revolving axle for 
" carriages." 

This invention consists in making axles for carriages " which 
" turn on their iron bearings at the same time that the wheel 
* ' turns on the arms, and in otherwise reducing the friction 



142 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

• ' ' by means of conical bearings on the outer and inner ends of 
" the arms." 

The axle is perfectly straight, " having both arms and 
" bearings turned on the same centers." The axle box is 
" chambered " for the reception of oil. At the outer end of 
each arm is a conical bearing, which is prevented from turning 
by means of a groove in the cone and a feather on the arm, or 
by a steady-pin in a washer which, along with a nut, is em- 
ployed to prevent longitudinal movement of the axle in the 
box, the whole being enclosed by a cap which is screwed upon 
the outer end of the box, and prevents the escape of oil from 
the latter. The axle itself works in a bearing which consists 
of a brass gudgeon secured by bolts within a pedestal or bed, 
such bolts also serving to connect the bearing to a spring or 
stay iron, a hole furnished with a screw plug serving to admit 
oil to the bearing when necessary. As already intimated the 
axle arms are conical at both the inner and outer ends, this 
part of the arrangement aiding in keeping the wheel box 
steady, as well as reducing the amount of friction which would 
otherwise be created. 

{Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1813, May 22.— No. 3700. 
BRUNTON, William. — Propelling carriages. Upon the car- 
riage there is fitted a steam or other engine, which by means 
of a series of levers, acts upon two or more props or legs fitted 
with feet, in such a manner that the latter by pressing against 
the ground after the manner of " the motion of a man's legs 
" in walking " pushes or propels the carriage. The feet are 
fitted to the legs or props by means of such joints as will 
enable them readily to conform to the nature of the ground. 

The invention is also described as applicable to railway and 
tramway purposes, and may operate through racks or ropes 
or otherwise. 

[Printed, 7d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1813, June 29.— No. 3713. 
WILKS, Chables. — " Certain improvements on naves of 
wheels for carriages, and for centres of wheels for ma- 
" chinery for various purposes." 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 143 

In this invention the nave of a carriage or other wheel is in 
the first place formed of wood or metal, there being recesses 
formed in one side of the nave for the reception of the inner 
ends of the spokes, these being then secured in their places 
by a collar of metal or other material which is connected to 
the nave by bolts or screws. The recesses for the reception 
of the spokes are wider at the outer than at the inner ends, 
(t which gives what workmen call a good drift for tightening 
" the spokes on the flat sides," this being performed (by 
preference) by drawing the collar tightly against the spokes 
by means of six long temporary bolts, which are afterwards 
removed one by one and others substituted for them. The 
spokes may also be of dovetail form at the inner ends, so as 
to prevent them from being drawn out of the nave, and be 
bevilled in accordance with the amount of dish or splay 
required in them, the collars being of forms adapted thereto. 

The patentee recommends that in naves of wheels for mail 
coaches or gentlemen's carriages, where neatness is requisite, 
a circular moulding be cast round the inner end of the nave, 
" in which moulding the heads of the bolts may be counter- 
c * sunk and turned in by the head" a similar moulding being 
cast on the outside of the collar, " and a female screw cut 
' ' through on that part, by which method the bolts will not 
" be visible," 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1813, August 25.— No. 3733. 

HANCOCK, John.— " Improvement in the construction of 
" carriages, and in the application of a material hitherto 
" unused in the construction thereof." 

The ' ' hitherto unused " material is whalebone, which the 
patentee applies " partially or more particularly." The circum- 
ferences of the wheels are formed of ash or other timber, and 
are bound with iron. The spokes are of whalebone, " fastened 
" into by mortice and tennon, or by passing the tennon quite 
" through the mortice, divided as tho' for wedging, and 
" turning each half contrary wise down upon the wood on the 
" outside, and nailing or otherwise fastening it. The nave 
" or box is of cast brass or other metal. The axle is iron, 



144 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" and has a collar on it, in the centre of which a groove is 
" turned. This collar just enters the back part of the box, 
" on the outside of which a groove is turned," with a mortice 
through on each side exactly opposite to the groove in the axle. 
Round the groove in the box two springs are fastened, with 
a bolt or catch formed on the end of each, something resembling 
those in a common door lock. These bolts go through the 
mortice in the box into the groove in the collar on the axle, 
and are kept down into this groove by the springs. On the out- 
side of the bolts is made a hoop with which to pull them up when 
the wheel is to be taken off. About half way across is turned 
another groove, wide enough to admit the spokes, across 
which groove pieces of iron are let in, under " which the 
" spokes are passed, so that one piece of bone forms the two 
" spokes. An iron collar is then put on each side of them 
" upon the box, which fastens the ends of all the iron cross 
" pieces, and thus these fix the spokes in the box. When 
" the spokes are thus fixed into the wood or circumference 
" and into the boxes each two of them that are formed of 
" one piece of bone are then braced together as tight as 
" possible, in the manner drums are strained, only with 
" iron clips and rivets. The wheels are pushed on the axle, 
" and are fastened by the springs pressing the bolts into the 
" groove in the axle, as before described. The carriage is 
" made much in the same manner they are generally, only 
" in gigs a piece of whalebone is put between the iron under 
" the shafts to prevent their breaking, and whalebone is 
" otherwise introduced to strengthen or brace the carriage, 
** as may appear necessary in the different forms or on which 
" they may be constructed. The springs are made of steel, 
" with bone round, under, or upon them, to prevent their 
" breaking, or of whalebone entirely, their form also depend- 
" ing on the different construction of the carriages. The 
" body has no other novelty than the occasional introduction 
" of whalebone, their form depending upon individual fancy 
" or convenience, or the variation of public taste. The 
" heads, hoods, or roofs are composed of cotton, silk or 
" leather, with whalebone, iron, steel, cane, or wood, to 
" strain or raise them, constructed much in the usual way, 
" but subject, like the bodies, to different methods to make 



FOR COMMON BOADS. 145 

" them lighter or stronger, &c.," the details of the invention 
being all capable of variation. 

[Printed, 3c?. No Drawings.] 



A.D. 1813, November 9.— No. 3749. 
WILKS, Charles. — " A method of constructing four-wheeled 
" carriages of all descriptions, whereby a facility of turning 
" is obtained without having recourse to the usual mode of 
" having what is called locks, or having any necessity for 
ts keeping the fore wheels of such carriages lower than the 
" hinder wheels usually, or raising the bodies of such 
" carriages higher than usual." 

In this invention both the fore and the hind axletree of a 
four-wheeled vehicle are so arranged as to turn upon centre 
pins, these pins being connected to the " centre joist " of the 
bed of a waggon, for example, or the perch of a coach or other 
carriage. To each axletree case are attached two curved iron 
bars, one being near each end of such case, the bars of each 
axle pointing towards each other and forming in fact portions 
of a circle radiating from the centre pin of the axletree. 
Passing between the curved bars of the front and those of the 
hind axle are diagonal rods, crossing each other, the ends of 
the rods being furnished with chains which work upon the 
curved bars, the ends of the chains being firmly secured to 
the axletree cases, and the patentee states that by these 
arrangements "the fore and hind wheels will lock at the 
" same time, reverse to each other, and consequently the 
" carriage turn in nearly half the circle it would do if the 
" fore wheels only were to lock as in the common way." He 
also states that these arrangements render bolsters unnecessary 
in the construction of waggons although they will still be 
required in coaches and other similar carriages. 
[Printed, hd. Drmving.~] 

A.D. 1813, December 20.— No. 3770. 
SPRATLEY, William. — "An improvement in the axletree 
of wheels for carriages of different descriptions." 

This invention relates to a combination of parts for securing 
wheels upon their axles, but in such manner as to admit of 
any desired amount of end play of the wheels, the oil being 



146 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

securely confined, or as to prevent escape and waste of such 
oil, and other advantages being mentioned as arising from 
the invention. 

The arm of the axle is much thicker near the inner end 
than elsewhere, and at the outer end is turned down to a 
small diameter, there being at the end of the small part, 
however, a knob or button, which is embraced by the inner 
parts of clamps or clips of case-hardened iron or other suitable 
metal, there being through the outer parts of these clamps 
holes for the reception of a linch pin, which at its head screws 
into the wheel box, and is prevented from rising by a cap ; 
this pin securing] the clamps to the box and so preventing the 
wheel from leaving the axle. The cap screws upon the outer 
end of the box, and has a hole therein, furnished with a 
stopper, through which hole oil may be introduced into the 
cap for the lubrication of the parts, a washer of leather being 
placed between the cap and a shoulder of the box to prevent 
the escape of such oil. The inner part of the wheel box is 
furnished with an internal shoulder which bears against the 
shoulder formed by the junction of the thicker with the 
smaller part of the axle arm, and beyond this the box 
embraces the thicker part of the axle, there being within this 
part of the box an " annular cavity" for the reception of oil, 
and the latter being prevented from escaping by the intro- 
duction of a leather collar into a recess in the inner end of 
the box, a collar of metal being finally screwed into the 
recess to keep the leather collar in its place, and the inner 
part of the box being surrounded and working within a 
" cutter or dirt hoop," fixed upon the axle. The latter is 
made of wrought or cast iron, case hardened or otherwise, 
and a longitudinal groove may be formed in the axle, or in 
the box, to aid in the circulation of oil. 

In order to allow of end play to the wheel the holes through 
the clamps mentioned above are made oblong, thus allowing 
the clamps to move endway in the box " to an extent determined 
" by the length of the hole." Or a screw thread may be cut 
upon the outer part of the clamps, and a collar or ferrule, 
which the patentee terms a regulator, may be screwed upon 
such part to a certain distance, a variation of such distance 
causing variation in the end play of the wheel, the position 
of the regulator being varied by means of a circular plate 



FOR COMMON" ROADS. 147 

provided with prongs, and haying a head which passes 
through the cap of the box, and by means of which it may 
be turned round; a screw with a " flanch head" being so 
arranged as to determine the extreme point to which the 
regulator may be unscrewed. These arrangements may be 
varied, in some cases a ferrule or collar supplying the place 
of clamps, the button being secured to the end of the axle by 
screwing, or by a collar or ring and a nut. The invention 
includes "the application of the cup leathers used in pumps 
" to axletrees of any kind," to prevent the escape of oil. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing."] 

A J). 1814, March 12.— No. 3789. 

BARCLAY, James, and CUMING, William.—" Improved 
" wheels and axletrees for carriages." 

In this invention the nave of the wheel is composed of cast 
iron, brass, bell metal, or any other suitable material, the 
mortices for the spokes being wider at the bottom than at 
the top, and wedges being inserted into the lower ends of 
the spokes before they are driven into the mortices, such 
wedges causing the ends of the spokes to assume a dovetail 
form as the spokes are driven inwards, and so securing them 
in the- nave. The body of each spoke is also bevilled at the 
shoulder, and the mortices formed to receive such bevilled 
part, this adding to the strength of the spokes. Into the 
front part of the nave are inserted two linch pins, which 
work in a groove formed near the end of the axle arm, a 
plate of metal which fits the nave being so arranged as 
to prevent the pins from rising. Before the wheel is 
placed on the axle arm a "hind cap" is placed agaiust the 
shoulder collar of the axle, and a "cap collar" is then 
screwed against such shoulder collar. A ring of leather is 
then placed between the cap collar and the hind part of the 
nave, to prevent the escape of oil, and the hind cap is screwed 
against a flange on the nave, and revolves with it, this 
arrangement aiding the linch pins in keeping the wheel on 
the axle arm. A front cap is screwed against a flange in the 
front part of the nave, another ring of leather being between 
the cap and that flange, and there is an opening in the cap 
which is furnished with a screw plug, but which may be 



148 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

opened for the admission of oil when necessary, such oil 
passing to the arm of the axle, in which is a broad groove 
for its reception and distribution. 
[Printed, bd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1814, April 7.— No. 3801. 

ROBERTS, Joseph. — "An apparatus intended to be used for 
" map rollers and carriage blinds, and other similar objects." 
According to this invention a carriage or other blind, or 
any similar article, is mounted upon a roller at one end of 
which is a pinion which revolves therewith, this pinion being 
in gear with a spur wheel which on being turned in one 
direction winds up or charges a spiral spring. To the cloth 
of the blind or other article a cord is attached, having at its 
lower end a tassel, and by pulling at this cord the blind is 
drawn down, the roller being thus turned and winding up 
the spring, the latter being prevented from reacting so as 
again to wind up the blind until required to do so by means 
of a ratchet wheel connected to the pinion at the end of the 
roller, and a catch or pawl which acts upon the teeth of 
the ratchet. The blind may thus be drawn down to any 
desired extent, and will remain in that position until it is 
desired again to raise it, when by pulling at a cord connected 
with the catch or pawl and so liberating it from the ratchet 
wheel, the wound up spring, being no longer restrained, 
unwinds, and by turning round the spur wheel and con- 
sequently the pinion and roller rapidly winds up the blind. 
The spring and wheel as well as the pinion and ratchet, are 
enclosed in a suitable case or box, along with a spring which 
presses the pawl against the ratchet wheel, one form of box 
being set forth as specially adapted for a coach blind. 
[Printed, Sd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1814, April 9.— No. 3802. 

WHITFIELD, William.— " Certain improvements in car- 
" riages." 

According to this invention a carriage wheel is furnished 
with a nave of cast metal, the outer end of which is solid and 
requires no cap. The inner part of the axletree, beyond the 



FOR COMMON EOADS. 149 

arm, is " sexagonal," and upon the arm is placed a "screwed 
" collar," the back part of which is also tl sexagonal," and a 
second and larger collar being placed upon this portion and 
there secured by a screw or screws. Inside the inner part 
of the nave is a screw thread for the reception of the screwed 
part of the collar first mentioned, there being a reces3 in one 
part of this collar into which a " step" enters which projects 
from a solid collar formed upon the arm of the axle, a leather 
washer being placed between the two, the result of this 
part of the arrangement being that the inner part of the 
nave is securely closed up. In the collar on the arm of the 
axle is a groove, and in that part of the nave which surrounds 
it is a corresponding groove, an opening leading from this 
groove to the exterior of the nave through which oil may 
be introduced, the grooves serving to distribute such oil in 
the interior of the nave, a recess being formed in the arm 
and a cavity in the outer part of the nave serving as reservoirs 
for oil. The interior of the nave may be "sexagonal" in the 
part which works upon the axle arm, or the arm may be 
slightly flattened in two or three places, in order further to 
aid in the circulation of the oil, the collar on the axle being 
undercut for the same purpose. 

Different modifications of the invention are described, 
collars of various kinds being set forth as applicable in place 
of those first mentioned, other minor details being varied 
according to circumstances. In the nave are mortices for 
the reception of the inner ends of the spokes, such mortices 
being either formed with parallel sides, or widest at the 
bottom, in which case the spokes are made to dovetail in 
the mortices by the introduction of wedges into the latter 
upon which the spokes are driven. Or wrought iron or steel 
spokes may be driven or screwed into the nave instead of 
wooden spokes. 

" Boxes upon this principle may be made for wood naves, 
" or they may be made to fit into metallic naves, and there 
" secured by screwing or bolting them into each other/' and 
the " principle " of the invention is also applicable to 
machinery in general. 

[Printed, bd. Drawing.] 



150 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1814, April 27.— No. 3804. 
GOMPERTZ, Lewis.— Substitute for wheels. The inventor 
employs "legs or feet to support the carriage when they are 
beneath it ; and upon them it advances for a certain distance, 
during which time the feet are stationary on the ground, 
till succeeding legs, being brought forward to support and 
advance the carriage in turn, and the legs which have 
performed their office are brought forward to repeat their 
action. The wheels, or substitutes for wheels, each con- 
sists of four radii or legs revolving on a centre or axletree 
in the usual situation, which radii have a power of extension 
and contraction in right lines to and from their common 
centre ; and by means of certain curves " or cams " they 
contract and extend in such a law (during the period that 
they are in contact with the road) so as to support and 
advance the centre always at the same height." 
Similar results are obtained by the use of wheels placed 
under the carriage frame at a slight angle with the horizon, so 
that the legs which are attached to these wheels only bear on 
the ground at intervals. The carriage bears on the horizon- 
tally disposed wheels through the medium of friction rollers, 
and if the bearing surface of the wheels be undulated, there 
will be no rising and falling in the carriage as the feet come 
into contact with the ground. In all these cases the ends of 
the feet are fitted with little wheels, so that the carriage is 
able to move sideways if necessary. 

The invention also relates to an axle in which the bearing of 
the nave of the wheel is upon a conical surface at the inner 
side of the nave, the end of the axletree being pointed and 
working in a screw cap to the nave. 

Instead of cogwheels for communicating motion, the inven- 
tor makes use of a wheel having disposed on its side a number 
of pins fitted with friction rollers, which work in radially 
curved grooves on the side of another wheel." 
[Printed, Is. bd. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1814, June 18.— No. 3817. 
TINDALL, Thomas. — "Propelling carriages." The greater 
part of this specification is occupied by the description of 
a steam engine applicable to various purposes, the abridg- 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 151 

ment of which description appertains to another series. This 
engine is also described as applied to the propulsion of 
vehicles. It is supplemented by a species of windmill which 
supplies the motive power to the economy of steam when 
there is wind. The exhaust is discharged through this mill 
and thereby assists to turn it. There may also be a "steam 
" wheel " or rotary steam engine to work the wheels. The 
furnace is fed with coke by preference, which is made in a 
retort, part of the apparatus. The gas may be used for light- 
ing or assisting the fire. Blowers are also fitted. The engine 
drives the vehicle by means of pushers worked by cranks or 
levers. One carriage is supported on five wheels, the single 
wheel being in front for steering purposes. The steering lever 
may be pressed down when desired upon the wheel periphery 
and so act as a brake. A carriage body having a door at the 
end may be supported by the hind wheels. Another form of 
vehicle described is on three wheels, the leading wheel being 
used for steering. This is worked by a modification of the 
former plan. This carriage is also shown as having scythes 
fitted to it, for cutting grass and corn, and also ploughs. 
[Printed, Is. 2d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1814, June 25.— No. 3818. 

MABEELY, John, and BAEEOW, John.— "A method of 
" securing carriage glasses." 

This invention is intended to prevent the removal of car- 
riage glasses <s by stealth or otherwise/' and consists " in the 
" application of a lever bolt connected with the hinge of the 
* ' carriage door, by which means the glass frame is bolted in 
* e whenever the door is opened, and cannot be taken out but 
if by unscrewing the apparatus from the carriage." 

The invention is minutely described, but the main feature 
thereof is the employment of the " lever bolt " mentioned 
above, which, however, is not connected directly with the 
hinge of the carriage door, but is moved in one direction by a 
sliding bolt, which moves in bearings formed in or connected 
to the hinge, and in the other direction by a spring. The 
" lever bolt " is placed upon a fulcrum inside a case fixed in 
the frame of the carriage door, the bolt being in a nearly 
vertical position, but its lower end being bent into a horizon- 



152 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

tal position so as to enter a notch, or recess in the frame of the 
glass, towards which it is constantly pressed by a spring, 
being withdrawn from the notch when the door is closed by 
the end of the sliding bolt pressing against the upper part of 
the lever bolt, in which is a notch for its reception, the sliding 
bolt being then forced forward by a piece of steel placed for 
the purpose, but such sliding bolt leaving the piece of steel 
and setting the lever bolt at liberty when the door is opened, 
the latter bolt then securing the glass frame. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1814, July 26.— No. 3827. 
DONCASTER, William.— "Easing the draught and accele- 
" rating the motion," 

The improvements included in this specification relate to 
various subjects. A method of " breaking the ruggedness of 
" uneven roads" by means of "hydrostatic power acting 
" horizontally, when any shock takes place " is mentioned but 
is not further described. 

For accelerating velocity, the front and main wheels of a 
carriage are worked together by bands. ' ' The fore wheel has 
" generally not only two revolutions to one to make in com- 
" parison with the hind wheel, but has to act as pioneer into 
" the bargain. This then resolves some of the power of the 
" great wheel into the velocity of the smaller one." 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1815, February 21.— No'. 3886. 

BURRELL, Joseph. — An invention " to be used as a support 
" and safeguard in getting in and out of chaises, curricles, 
" and other two-wheeled carriages." 

This invention consists of "an iron or brass support or 
" guard, a foot or more or less in length, and of proper size 
" and form for the hand to bear upon, to be placed above the 
" rim of the wheels of chaises, curricles, or other two-wheeled 
carriages, in such a position as to be used as a support in 
4 * in getting in and out, and a guard to prevent the wheel 
" turning against the hand, as there will be no occasion to 
" bear upon the wheel, as is frequently done in getting in 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 153 

i( and out. This guard is to be placed above the wheels at 
" such a distance as on no occasion to touch the wheels, nor 
" the soil hanging upon the wheels ; it is supported at one 
" end by a strong iron going across the shafts or frame of the 
" chaise, curricle, or other two-wheeled carriages, and at the 
" other end by an iron fastened to the body of the said chaise, 
" curricle, or other two-wheeled carriage, forming when fixed 
" a support and guard, and making it much more safe, easy, 
" and convenient to get in and out of chaises, curricles, and 
" other two -wheeled carriages than it otherwise would be." 
[Printed, '3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1815, April 29.— ISTo. 3911. 

BUSH, William, the younger. — " Invented method for pre- 
" venting accidents from horses falling with two- wheel 
" carriages, especially on steep declivities, superior to any 
" hitherto known or in use." 

This invention relates to an apparatus which is made of 
iron or other suitable metal or material, and which the 
patentee denominates " a sledge or sliding sole, or a safety 
" wheel (when a wheel is attached thereto)," this apparatus 
much resembling in form an ordinary shoe, being turned up 
at one or both ends to prevent it from burying itself in the 
road, and being from three to four inches broad, and from 
eight to twelve inches long. In the upper part of the sledge 
are pivot holes, and through these holes are passed pivots 
which also pass through back and. fore braces, these thus 
becoming jointed thereto at their lower ends, the back brace 
proceeding backwards in a diagonal direction, and being fur- 
nished with catches at the upper part which may any of them be 
locked into an eye attached to the middle of the axle, and the 
height of the sledge be thus adjusted ; such adjustment being, 
however, if preferred, effected by means of a pin passing through 
a hole in the brace, of which a number may be formed. To 
the upper end of this brace a ring is fastened, and when the 
apparatus is not required to act it is held up by a hook upon 
which this ring is passed. The fore braces pass forward in a 
diagonal direction and are connected at their upper ends, by 
means of screws or other suitable fastenings to the shafts of 
the~vehicle. If desired, the apparatus may be provided with 



154 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

small wheels, upon which it will ran when in action instead 
of sliding on the ground. 

[Printed, 9cl. Drawings."] 



A.D, 1815, May 11.— No. 3913. 

PITT, Charles. — "The method or methods for the security 
" and safe convey ance of small parcels, and remittances of 
" property of every description, and also for security in the 
" formation and appendage of shoes." 

That part of the invention which relates to the security and 
safe conveyance of small parcels and remittances of property 
consists, says the patentee, in " making one or more of the seats 
" of mail and other coaches to form a box or case from which a 
' ' drawer is to slide, opening through the pannel on the outside 
" of the coach, in which drawer may be deposited as many 
1 ( different boxes as may be required. This drawer to be supplied 
" with a good lock and keys, one 6f the keys to be kept in 
" London, and another by each of the persons in trust, who on 
" the arrival of the coach can take the moveable box out of 
" the drawer belonging to that town, and in its place to put 
' ' the one to be forwarded from thence. All this may be done 
" with a facility equal to the changing of post bags. Neither 
" the guard, coachman, nor passengers have controul over the 
" parcels, as by means of an iron bar at the top of the coach, 
" reaching to the back, with a spring exactly perpendicular 
" to the centre of the said drawer, which top bar communi- 
" cates with two perpendicular bars reaching to the bottom of 
" the said drawer at the centre part thereof. The top bar has 
" at the back of the coach a hasp and staple, which are 
'" secured by a padlock, the key of which is under the control 
" of the guard, and which, until he releases, no person even 
" with the key can open the drawer." 

As regards remittances in particular, the invention consists 
in the preparation of sheets of paper, which may be stamped 
or otherwise printed in the manner set out in the specification. 

Another part of the invention relates to forming the shoes 
of horses so as to enable them to travel with safety in either 
frosty or other weather. 

[Printed, &d. Drawing.] 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 155 



A.D. 1815, June 14— No. 3927. 

POPE, William. — " Certain improvements in or on wheeled 
" carriages, and also the method or methods of making the 
{t said carriages go with or without the assistance of animals, 
" which method or methods may be applied to other pur- 
" poses." 

This invention, which is very imperfectly described, consists 
in the first place in an arrangement by which the body of a 
cart may be tipped backwards for the purpose of unloading, 
the apparatus employed consisting of a rack which is jointed 
at one end to one of the timbers of the lower frame of the 
cart, and which is moved to and fro by means of certain racks 
and pinions mounted upon shafts which are supported in 
bearings connected to the shafts of the cart, and turned by 
means of a winch. To the front parts of the ordinary shafts 
other shafts are connected, the latter being jointed to a curved 
piece which passes across the former, and the patentee men- 
tions that the racks and gearing will move the body of the 
vehicle " forward or backward on the shaft/' and that by 
means of the additional shafts " the effect is extended to the 
" rest of the team," but how these results are to be produced is 
by no means apparent. According to another part of the 
invention the wheels of a vehicle have pinions fixed to their 
naves which give motion to certain horizontal wheels, the 
latter being employed to wind up springs-, the reaction of 
which may be made use of to move the vehicle either back- 
wards or forwards, the horizontal wheels being upon a move- 
able vertical axis, by changing the position of which either of 
the horizontal wheels may be brought into action. In this 
part of the invention the main shafts of the vehicle (of which 
there are two pairs) are provided, at the parts at which they 
are connected to the fore carriage, with adjusting screws by 
which the weight upon the horses' backs may be regulated, 
and on the perch is a spring which is apparently meant to 
sustain the body of the vehicle, a roller being also connected 
with the perch, the object of which is " to keep the fore carriage 
li up when the adjusting screws are pressed down." 
[Printed, Sd. Drawings.'] 



156 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1815, November 14.— No. 3958. 
MORTON, George. — " A mode of attaching horses to carriages 
" and all other four wheeled carriages." 

This invention relates to all kinds of vehicles, " either with 
" wheels or without wheels," which are applicable to the 
transport from place to place of either passengers or mer- 
chandise. The invention consists "in reversing to a certain 
' ' degree what has hitherto been the practice in respect of 
" working or removing loads or weighty substances by means 
" of carriages; " "and in cases where animal power is to be 
" used, instead of placing all the animal power before the 
" load" a certain proportion of it is placed " in shafts behind 
" the carriages, and in some instances, namely, when the 
" portion of the upper part of a load overhangs behind and 
" above the head of the animal or animals placed in the shafts 
' * behind, a part of the load will necessarily be above or over 
" part of the power or animal or animals that may be placed 
" in such shafts. When the animal power is to be derived 
" from a horse or horses or other animals of similar or nearly 
" similar height and proportions the said shafts, whether for 
" one or two such animals, are to be attached to the hind part 
" of the carriage, however denominated or constructed, in 
" such manner as to produce, by the exertions of the horse or 
" horses, or of such other animal or animals as may be placed 
" within and attached to the shafts, a propelling influence 
" acting on the hinder part of the carriage, whether with or 
" without any load or burthen beyond its own weight. Hence, 
" the invention is distinguished by the name of propelling 
" shafts." 

The patentee states that there is nothing new in the mDde 
of attaching the propelling shafts to carriages, and that such 
mode must necessarily be determined by the construction and 
form and other particulars of the carriage to which the shafts 
are to be connected. He mentions, however, that before 
connecting such shafts to a four-wheeled carriage a " moving 
" bar" must be attached to the head piece by means of 
thimbles and eyes or some other kind of hinges, an iron pin 
passing through the middle of this bar ; this pin being called 
the " shaft pin " and with some minor details, serving to 
connect the propelling shaft to the carriage. 



FOB COMMON EOADS. 157 

"Yarious other methods of attaching the propelling shafts 
" to a carriage, besides that above described, will occur to 
" many persons, and. each will adopt that which may appear to 
li be most suitable to his particular case and convenience." 
[Printed, 4d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1816, January 9.— No. 3973. 
BEYNOLDS, Joseph. — Propelling carriages, &c. This in- 
vention relates to the propulsion of vehicles by steam ma- 
chinery. To the wheels are attached other toothed wheels 
which are driven by toothed gearing from the engine shaft. 
Each toothed wheel is capable of being thrown in and out of 
gear by means of clutch apparatus, so that turning may be 
facilitated, and for further facilitating turning a small toothed 
pinion is so disposed on a shaft between the main toothed 
wheels, that upon one wheel being disconnected from the 
driving gear and the other wheel being driven, the former 
and disconnected wheel is caused to turn in the reverse 
direction. 

The main wheels of the carriage may be more properly 
called rollers, being very wide. A third wheel runs in front 
of the carriage. Both the main wheels may be disconnected 
from the driving gear if desired. The boiler is supported on 
an axis, so as to be always horizontal. 
[Printed, Is. Id. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1816, Eebuary 10.— No. 3982. 
MILTON, William. — t( Certain improvements upon the 
" wheels and perches of carriages." 

This invention consists " in making the lock of a four- 
" wheel carriage as practicable with wheels however high 
" before as it is with the low wheels now commonly used, and 
' * in making such high wheels more capable of enduring violent 
" shocks than by the present mode of making they would 
" be." 

An arrangement is described in which the hind body of a 
carriage or other vehicle is mounted upon a pair of wheels the 
axle of which apparently passes through the body at some 
distance from the bottom, there being connected to the top of 
this body an upper and to the bottom of the body a lower 



158 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

perch, these perches extending forward, and these being near 
the front end of such a bolt hole. The fore part of the body 
of the vehicle is represented as being similar to the hind body, 
and mounted upon wheels of the same size, a perch bolt 
passing vertically through the middle of this body and having 
its upper and lower ends inserted into the holes in the perches 
already mentioned ; or instead of a long perch bolt an upper 
and a lower pin may be used. By this arrangement the fore 
carriage locks with ease, although upon large wheels, a stop 
or check is so arranged as to prevent the retiring wheels 
from touching either of the perches. In forming these high 
wheels a wooden nave has in the first place as many flat faces 
or planes formed along its length as there are meant to be 
spokes in the wheel. Each spoke is composed of planking or 
framing which tapers in breadth from the nave to the felly, 
and at the inner end of each spoke is a piece of wood the inner 
face of which corresponds with one of the faces of the nave, 
while at the outer end of the spoke is a larger piece of wood, 
the outer part of which is curved to correspond with a portion 
of the interior of the felly, to which it is fastened, the piece of 
wood at the inner end of the spoke being fastened to one of the 
faces of the nave, the sides of such piece being so bevilled 
inwards that the piece attached to one spoke fits closely to the 
sides of the pieces next to it, the whole circumference of the 
nave being thus occupied, and the pieces of the different 
spokes contributing " to keep each other well in their places/' 
{Printed, hd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1816, March 2.— ISTo. 3986.. 

TURRILL, Erancis. — ' ' A new or improved wheel guard." 

This invention consists in the application of a shield or 
guard over part of the periphery of a wheel " for the purpose 
" of preventing dirt upon the tire of the wheel soiling the 
" clothes of laidies or other persons in getting in or out of the 
" carriage " with which the wheel is connected. This shield 
or guard may be composed of one piece, or of two, three, or 
more pieces connected by folding joints, sliders, or other suit- 
able means which will allow of such pieces being opened 
out or unfolded when it is necessary to apply the guard to 
the wheel, and such piece may be formed of light iron or any 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 159 

other kind of framing covered with leather, velvet, cloth, or 
such materials as are usually employed in lining or covering 
carriages. This guard may moreover be made to fold upon 
joints or hinges of any suitable construction, or be connected 
with slides " to draw out at the option," a convenient method 
for close carriages being mentioned in which the guard is 
connected by joints or hinges to the steps, and folded up within 
such steps. In the case of a curricle wheel guards may be 
affixed either to the shafts or to any other part of the vehicle, 
and be made to fold and unfold, or to slide, as may be thought 
most convenient. 

[Printed, hd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1816, March 14— No. 3991. 
STEAD, John. — f ' A stage coach or other coach or carriage 
" for the carrying of passengers, and lighter and more com- 
" modious than usual ; that is to say, for the carrying of four 
" or more inside passengers, and also six, eight, ten, or more 
" outside passengers with greater safety than those now in 
" use carrying the same number of passengers." 

The leading features of this invention consist in placing the 
seats for the outside passengers so much lower than usual that 
the passengers are thereby carried more safely, such passengers 
being only separated from the inside passengers by the front 
of the body of the coach ; in an arrangement of lockers for 
luggage under the seats for the outside passengers ; and an 
arrangement relative to the boot of the vehicle. 

The vehicle is composed in the first place of a lower frame 
which is nearly oval in form, the ends only being straight for 
a portion of the distance through which they extend, and the 
frame being provided with a number of mortice holes for the 
reception of the lower ends of pillars which form part of the 
skeleton of the body of the carriage, such skeleton being 
enclosed by pannels of sheet iron or other metal which have 
been beaten into form in moulds. The whole body of the 
vehicle embraces a raised front seat for the driver and others, 
behind and lower than which is an open part furnished with 
seats, and resembling the body of an open carriage, being 
furnished with doors at the sides if desired, there being 
behind this again an enclosed part for inside passengers, 
furnished with windows at the sides, an opening in front, and 



160 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

a door behind. There is a boot under the front seat for the 
reception of luggage, provided with a suitable door. Under 
the seats in the open part of the vehicle are lockers, also for 
the reception of luggage, and suitable steps are arranged for 
convenience of access to different parts of the vehicle. The 
invention includes a mode of oiling the wheels of the vehicle 
which consists in connecting an oil box to the bed of each 
axletree near to the nave of each wheel, a pipe leading from 
this box through a part of the bed and to a groove in the arm 
of the axle from which it is distributed over the arm. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1816, May 4— No. 4022. 
BANKS, Richard. — Hanging vehicles and facilitating draught. 
Part of this invention relates to an improved construction of 
waggon. The hind wheels are larger than usual, and the 
perch, instead of being in its usual position, is replaced by two 
perches, one on each side, the body of the waggon being 
between them and hanging as near the ground [as possible. 
Springs are attached to these perches and from these springs 
the waggon is suspended by slings. The shafts are attached 
to the body and not to the axletree. A pin connects the shafts 
with the framing attached to the fore wheels, by which means 
.they are guided. Carts are similarly hung on springs with 
large wheels, but they move backwards and forwards as next 
described. 

The second part of the invention relates to gigs and other 
two wheeled vehicles. They are so constructed that the 
bodies are capable of being moved forward or backward, on 
the wheel frames or shafts, as the inequality of the ground may 
require. The horse, in one case draws directly upon the body, 
so that the latter moves forward on inqlined planes on the 
wheel framing ; but on the horse ceasing to draw, the weight 
goes back on to the springs. Instead of rollers and inclined 
planes, there may be racks and pinions. Modifications of the 
system are shown. 

The improvements also comprise a wheel with steel spokes 
set at angles in an iron nave. A spring axletree, which is 
elastic under heavy pressure is also described. 
[Printed, Is. 9d. Drawings.] 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 161 

A.D. 1816, June 20.— No. 4042. 
BURNETT, John. — "A convolving iron axletree for the re- 
' ' duction of friction and animal labour, by the application of 
" which wheels of carriages of every description are prevented 
" from coming off whilst travelling and carriages are drawn 
11 with less animal labour." 

In this invention the axles "are made of wrought iron in 
" two parts or arms, with two metal or other bearings, or 
" otherwise with metal tubes or boxes to be attached to the 
" pillar of any carriages by bolts and screws or iron hoops, or 
" by any other suitable method." The naves of the wheels 
are of cast iron, or any other suitable material, each nave 
having an axle arm fixed or made fast thereto by means of a 
bolt or otherwise. " The axle arms are made as long as the 
breadth of the carriage will admit, so that the screws in the 
end of the boxes do not touch in the centre ; the longer the 
arm the less the friction and more steady the carriage. The 
bearing is but three inches (more or less) near the shoulder, 
and two inches (more or less) at the small end ; this must 
be guided by the width of the carriage. The middle space 
of the arm runs clear from any friction, and does not touch 
the box or tube. At the end of the tube or bearing is a 
screw that forces a piece of cast steel or any other hard 
substance against the arm itself, by which means the friction 
at the back of the nave of the wheel and the box or tube or 
bearing is dispensed with. At the end of the tube or box is 
a screw hole for supplying the axle with oil." 
The bearings of the axle are represented in one of the 
figures of a drawing annexed to the Specification as being 
connected by means of bolts and hoops to a wooden case. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1816, November 1.— No. 4079. 
SNOWDEN, William. — "A new or improved apparatus or 
" machine to be attached or applied to carriages to prevent 
" their being overturned." 

In this invention a pendulum has at its upper end a cross 

bar, near the ends of which are pins, which, during the 

ordinary working of the carriage, support certain levers 

against the ends of which rest the upper ends of other levers, 

G 239. f 



162 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

there being connected to the latter certain chains which pass 
partially around certain pulleys placed to receive them, and 
which chains are also connected to certain " projectors/' the 
the latter consisting of bars which each carry at its lower end 
a wheel or pulley. The result of this arrangement is, that on 
the body of the carriage being thrown to a certain degree out 
of the perpendicular, the pendulum by its movements liberates 
one of the levers to which the chains attached to the projectors 
are connected, that projector then immediately passing dia- 
gonally downwards, and bringing the wheel or pulley at its 
lower end into contact with the ground, thus preventing the 
carriage from being overturned. In order to sustain the 
projector in its action it is furnished with ratchet teeth, with 
which, on its descent, a click or catch engages, thus preventing 
the return of the projector until requisite. Instead of a wheel 
the projection may be furnished with a piece of metal in the 
form of a crescent, and suitable arrangements are made for 
the purpose of restoring the parts into their original position 
after being in use. The projector is described as being com- 
bined with the " step bars," additional or perpendicular bars 
being combined therewith in some cases. 
[Printed, lOd. Draiving.} 



A.D. 1817, January 20.— No. 4092. 

M ANTON, William. — " Improvement in the application of 
** springs to wheel carriages." 

This invention consists " in placing the springs which are 
" to support the body of the carriage in a transverse or cross 
' ( position, so that the length of the springs will be in a 
" direction from side to side of the carriage," and so that 
" each spring shall be fixed to the body, or suspended part of 
" the carriage, on one side thereof by one end of the said 
" spring, which spring shall extend crossways beneath the 
" body of the carriage, and be attached to the frame or 
" carriage on the opposite side to that side on which the 
" other end of the same spring is fastened to the body of the 
" carriage." 

One modification of the invention is described as being suit- 
able for a gig, in which uprights or blocks are fixed upon the 
axletree, a cross rail passing from one of these blocks to the 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 163 

other, and the whole forming a frame. The plates of which 
the springs are composed are so arranged that the springs are 
much thicker at one end than at the other, the thick end of 
each spring being secured to the under side of the body of the 
vehicle, and the springs then crossing each other, passing 
diagonally downwards, and having their lower and smaller 
ends connected by means of shackles, loops, or links to the 
frame. In the case of a four-wheeled vehicle the smaller ends 
of the springs are connected by means of shackles to curved 
irons which rise from the fore transom such irons being each 
carried a little sideways, in order that the springs may clear 
each other, a point which should be attended to in all arrange- 
ments, the details of the invention being capable of modifica- 
tion. 

[Printed, Qd. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1817, February 20.— No. 4102. 

HARDY, Robert. — " Certain improvements in the manufac- 
" ture of cast-iron bushes or pipe boxes for chaise, coach, 
" waggon, and all sorts of carriage wheels." 

In carrying out this invention a pattern is first formed, 
either of iron or some other suitable substance, such pattern 
being " exactly the shape and size" of the bush or pipe re- 
quired ; and being made in two, three, or more parts, which 
may be coupled together when used. A pin or core of iron or 
other metal is then formed, of the size of the opening which 
is required in the bush or pipe, and this core is provided with 
an opening through which melted metal may be poured into 
the mould, and also with an aperture for the escape of air 
during the process. The mould consists of a flask, which is 
made in two or more parts, and " exactly the same height as 
" the length of the pipe or bush," having " seats " in the top 
and bottom for the reception of the core, the ends of which 
are turned at the parts which are to enter the seats. When 
the metal has been poured into the mould, and become "set," 
the core pin is driven out, in order to prevent the pipe from 
bursting by the contraction of the metal, the rest of the 
operation being conducted in the ordinary manner. 
[Printed, 3d. Ro Drawings.} 

f 2 



164 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1817, March 11.— No. 4110. 
PAOTER, William. — Anti-friction axles. This invention 
consists in surrounding the axle with a number of anti-friction 
rollers, which revolve between the axle and the box containing 
them. These rollers are held in a lantern consisting of two 
rings kept apart by bars or pillars. The ends of the rollers 
are conical and fit into holes or angular cavities in the two 
rings. The drawing shows a carriage axle, having two of 
these lanterns and rollers fitted inside the box with which the 
nave of the wheel is lined. To prevent friction between the 
ends of the box and the outside of the lanterns, a washer or 
thin loose ring is interposed, and moreover the surfaces which 
come in contact with the washer are convex, the washer being 
flat. Or the washer may be convex and the surfaces flat. 
Similar means may be adopted to take up the friction of the 
axle in the direction of its length, the washer being placed 
between the linch and the box. The end of the axle may be 
pointed to bear against a cap fastened to the nave. This con- 
trivance prevents the other end of the box bearing against the 
shoulder on the axle tree. A hoop of iron surrounds this 
shoulder to keep off dirt. 

[Printed, 7cl. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1817, July 19.— No. 4143. 
WYKE, George, and SHORTER, Edwakd.— " Certain im- 
" provements in the construction of wheel carriages." 

This invention consists in the first place of a vehicle, the 
body of which is divided into two parts, entirely separate from 
each other. The front part constitutes a coach or chariot 
body, " built with straight timber, or any other form, with 
crooked or straight timber," while the second or hinder part 
constitutes "an open car, to hold or carry the outside passen- 
" gers," having " a standing top or canopy" provided with 
rods and curtains, the latter of which may be drawn at plea- 
sure in order to shelter the passengers from inclement 
weather, which canopy, however, may, if desired, be dispensed 
with. This car is united to the front part of the vehicle by 
a perch which has a bolt or pin under the body, passing 
through the sweep of the carriage, this bolt or perch pin 
allowing the carriage to turn round and lock the fore wheels, 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 165 

passing between the two bodies till checked by a stop which 
prevents the fore wheel striking the perch in locking or 
turning. Instead of the two parts of the body of the vehicle 
being entirely separate they may be attached to each other, 
" in which case the fore wheels are to be fixed in every res- 
" pect as coaches or four-wheeled carriages are commonly 
" built." 

The springs of the vehicle are composed of " one plate of 
" steel," and may be of various forms, such forms embracing 
not only the ordinary form, or that in which the two end 
parts of the spring curve gradually upwards from the centre, 
but also the "barrel or clock" form, which is mentioned as 
being most suitable for gigs or other two-wheeled vehicles. 
An arrangement is set forth in which a barrel spring is placed 
in the front part of the body of a gig or other two-wheeled 
vehicle, a lever proceeding from the bearings of the vehicle, 
over the axletree, and being connected to the barrel spring 
by a leather or other strap which passes round the barrel. 
[Printed, 5d. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1817, August 28.— No. 4165. 

CHAMPNESS, James Mason, and BIJSTKS, Henry.—" Cer- 
tain improvements in axletrees for carriages of various 
descriptions." 

In this invention the axletree is " perfectly straight, and in 
the rectilinear progression of the carriage turns with the 
wheels, as one end of the axletree is fixed fast in one of the 
wheels ; but as in the act of turning one wheel must move 
faster than the other, the opposite wheel is put on in the 
usual way. In the straightforward motion of the carriage 
the axle turns with the wheel, and at all times supports the 
weight of the carriage upon friction rollers acting on bolts 
of steel or iron, case-hardened and fixed on the boxes which 
contain the oil, the sizes of the boxes and rollers to be 
regulated by the size of the different carriages to which 
they may be applied, and the difference of the weight they 
may have to support. There is also a brace or steady pin 
fixed to the boxes to keep them in their proper position." 
The patentee states that by this invention the friction upon 

the axle is reduced to a mere trifle, and that the wheels, 



166 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

" being upon a cylindrical and not a conical form, and stand- 
" ing upright, the friction upon the ground is entirely pre- 
" vented/' such friction creating a very serious addition to 
*"' the draught, as well as the injuring the roads, when the 
wheels are of the " common or conical construction." 
[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1818, January 15.— No. 4200. 
KOSTEE, John Theodore.— " New or improved method of 
(f building or constructing wheeled carriages, as also for 
" making or constructing wheels for carriages." 

The " principle" of this invention consists in " causing the 
" greatest part, or in preference the whole, of the weight of 
" the vehicle and its load to rest upon the two extremities of 
" the axletree or axletrees outside the wheels, in place of 
" between the wheels," as usually practised. 

For carriages of heavy burthen, such as carts, the body is 
made somewhat wider than the truck on which the wheels are 
to go, the outside pieces of the bottom thereof resting upon and 
being firmly fixed to blocks of wood or metal which are per- 
forated to receive the axletree, the latter being perfectly 
straight, and after being introduced through them and 
through the naves of the wheels, being secured from turning 
round or coming out " by a small bolt or pin passing through 
the block and the end of the axletree, or by making the ends 
of it square, with a screw and nut, or other methods, and it 
is.thus easily removeable for any purpose." The wheels may 
either be of the usual construction or be made according to one 
part of the present invention, which consists in " making the 
" rim or felloe an entire circle of cast or maleable iron, of the 
" required breadth and thickness, with sockets, mortises, or 
" other contrivances in the interior thereof cast with or welded 
" to it, and corresponding to the number of spokes and open 
" on one side," there being then driven into or fixed in the 
nave, whether of wood or of metal, the required number of 
wooden spokes, the ends of the latter being brought altogether 
in the said sockets or mortises, and being then wedged tight 
and secured by rivets, screw bolts, or other methods. The 
nave, whether of wood or iron, should be somewhat larger 
than usual, the spokes being placed as near the outward end 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 167 

as practicable, and the other end projecting inward towards 
the centre of the body. " The rim or felloe should be per- 
" fectly cylindrical, whether broad or narrow. The wheels 
' ' may be kept in their places either by linch pins through 
' ' the axletree or through the nave, and running in a groove 
" in the axletree, and they may be greased either by remov- 
" ing the axletree or by pouring oil or any liquid grease 
" through an aperture in the nave. If the wheels are re- 
" quired to be high they may protrude through an opening 
' ' in the bottom of the body, and be covered with a cap or 
' ' case ; if low wheels only are required they may run en- 
" tirely under the body. The body of a waggon may be 
" constructed exactly in the same manner, and a break being 
' ' made at the point where the fore wheels lock the fore part 
" may be raised sufficiently high for the fore wheels to go 
" under it and swivel entirely round by means of a horizontal 
" circle like any other carriage without a perch. For the 
" fore wheels to answer the purpose of an under carriage an 
" open rectangular frame may be made of the required size 
" and strength, and the outside pieces thereof rest upon 
" blocks as before described." 

For light carts and waggons, springs, "either what are 
*' called grasshoppers or eliptic, or any other forms, may be 
" applied between the body or between the frame and the 
" blocks or other supports ; and for coaches, chariots, &c,, 
" frames rectangular or varied in shape may be adapted to 
£ ' each pair of wheels, the outside pieces thereof resting upon 
" springs, and these upon the blocks or other supports, as 
" before described. The fore and hind frames may be con- 
" nected with a perch, straight or crane-necked, or by the 
' ' body only, or in any other manner, and the usual or 
fi any different shaped bodies may be placed or hung upon 
" them in any manner whatever," the patentee mentioning 
that in all cases he would place the point of draught as low 
as practicable, " so as to give the greatest possible inclination 
" to the line of traction upwards towards the shoulder of the 
" horse, and to accomplish this the shafts or pole, or by what- 
' * ever else the carriage is drawn, especially if on two wheels 
" only, may be attached to the ends of the axletree, or to the 
" blocks immediately under or over the axletree; and the 
<s body of a cart on this construction is peculiarly convenient 



168 CABKIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" for tlie application of the rack, many years partially in use, 
" for elevating the fore part of the body in going down hill, 
" as in this with the same facility and by the same means it 
" may be depressed in going up hill." 

[Printed, hd. Drawing. .] 

A.D. 1818, January 23.— No. 4207. 

BANKS, Richard. — Facilitating draught. The inventor 
first points out that the weight in a two wheeled carriage is 
so disposed that on a level road it has little tendency to press 
on the back of the horse or to operate to raise him from the 
ground ; but that when he ascends a hill, the incline " con- 
" verts the axletree into a fulcrum between the weight and 
" the power or horse, and in proportion to the distance of this 
" weight from the fulcrum is the tendency to lift the horse 
ss from the ground, which disables him or prevents him from 
" exerting his full power." On the other hand when de- 
scending a hill, the weight is placed " between the fulcrum 
* * and the power or horse. The weight thus situated presses 
li him to the ground, and in passing down steep hills it is 
" both difficult and dangerous." 

Accordingly to obviate these defects, the inventor arranges 
the body of the vehicle on the wheel framing, or axletree, in 
such a way that when the horse is mounting a hill, the 
strain of the draught on the tawtree forces, by means of 
levers, the axletree in a backward direction, so as to bring 
the weight of the carriage between the axletree and the horse. 
Similarly, in descending a hill the horse in order to hold back 
the carriage retires against the tawtree and forcing back 
certain levers brings the axletree forward of its normal posi- 
tion, and so again by shifting the weight this time behind 
the axletree, relieves the horse's back from weight. Yarious 
methods of carrying this system into practice are shown* 
[Printed, Is. 3eL Drawings."] 

A.D. 1818, January 27.— No. 4212. 
ACKERMANN, Rudolph. — (^L communication from George 
Lenhensperger.) — ' ' Improvements on axletrees applicable to 

four-wheeled carriages." 

In this invention each of the arms of the front axletree is 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 169 

united with or by preference formed in one piece with what 
the patentee calls a vertical axle, which is a round axle capable 
of turning in a hollow box or socket passing through the fore 
transom of the carriage, no fore axletree bed being required. 
The vertical axles with which the axle arms form right angles, 
constitute " separate centres of motion round which the axle 
" arms can be turned with an horizontal rotatory motion in 
" order to place the fore wheels in an oblique direction when 
" the carriage is required to turn." In order to communicate 
motion to both of the axle arms at one time a lever, which 
the patentee calls a stay, is firmly connected to each of the 
intersections or elbows which form the points of junction 
between the vertical axles and the axle arms, such levers or 
stays proceeding backwards and being curved upwards and 
connected together at the ends by a bar called the " controul- 
" ing bar," there being jointed to the middle of this bar the 
futchel, and this bar thus also supplying the place of a sway 
bar. " The futchel being attached to the middle of the fore 
" transom by the perch bolt, and the pole being jointed to 
" the futchel in the usual manner, the futchel and pole can 
*' turn about upon the perch bolt as a centre of motion, and 
" then the hinder end of the futchel will act upon the con- 
" troling bar in the manner of a lever, >nd this action will 
" by the said bar be transmitted to the stays or levers of the 
" axletrees so as to turn the vertical axles round in their 
" sockets, and place both axle arms and fore wheels in an 
" oblique direction at the same time." 

" The splinter bar from which the horses draw is bolted to 
" the futchel in the usual manner and braised by iron stays ; 
" it must be fixed at such a distance from the perch bolt as to 
t{ allow full play for the fore wheels at their greatest obli- 
" quity," and if the distance between the two vertical axles 
be made greater than the distance between the joints of the 
controlling bar " it will occasion that fore wheel which is on 
" the side to which the carriage is intended to turn to have a 
" greater degree of obliquity than the opposite wheel," which 
will be ' ' conducive to quick turning." If the controlling bar, 
moreover, be so curved that the joint in the middle of it be 
moved one or two inches backwards the futchel will act with 
greater leverage, and may consequently be shortened. ' The 
pin which connects the bar with the futchel must be fixed in 



170 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE YEHIOLES 

the bar, and the opening in the futchel through which the bar 
passes must be in the form of an oblong hole or slot in order 
to allow the pin sufficient play during the movements of the 
parts. Instead of vertical axles being employed the axle arms 
may be united to the ends of the fore transoms by means of 
hinges, the other parts of the apparatus remaining the same. 
The invention may be applied to the front wheels only of a 
four-wheeled vehicle, or to all the four wheels. 
{Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1818, April 8.— No. 4242. 
HOPKINSON, William. — tf A machine or apparatus to pre- 
" vent the wheels of waggons, carts, coaches, and all other 
" carriages from coming off by accident, and which is de- 
" nominated or called a wheel detainer." 

This invention consists essentially in the employment of a 
hoop which according to one arrangement is affixed to the 
inner part of the nave of a carriage wheel, there being around 
this hoop a screw thread, and there being firmly attached to 
the axletree or axle bed a catch or " cuttoo," this being com- 
posed of a piece of metal which projects horizontally for some 
distance from the axletree or bed and then turns inwards 
between the thread upon the hoop and the nave of the wheel. 
The thread is closed on the side next the bent part of the 
catch by a strong spring, and the result of the arrangement 
is that the thread acts as a flange, against which, should the 
linchpin or other retaining apparatus of the wheel become 
displaced, the bent part of the catch bears, and so prevents 
the wheel from leaving the axle. The object of this flange 
being formed as a screw thread closed by a spring is to enable 
the wheel to be taken off the axle and replaced thereon with- 
out disturbing the catch, the spring being in such case forced 
back by the application of a suitable instrument so as to allow 
the catch to enter between the threads of the screw, when by 
turning the wheel round it may be withdrawn from and again 
replaced upon the axle. Instead of the hoop and screw 
thread being connected to the nave of the wheel it may be 
attached to the axle or axle bed, and the catch or " cuttoo " to 
the wheel, the invention being capable of various modifica- 
tions, of which several are described. 
[Printed, IQd. Drawings.'] 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 171 

A.D. 1818, November 12.— No. 4308. 
CLAEK, Geokge James. — " An apparatus for the more easily 
tl affixing the drag to a carriage wheel." 

According to this invention a shoe or drag is connected to 
one end of a lever, which at the other end is mounted upon 
a fulcrum connected to the axle of the hind wheels, on the 
back part of the perch of the carriage, this lever being so 
arranged that when at liberty the end carrying the shoe or 
drag descends and allows the shoe to pass under one of the 
hind wheels. When not required for use the shoe is raised 
into nearly a horizontal position by means of a chain con- 
nected to it and which passes forward below the body of the 
carriage and up to the footboard, passing through an aperture 
in the latter and having a ring at the end by which it may be 
operated upon by the driver, certain guide pulleys directing 
this chain in its course from the footboard to the lever. The 
chain is held in position, when the lever is raised by a plug 
near the upper end of the chain, the aperture in the footboard 
being wide enough in one part to allow the plug to pass 
through it, while in another it is so narrow as to retain it. 
When it is requisite to apply the drag the driver so moves the 
chain that the plug is enabled to pass through the wider part 
of the aperture, the lever then descending and the shoe 
passing under the wheel as already mentioned, being restrained 
from passing too far under the wheel by a drag chain of the 
ordinary character. 

[Printed, Sd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1818, November 19.— No. 4312. 
MATTHEWS, Henry. — " Certain improvements applicable 

to wheeled carriages, or vehicles of different descriptions, 
" calculated to render them more safe and commodious." 

After mentioning various disadvantages arising from the 
ordinary mode of constructing stage or other coaches the 
patentee proceeds to state that the present invention consists 
in the first place in an arrangement of double seats in the 
centre of the vehicle for inside passengers, so arranged that 
they may sit nearly back to back, " looking towards the side 

windows, so that they may see the prospect, have room for 

their legs, and not incommode each other." The spaces 



172 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

bek)w the seats are converted into receptacles for luggage. 
The seats for the xmtside passengers are on about the same level 
as those inside the vehicle, that part intended for such outside 
passengers much resembling an open carriage having three 
rows of seats, and accommodating twelve passengers, there 
being accommodation inside for four only ; the spaces under 
the outside seats, like those inside, being arranged for the 
reception of luggage, the whole of the luggage being " under 
" lock; no part of it exposed to wet or pilfering, or left to 
" incommode the passengers." The axles are made longer 
and the wheels placed farther asunder than usual, in order to 
lessen the danger of the vehicle being overturned in case of 
the wheels running over obstructions, and in order still further 
to guard against such an accident certain " pendant crutches " 
are suspended from the sides of the vehicle, so that on the 
latter leaning to a dangerous extent either to one side or the 
other the lower end of the crutch on that side comes into 
contact with the ground, and the vehicle is thus effectually 
prevented from being overturned. In order to prevent the 
wheels from leaving the axles the box of each wheel " may be 
" of equal diameter at both ends, to admit of the axletree or 
" arms being put through from the outside, " such arms being 
bolted to the bed of the axle, and there being at the end of 
each arm a knob which retains the wheel therein. This 
arrangement is meant to be applied in building new vehicles, 
but an arrangement which will serve a similar purpose is 
mentioned as being applicable to other vehicles, this con- 
sisting in adapting padlocks to the ordinary linchpins, "so 
* t that nothing but the proper key can take off the w r heel or 
" draw out the linchpin." 

In a single horse chaise the patentee causes " the greater 
" part of the w r eight to hang to the back springs," the front 
springs having oblong openings or eyes near their ends, the 
springs which pass from the bottom of the chaise not being 
fixed to the front springs, on which they rest, but being pro- 
vided with small irons which pass through the eyes and extend 
downwards to near the ground, and are formed near their 
lower parts into steps by which access to the vehicle may be 
obtained, thus upon the horse falling the front of the vehicle 
can only fall through a very short distance, w r hen it will be 
sustained by the lower ends of the irons. The hood of the 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 173 

vehicle is composed of silk in order that it may be lighter 
than usual, and is concealed between the panels and the 
stuffing, "except when it is required to be up," the first 
joints being upon raised standards, and forming hinges upon 
which the remaining joints are raised from the back, certain 
irons connected to the sides of the vehicle being used to 
sustain the hood when raised. A broad belt is so placed as 
to prevent persons from being thrown out of the vehicle in 
case of collision, or of the horse falling. 

The invention includes the formation of grooves inside the 
box of a carriage wheel, so arranged that the interior of the 
box only touches the axle arm in three places, this reducing 
the friction between the arm and the box. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1818, December 22 —No. 4321. 

JOHNSON, Denis.— "A machine for the purpose of dimi- 
" nishing the labour and fatigue of persons in walking, and 

enabling them at the same time to use greater speed," and 
which the patentee " intends to denominate the pedestrian 
" curricle." 

The machine which forms the subject of this invention 
consists in the first place of a beam of wood or metal, which 
is made of sufficient strength to bear the weight of any person 
who may propose to use it, this beam being mounted horizon- 
tally upon two light wheels, one below the front and the 
other below the hinder part of the beam, the hinder wheel 
merely revolving upon its axis, but the front wheel not only 
revolving on its axis but also having ' ' a motion for turning 
" the carriage by a pivot or axle passing through the beam.'' 
A saddletree or seat is mounted above the beam, being 
supported by screws which pass through the beam, each screw 
being provided with two nuts, one above and one below the 
beam, these nuts serving to adjust the height of the saddle 
from the beam. The person proposing to use the "machine sits 
astride the saddle, and works the machine forward by pressing 
first one foot and then the other backwards against the ground, 
whilst at the same time he leans forward and rests his elbows 
upon a cushion provided for them, and guides the machine by 
means of a handle connected with the axis of the front wheel 



174 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

of the machine. The beam may be curved downwards at the 
part which receives the saddle. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

AD. 1818, December 23.— No. 4322. 
RTJTHVEN, John. — "An improved drag for coaches, car- 
" riages, or other vehicles, which operates by raising a wheel 
" or wheels off the ground, from the inside or outside of the 
" coach, carriage, &c, without stopping the horses." 

The patentee, in describing this invention, first says : — "I 
" attach a chain or jointed iron rod to the perch under the 
" carriage, or the bottom of the body of the carriage, or to 
" any other part which may conveniently be adapted for it, 
" this chain or jointed iron rod to be sufficiently long to reach 
" to the ground, immediately under the axletree of the 
" wheels, and near to one of the wheels ; the end of the chain 
" or rod is there attached to the under end of an upright iron 
" rod attached to the axletree, but having a joint in it to 
"■ admit of being folded up, this upright iron rod having a 
" flat piece of iron on the under end of it, where the chain or 
" jointed iron rod unites with it, being longer than the semi- 
" diameter of the wheel, when dropped to the ground raises 
" the wheel off the ground, and on being folded up drops 
" the wheel ; and this is easily accomplished either from 
" inside or outside of a carriage or any vehicle to which it 
" may be attached." 

The invention is illustrated by a drawing annexed to the 
specification. 

[Printed, §d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1819, January 15.— No. 4334. 
ROBERTS, John, junior. — "A certain apparatus for pre- 
" venting stage coaches and other wheeled carriages from 
" overturning." 

This invention consists in the first place of a transverse bar, 
at each end of which is a spring box with a locker or catch, 
and in the second place of a " gravitating slider " which is 
capable of running to and fro upon the bar. The transverse 
bar is fixed across the coach or other vehicle in a convenient 
position, the length of the bar being such that the spring 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 175 

boxes will extend to the full length of the splinter bar. Each 
box has attached to it a trace or straps of leather, and rolled 
around it, these straps or webs being carried down obliquely 
and passed beneath the bodies of the wheel horses and being 
then connected to those parts of their collars which are 
nearest to the pole of the vehicle. The spring boxes are so 
contrived that when not acted upon by the lockers or catches 
they will keep the straps or traces sufficiently tight without 
causing inconvenience to the horses, and the action of the 
whole apparatus is as follows: — " Whenever the carriage is 
" inclined to one side so far as to be in danger of passing the 
" equilibrium and overturning, the gravitating slider before 
' ' mentioned, which is situated upon the transverse bar, runs 
" along the said bar towards one end in consequence of the 
" inclination thereof, and when it has run a certain distance 
" it operates upon the locker belonging to that spring box 
" which is at the elevated end of the transverse bar in such 
" manner as to lock that spring box fast, so that it cannot 
" turn round or move upon the transverse bar; in conse- 
" quence the strap cannot unroll from it, but becomes firmly 
" attached to the extremity of the transverse bar, and being 
" also attached to the horse as aforesaid as weight, will act 
" to ^prevent the coach from overturning. But as soon as 
" the danger is passed, and the coach gets upright, then the 
" gravitating slider will return along the transverse bar to 
' s the middle thereof, and will disengage jfche locker from the 
" spring box, leaving the same at liberty to yield freely, and 
ie allow the strap to draw off at every motion of the horse " in 
accordance with his movements. The details of the invention 
may be greatly varied, at " the discretion of the workman." 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1819, April 20.— No. 4360. 

SMITH, John. — " Improvements in making arms or axletrees 
" for coaches, carts, waggons, and all other descriptions of 
" carriages." 

According to this invention, the arm of the axletree is of 
less diameter in the middle than at the ends, the bearing 
taking place for a short distance from each end only. The 
outer end of the arm is rounded, and bears against the end of 



176 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

the axlebox in the centre only. There is a collar at the inner 
end of the arm to prevent the box from leaving its place, this 
collar working in a recess in the inner end of the box, and 
there being behind the collar ,a ring which is secured in its 
place by long bolts which pass through the woodwork of the 
nave. Between the collar on the axle and the ring is a thick 
collar of leather, which not only prevents the collar in the axle 
from touching the ring when the ring " drifts endways," but 
also prevents the escape of oil from the box, the inner end of 
the latter being furnished with rings which penetrate the 
leather, and the front end being closed, an opening furnished 
with a screw pin being provided for the supply of oil to the 
box. If desired, the inner end of the axle box may be rounded 
inwards to meet the rounded end of the axle arm, or a 
rounded piece of steel may be introduced into the box for the 
same purpose. The arm of the axle may either be formed of 
wrought iron, with hoops of steel welded therein to form the 
thicker parts, or it may bo formed wholly of wrought iron 
turned to the proper figure and case hardened, and may be 
furnished with grooves, if necessary, to facilitate the lubrica- 
tion of the parts. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1819, May 18.— No. 4373. 
WALL, Edward. — ' ' Certain improvements on stage coaches, 
" and other descriptions of carriages." 

This invention consists " in an improved carriage body, so 
" arranged that there are two compartments for inside pas- 
" sengers at a distance from each other, and separated by a 
" central luggage box or basket, or a seat or seats for outside 
" passengers, either, or both, or all, in order to distribute the 
" load more advantageously than has before been done over 
the springs, axles, and carriage. And a carriage body, where 
" two compartments for inside passengers are at a distance 
" from each other, and separated by a luggage box or a basket 
" or a seat or seats for outside passengers, either or both or 
" all being entirely new." 

A vehicle constructed according to the invention is set forth 
by the aid of a drawing annexed to the Specification, in which 
the body of the vehicle is divided into two compartments. 



FOB COMMON ROADS. 177 

both adapted for inside passengers, these compartments being 
separated by a luggage box. Below the body of the carriage 
are four carved or otherwise formed blocks " to receive the 
" springs when the body is hung on telegraph springs, or 
" what are sometimes called cross springs," the patentee 
stating, however, that as this body is applicable to any kind 
of springs these blocks may or may not be necessary. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1819, September 27.— No. 4398. 
BAYNES, John. — Propelling carriages.— The carriage is pro- 
pelled by means of rods or crutches which are brought to 
bear upon the ground and to thrust against it by means of 
levers worked by treaddles. The carriage is steered by a 
hand wheel in front. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1820, February 10.— No. 4437. 
HUGrGETT, James. — " A machine to be attached to carriages 
" asa substitute for a drag, to regulate the speed, and to pre- 
" vent accidents in going down hill or in other perilous 
" situations." 

This invention consists " of an apparatus placed under the 
" carriage, which is intended to act as a drag, by pressing or 
" rubbing against the ground when going down hill, or in any 
" situation in which it may be necessary to retard the velocity 
" of the carriage, by which contrivance very considerable 
fi friction is produced, and the progress of the carriage 
" accordingly impeded." 

An arrangement is set forth in which a drag, consisting of 
a broad piece of iron, is connected with mechanism by which it 
may be raised or lowered at pleasure by the turning of a winch, 
this mechanism consisting essentially of certain shafts and 
toothed wheels, which when put in motion turn a vertical 
screw or worm, the latter then moving a cross bar from the 
ends of which descend arms which, through the medium of 
a spring, act upon the drag, the turning of the winch in one 
direction forcing the drag downwards upon the ground, the 
drag being again raised by turning the winch in the contrary 
direction. The introduction of the spring prevents the passage 



178 CAKEIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

of the drag over rough ground from causing unpleasant jolts 
to the carriage. 

According to another mode of carrying out the invention, a 
shaft is turned by a winch, and has upon it a spur wheel which 
acts upon a rack. 

[Printed, Id. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1820, August 18.— No. 4495. 
MILLICHAP, George. — Axleboxes. — Close to the shoulder 
of the axletree is a flange to which is attached by screws a frame 
containing friction rollers; the frame with the rollers con- 
sequently forms a fixed part of the axletree. The axes of the 
rollers fit into radial slots in the frame. Between the rollers 
and the bearing part of the axle is a loose steel collar, upon 
which the rollers run. They also run against the interior sur- 
face of the axle box, which is accurately bored for the pur- 
pose. The rest of the bearing surface of the axle runs in a 
prolongation of the box. There are cavities for the oil and 
leather washers make the box tight. A screw cap keeps the 
axle in its place in the box. 

The patentee says : — " The chief novelties and advantages " 
of the invention ' ' consist in the placing the friction rollers at 
" the back of the shoulder of the axle, and in fixing the frame 
" containing them firmly to the axle, and also in the intro- 
" duction of the moveable ring or collar between the friction 
" rollers and the axle, and whereby " he conceives that he 
" essentially lessens the strain or friction upon the shoulders 
" of the axles." 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1820, October 20.— No. 4502. 
MAIN, Joseph. — Balancing carriages. — The object of this in- 
vention is to dispose the weight of the carriage in the best 
position to ensure stability. In two-wheeled carriages it is to 
be thrown on to a line in the centre between the wheels. There 
are various methods shown of accomplishing this object, which 
depend upon the effect of crossed bars for the result. Any 
weight placed in such a part of the carriage as would tend to 
depress that part improperly, is carried by a bar which trans- 
fers the weight to another part. Consequently all the up and 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 179 

down movements of the body of the carriage are parallel, and 
the whole pressure is transferred to a central bearing bar. The 
invention is capable of being applied to other than two- 
wheeled carriages, and a one-wheeled vehicle is also described. 
By means of these improvements the wheels may be set closer 
together. An improved axletree is also shown and described. 
One end is square, upon which one wheel is permanently fixed, 
the other end is round, upon which the wheel revolves. Thus 
in turning them there is nothing to prevent one wheel revolv- 
ing independently of the other. This axletree runs in boxes 
outside the wheels. 

[Printed, Id. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1821, April 17.— No. 4551. 
MARSH, James Henhy. — " Certain improvements in wheeled 
" carriages." 

In the first part of this invention the boxes of carriage 
wheels are each so formed as to be of square section inside the 
axle arm, when the wheel is placed therein, thus only touch- 
ing the box ({ in a few places, by this means lessening the 
" friction, leaving the hollow spaces in the corners to hold 
" the grease." This arrangement may be modified by the 
box being formed with more than four sides, and the corners 
being partly filled up, or the interior of the box may incline 
to a round form, or the interior may be cylindrical, and be 
provided with longitudinal ribs, these again being either square 
or round on their inner surfaces. In forming the body of the 
vehicle, instead of boarding or pannelling up the back and 
upper quarters as usual, a door or shutter is first formed either 
in one piece, or composed of two or more flaps hinged or 
jointed together, and then affixed either to the corner pillar, 
the top rail of the roof, the standing door pillar, or the elbow 
rail, so as to be capable of swinging upwards, downwards, or 
sideways, according to the part to which it is connected. Or 
a light frame of wood may be connected to the main timbers 
of the back and upper quarters to strengthen them, to which 
frame the folding doors or shutters may be attached; or 
" lining " pieces may be used instead of such frame. The 
roof is formed on the same system as the back and quarters, 
and may be provided at the edges with thin plates of iron 
" to keep out the weather," rabbets and rabbet edges being 



180 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

used for the same purpose. The folding doors or shutters may 
be secured in their places when closed by fastenings of the 
ordinary description. These arrangements may be applied to 
old vehicles by first removing the upper part which forms the 
roof, back, and sides. Bent timbers are used for the perches 
of vehicles, instead of timbers reduced to shape by sawing or 
cutting, and the transverse plates are reversed by making 
them stand upright instead of being flat. To the forepart of 
the body of the carriage are affixed pieces of timber, the 
upper ends of which rise in a diagonal line, loops being then 
connected to the fore body by means of an iron stay bolted to 
the upper parts of these timbers, there being placed on these 
timbers a square board or a frame, such board or frame having 
hinged thereto certain parts which constitute the sides and 
back of a seat when raised, but which may be folded down 
when not required for use. The invention also includes the 
use of a folding seat or chair, which may be attached to any 
part of a carriage, and other details, all of which are fully set 
forth. 

[Printed, 3d. Woodcut.} 

A.D. 1821, May 17.— No. 4562. 
PAUL, Robert, and HART, Samuel. — " A certain improve- 
" ment in springs, applicable to various descriptions of 
" carriages." 

This invention consists in a mode of applying several layers 
or plates of lance or other elastic wood in the construction of 
springs for carriages. The number of plates employed may 
be varied according to the quality of spring required, " each 
plate in succession from the lowest exceeding the other in 
length. Stops are affixed to the lower side of each plate 
(excepting the under one), which are made to fit into corre- 
sponding stop holes about two inches from the end of each 
succeeding or inferior plate. All the plates, with the block 
which supports them, are confined and affixed together by a 
staple of iron or other suitable material, through which, as 
well as through the center of the plate, a small screw bolt 
is driven, or they may be confined and affixed together with 
two iron clasps near the center, and the screw bolt driven 
through the center of the plates between the clasps," this 
last arrangement being mentioned as more particularly appli- 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 181 

cable in the case of a crossed or reversed spring, as these 
springs may be reversed "as is usual in the cross spring of 
" what is called the Dennet gig, but in that case the stop 
" holes are not pierced quite through the wood, in order that 
" the wet may be excluded." In order to harden the surfaces 
of the plates, as well as to protect them from the effects of 
moisture and friction, they are coated with a mixture of mastic 
varnish and black lead in those parts which come into contact, 
this, when dry, being rubbed with a lead weight or some 
other hard substance, and a mixture of soap, black lead, and 
oil being then applied thereto. Other compositions of a similar 
nature may be used instead of those mentioned above. An 
iron cap is fixed upon each end of the upper plate of each 
spring, and by means of these caps the springs are connected 
to the scroll irons. 

[Printed, bd. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1821, July 17. —No. 4569. 

NEWMAN, Charles. — "New and original invention in the 
" construction of the body and carriage of a stage or other 
" coach, by placing a certain proportion of the outside pas- 
" sengers in the centre of the carriage and a proportion of 
' ' the luggage under the same, producing thereby safety to 
'* the coach and convenience to the passengers." 

This invention has for its object an arrangement by which 
the dangerous practice of placing the greater part of the 
luggage and the whole of the outside passengers of a stage 
coach either upon the roof of the coach or nearly level with 
it, is superseded, the outside passengers being provided with 
a comfortable seat " in the form of a barouche attached to the 
" back part of the body which contains the inside passengers," 
the greater number of persons as well as the luggage being 
placed on the higher wheels, " with the wheels the usual 
" width on the ground," and the patentee stating that this 
arrangement enables the vehicle "to travel safer than any 
" other coach." 

According to a drawing annexed to the specification the 
coachman's seat is arranged as usual, with room for one 
passenger along with him, there being beneath this seat a 
small boot for luggage. The body of the coach is arranged 



182 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

for four inside passengers, as usual, but without any outside 
seats, the steps being made " to fold over the fore wheels," 
thus facilitating the entry and exit of passengers to and from 
the body, without there being any liability of their clothes 
being soiled by the wheels. The barouche body, which is 
placed behind the main body, will accommodate eight persons, 
and is furnished with doors and convenient steps, and behind 
and extending below the barouche body is a large luggage 
box, which opens at the back, and is furnished with lock and 
key, there being upon the box a "dickey seat," capable of 
accommodating three passengers. 
[Printed, 5d. Drawing,'] 

A.D. 1821, July 23.— No. 4572. 
VAN HEYTHUYSEN, Ebedeeic .Mighells. —Propelling 
carriages. The patentee says "my invention consists in the 
" treading round the axletree or spindle into which is fixed 
" the road wheels of a carriage or paddles of a boat, barge, 
" or other small vessel. When applied to land carriages, 
" four arms or more are fixed cross ways upon the axletree, 
" and so placed that the heels of the right and left feet may 
" alternately tread them down, and consequently turn the 
" axletree and impel the road wheels forward, by which 
" means the weight of the body becomes a propelling rotary 
" power." 

[Printed, 3d, No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1821, July 26.— No. 4575. 
BABEY, John Eichaed. — " Improvements in and additions 
" to wheeled carriages." 

For the purpose of facilitating the draught of a vehicle 
there is fitted to each side an endless rail or shelf upon or 
against which run antifriction wheels or rollers. These wheels 
or rollers are carried on the axle arms, outside the bearing 
Wheels of the vehicle. The rollers or wheels on each side are 
connected by an endless chain. The draught is applied through 
the rails, and the friction wheels travel round the latter as 
the vehicle progresses. When travelling over a rough road, 
the wheels of this vehicle " instead of passing over the obstruc- 
" tions, remain at rest; the carriage nevertheless advances 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 183 

" upon the antifriction rollers until the rail has passed beyond 
" the obstructions, when the wheels rise unimpeded, pursue 
" their course round the endless railway, and in the order of 
" succession are again upon the road before the wheels." The 
axles need not extend from one wheel to another across the 
carriage ; each wheel may have a separate axle. For facili- 
tating turning it is better to make the carriage in two parts, 
each haying a few wheels. The rails of the hinder carriage 
may be rigid, and those of the front section may be made to 
turn on centre or sliding plates, to enable the fore wheels to 
lock. 

[Printed 9 Sd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1821, August 14.— No. 4581. 

GORDON, David. — Arranging wheels in carriages and pro- 
pelling. The invention consists " first, in placing each of 
" the wheels of the carriage between two horizontal bars 
lt or rails, in such manner that the wheels may be supported 
" or hung upon bearings or pivots, which pivots may be 
i( adapted to turn round in brasses or collars fixed in the 
' ' rails extending on each side of the said wheels. By this 
' ' arrangement each wheel is furnished with its own axis or 
" axle, having pivots formed at both ends thereof, which 
" turn round in fixed collars (in the same manner as the 
" wheel of the ordinary wheelbarrow), being entirely inde- 
" pendent of the other wheels belonging to the carriage." 
It also " consists in the application of an additional wheel 
" (to a two, three, or four-wheeled carriage), formed like a 
" hollow roller or drum, which drum may be caused to move 
" or roll along the road (in order to advance the carriage 
" forwards), by having a steam or other engine placed within 
" side of it, in such manner that the engine would tend to 
" advance or climb up) the inside of the drum, and so. by its 
" gravity to turn the drum round (in the manner of those 
" machines termed walking wheels, which are used in 
" cranes, &c), and would roll it forwards, advancing the 
" carriage along with it. To effect this, the drum may be 
" furnished with one, two, or more endless racks, extending 
" round its inside circumference, into which rack or racks 
" a toothed wheel or wheels may be made to engage, such 



184 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" wheel or wheels being put in motion by the power of the 
" engine/' The patentee farther says " I should recommend 
" the above-described drum to be situated in the frame of a 
" carriage, in place of the large or hindermost wheels, and 
" be connected with the frame of the carriage by means of 
" iron rods or arms, one end of which rods or arms should be 
" jointed to the axis of the toothed wheels before mentioned 
" within the drum, and the other ends of the rods or arms 
" should be jointed or otherwise fixed to any convenient 
" part of the frame of the carriage, so that the drum on 
" rolling along would necessarily move the frame of the 
" carriage with it. The course of a carriage of this description 
" could be directed by turning the fore wheels round (with 
" their frame) upon the traverse bolt or bolster, by means 
(< of a rack and wheel work or other similar contrivance, 
" whilst the facility of turning might be greatly increased by 
*' making the roller or drum somewhat largest in the. middle 
" (or barrel shaped). The steam engine may be constructed 
" in the same manner as those engines used for drawing 
*' carriages upon railroads, and may be applied to act within 
" the drum in various ways." 
[Printed, Id. Drawing. ~\ 



A.D. 1821, December 20.— No. 4630. 

GRIFFITH, Julius. — Steam carriage. The carriage is steered 
by k means of the two leading wheels. They are moved as 
desired by a hand wheel or lever, working toothed gearing. 
This gearing puts in motion a vertical shaft fitted at its lower 
end with a horizontal lever. This lever is in its turn attached 
to rods which act on the axletree arms and so serve to turn 
the wheels to the right or left. This fore carriage is attached 
to the main framing by means of a short perch which is 
capable of rotating in a socket ; so that if by the uneveness 
of the ground the wheels were inclined, the carriage can still 
hang vertically. The seat for the steersman is mounted on 
springs on the fore carriage, near the hand lever. The 
engine is hung behind the carriage by means of " four chain 
" slings with helical springs within them." The driving 
motion is communicated to the wheels through gearing so 
that the turning of the carriage wheels independently of the 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 185 

engine or their balancing movement on springs, does not 
affect the machinery. 

[Printed, Is. lOcl. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1822, March 2.— No. 4653. 

HIGCINS, John Lake. — Locking carriage wheels. The hind 
axletree is fixed to a perch extending under the carriage. 
Near the front end of the perch is placed across bar forming 
part of the perch. This bar lies over the fore axletree. At 
the ends of the cross bar, at the front end of the perch and 
again on the perch at a corresponding distance to the rear 
from the intersection of the cross bar, are placed pins or rollers, 
which are contrived to work in elliptical or curved slots or 
racers secured to a frame which rests on the perch. This 
frame is bolted to the fore axletree and has also attached to 
it the splinter bar and pole socket. Consequently when the 
fore wheels are moved either to the right or left in turning 
the carriage, the frame moves on the four pins or rollers, the 
pin on the right or left end of the cross bar, as the case may 
be, forming the centre of motion. The centre of motion 
being near the wheel towards which the carriage is turning 
does not oblige that wheel to move much under the carriage 
and consequently admits of larger fore wheels being used. 
The arrangement may be modified. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1822, March 2.— No. 4655. 
THOMPSON, John. — Preparing steel for springs. This in- 
vention relates to a method of preparing bars or plates of 
steel for carriage springs by rolling, instead of by hammering. 

A pair of " pointing " rolls are first employed. They have 
flattened sides with rounded angles which latter only grip 
the bars and only for short lengths. The use of these rolls is 
to prepare the ends of the bars for insertion in the tapering 
rolls. 

The latter are excentric rolls, grooved or plain and of a 
diameter suited to the length of the bar. They approach at 
their greatest and recede to the maximum distance at their 
smallest diameter. The bars, when passed through these 
rolls, are gradually reduced in thickness or tapered. They 



186 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

are rolled hot, but the inventor finds that by rolling them 
cold he readily gets rid of the scale. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing^ 

A.D. 1822, September 3.— No. 4701. 
BURGESS, He^ry. — . " Certain improvements in wheeled 
" carriages." 

This invention relates more particularly to the bodies of 
carriages, and is applicable both to private carnages and stage 
and mail coaches. As regards the latter it is meant more 
especially to obviate some of the inconveniences endured by 
passengers in the night, such as the cramped position of the 
legs, and the annoyance of sitting near to and directly oppo- 
site persons of offensive character. 

A coach body is described the interior of which is provided 
with three seats, each capable of accommodating two persons. 
The occupants of the front part of the body sit with their backs 
to the horses, while those upon the other seats have their faces 
to the horses. The hinder part of the body is made deeper than 
the fore part, and over the deeper portion is a platform on 
which the two hinder seats are placed, the space below the 
platform being adapted for the reception of luggage and 
parcels, a lid or cover being placed in the upper part of the 
platform, which when closed is secured by means of an iron 
bar passing from it through the bottom of the coach, below 
which it is secured by a lock. The middle seat does not 
occupy the whole breadth of the coach, a small passage being 
left at each end to give access to the back seat, and the ends 
of the middle seat being made to turn upon hinges in order 
the further to facilitate such access. The back and sides of 
the middle seat extend from the seat to the top of the coach, 
but a moveable panel or door is placed in the back of the seat 
in order to allow of communication between the passengers 
on the middle and back seats when desired. The legs and 
feet of the persons on the hinder seat occupy the space below 
the middle seat, a receptacle being formed on the top of the 
platform for the legs and feet of the middle passengers. The 
two front passengers descend to their seats from the platform, 
and have room for their legs and feet between the seat and the 
platform. These arrangements may be somewhat varied by 
having only one passenger on the middle seat and two on each 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 187 

of the others ; or each seat may contain three passengers, 
and be divided into compartments, one for each passenger. 
The coach is provided with a door at each side, and windows 
on each side of such doors, as well as in the npper parts of 
the doors themselves. The outer seats of the vehicle are 
apparently meant to be arranged in the ordinary manner. 

The framework and panelling of the coach may be con- 
structed according to the usual system, but the patentee 
describes a mode of forming a coach body by putting together 
three transverse layers of thin planking or veneers of ash or 
other wood, glued and rivetted together, a layer of thin 
canvas being placed between the middle and outer layers of 
wood. The layers are formed to shape on temporary moulds, 
the latter being afterwards removed ; but if desirable two or 
three pieces of timber may be fixed inside the vehicle, in order 
more securely to retain its figure, the whole being then 
finished in the ordinary manner. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'} 

A.D. 1822, September 27.— No. 4709. 
WHITCHER, John, PICKFORD, Matthew, and WHIT- 
BOURN, James. — Anti- friction wheels. This invention re- 
lates to a new arrangement of friction wheels for the purpose 
of relieving friction of carriage and other wheels. To the 
inside of the periphery of the wheel is fitted a ring upon which 
run a number of friction wheels. These revolve in bearings 
in another ring concentric with the first. They have smaller 
wheels on their axes which run on an inner or centre plate 
which is fitted to the axle of the carriage. The proportions of 
all these wheels and rings bear a calculated ratio one to 
another. 

There are various ways in which the system can be applied. 
The inner circle may be attached to the body of the carriage 
if no springs are needed ; or the outer circle may be secured 
to the carriage and a revolving axle caused to run through 
the inner circle into an ordinary carriage wheel ; or the whole 
machinery may be put into the nave of a common wheel. An 
axletree running through the carriage is not absolutely re- 
quired but a square axletree is recommended for strength. 
The apparatus should be protected from dust by a casing. 
[Printed j 7d. Drawing,] 



188 CAKEIA&ES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

A.D. 1822, September 27.— No. 4711. 
PBATT, Samuel. — Band for securing luggage, &c. on car- 
riages, &c. The band consists of flat metal links held toge- 
ther by pins or rivets. It is taken up or tightened over the 
baggage by means of a roller contained in a box and worked 
by a lever. A ratchet wheel and sliding bolt holds the roller 
secure in position. This bolt cannot be withdrawn except by 
the introduction of a proper instrument or key. The keyhole 
is fitted with a plate to shut out dust. The other end of the 
chain hooks into the box and is so secured. 
[Printed, 7cl. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1822, December 5.— No. 4730. 
WOOLLAMS, Joseph. — Safety arrangements for carriages. 
The invention consists chiefly in so uniting the various parts 
of the vehicle that the shafts and those parts to which the 
horse is attached, are capable of descending should the animal 
fall, while the body remains stationary. The descent of the 
shaft is also retarded by means of springs, in order to assist the 
animal in recovering its position. In order to free the shafts 
so that they may descend, a locking pin is lifted out of its 
place by the contact with the ground of what is termed a 
" prop wheel," that is a small wheel held in a frame which 
also forms the step. 

It also consists in hanging the bodies of two-wheeled car- 
riages in pivots in order to allow the shafts to rise and fall 
without communicating the motion to the body. There are 
also " sliding or eccentric movements to cause the body and 
" the parts in connection with jt to move forward, or the 
" shafts or parts in connection with them to move backward, 
" or both for the purpose of enabling the back of the shafts 
" to describe an arc of motion when the points descend 
" without impediment from the boot, hind spring, or other 
" part of such vehicle." 

Ifc further relates to apparatus for enabling the bodies of 
carts to tilt backwards when required, in combination with the 
power of preventing the body coming forward on a depression 
of the shaft. The part of the framing forming the rear con- 
tinuation of the shafts is hinged. The cart is attached also 
by a hinge, to this part. By releasing a trigger this part tilts 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 189 

backwards and with it the cart. In front of the cart is a 
" sword " having a " prop wheel " attached to it, which, 
coming against the ground, sustains the front of the cart. 
The height of the latter is determined at pleasure by stops on 
the sword. 

[Printed, Is. 4<d. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1822, December 16.— No. 4737. 
DTTMBELL, John. — Propelling vehicles. The patentee pro- 
poses to substitute feet for wheels ; that is to say, instead of 
putting felloes to the spokes he fits them at the ends with 
shoes, made either with or without springs acting at the toe 
and heel. The shoes may be made to move on a pivot or hinge 
like the action of the human foot. 

These "millipedes" are driven by means of tread wheels, 
and where great power is required the tread wheel is placed 
longitudinally in the carriage, so as to have greater length. 
Bevel gearing is used to communicate the powers. Two tread 
wheels are also used. A horse may be used to steer the car- 
riage or a rudder apparatus may be fitted to two fore wheels 
or to the <( millipedes." 

[Printed, 3d. No Draivings.'] 

A.D. 1823, February 18.— No. 4755. 
FULLER, Thomas. — " An improvement in the construction 
" of shafts, and the mode of attaching them to two-wheeled 
" carriages." 

This invention is designed to prevent the unpleasant vibra- 
tion of two-wheeled carriages which is commonly called 
'*' knee motion," which object Is effected " by rendering the 
" hinder part of the shafts elastic, and affixing them to 
" the drawing bar by means of shackles with pivots, upon 
" which as fulcrums the shafts vibrate, and thereby com- 
" municate the up and down motion of the horse to the 
li elastic part of the shaft beyond the drawing bar, while the 
" body of the carriage being suspended in front to the ful- 
" crums and behind to the extremities of the elastic shaft 
" escapes the vibrating action of the shafts, and is subjected 
" to no other motion but that which is communicated by the 
" elasticity of the springs as the carriage passes over tempo- 
" rary obstructions." 



190 CAEBIAGES AND OTHEK VEHICLES 

The details of the invention may be varied. An arrange- 
ment is described, however, in which the shafts are attached 
to the vehicle by means of certain screws and bolts which 
may readily be removed and the shafts detached from the 
vehicle, to which a pole may then be attached " by two sockets 
" in the centre," and splinter bars for two horses be con- 
nected to two of the shackles which usually sustain the shafts. 
The patentee states that this is " a convenience which has 
" hitherto been obtained by much additional weight and an 
" unsightly appearance ;" the facility of disengaging the 
shafts being also an advantage " in shipping for exportation," 
and other cases. 

[Printed, M. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1823, April 16.— No. 4778. 

JOHNSON, Joseph. — Drags for carriages. The patentee thus 
describes his invention : — The improvements consist in a 
method or methods of " letting fall a staff or staves, when 
i{ suspended by the upper end to the axletree, near the back 
" part of the nave or stock, (it may also be applied to any part 
" of the axletree, perch, or body, to the spring or springs, 
" shaft or shafts, or to any part of carriages of every descrip- 
" tion). The other end having a joint or joints by which it 
" is united to a shoe made of iron or steel, or any other metal 
" or metals, or wood soled with iron, steel, or any other metal 
" or metals, which is made to take the ground by certain 
" methods applied to different parts of the carriage by means 
" of rollers with a leather strap, line, cord, or chain, or 
" leather straps, lines, cords, or chains, other suitable mate- 
(S rial, which is or are attached to a pulley or pulleys, or 
" without a pulley or pulleys, with or without cog wheels, 
C{ having a handle to be used at the pleasure by the proprietor. 
" The said staff, when liberated by the aforesaid means, can 
" at the pleasure of the coachman, guard, or any person ap- 
<f pointed, be let fall, which, when it takes the ground within 
" the wheel, will lift a part of the carriage off the ground 
" independent of the wheel, taking the weight of the said 
" carriage on the side only when it is applied, and will thus 
" constitute the drag. And I further declare that by certain 
" methods, to be hereafter described, I use across bar or bars, 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 191 

" or stay or stays, connected with the upright staff or staves 
" to keep the said staff or staves in its or their upright posi- 
" tion when in use; and this bar, or these bars, stay or 
" stays, I liberate at pleasure, and thereby admit of the staff 
" or staves sliding under the carriage, so that the wheel may 
(l retake the ground, and the drag can then be wound up to its 
" place ready to resume its action, thereby the drag can be 
" applied and used to carriages without the person leaving the 
" place where the pulley or rack is fixed." 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1823, November 1.— No. 4855. 
RANKING-, John. — " The means of securing valuable property 
" in mail and other stage coaches, travelling carriages, wag- 
" gons, caravans, and other similar public and private vehicles 
" from robbery." 

This invention relates to a mode of giving notice of the 
opening of the door of the boot or luggage box of a coach or 
other vehicle, so that if such door should be opened for an 
improper purpose attention will be directed thereto. The ap- 
paratus employed consists of a bell which is mounted upon an 
iron plate inside the boot or box, a curved spring, to which a 
hammer is connected being also secured to this plate, the 
hammer, when at rest, being at about a quarter of an inch 
distance from the bell. The latter is partly covered by an 
iron casing. To the lock which is attached to the door of the 
box or boot a strong spring latch is connected, this latch being 
so arranged that on shutting the door the bevilled end of the 
latch passes beneath a part of the bell spring, which is also 
bevilled, and remains close under it, " so that on the least 
" opening of the door the latch lifts the bell-spring, the 
" hammer of which strikes the bell." 
[Printed, hd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1824, January 24.— No. 4895. 
BEWLEY, Thomas. — Improvements in the construction of 
carriages. Part of this Specification is devoted to the descrip- 
tion of an improved mail coach. The coach is entered from 
the rear, and is fitted to carry both inside and outside passen- 
gers, the latter sitting as in an Irish " inside " car. In front 



192 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

of the coach and behind the driving box, is a kind of chamber 
large enough to hold two guards. It is entered from the 
front and the sides are closed in so as to afford protection in 
case of attack. Loopholes are made in the sides for the pur- 
pose of enabling the guards to fire their pistols, and the top 
lifts up on a hinge to enable them to use blunderbusses and 
like larger weapons. The mails are carried in a boot under 
the main body. 

There is also a bar placed across the under part of the coach 
body and extending on each side to support the coach in case 
of a wheel coming off. 

The coach has three wheels, one in front under the fore car- 
riage and two main wheels. Each of the latter has its separate 
axle working in bearings under two side bars upon which 
rest the springs. Each wheel has two springs, one to each 
bar. The ends of the springs are couplied by iron bars and 
are attached by scroll irons to the coach body. 

The axles of the wheels work in boxes, the bearings being 
made of stone or other like material. The bearing rests on 
the axle ; under the latter is a wheel pressed against it by a 
Spring and revolving in oil, which is thus supplied to the 
axle. Guards are supplied to prevent escape of oil and also to 
prevent derangement in case of a sudden jerk. 
[Printed, Is. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1824, February 19.— No. 4904. 

ISAACS, Moses. — Wheels and preventing overturning. The 
spokes are curved and made of any elastic material. They 
are "fitted to the nave at the back quarter by means of 
" grooves, two hoops being fitted on the nave, one on each 
" side, in order to keep the springs in their proper places ; 
" the axle is fixed in the nave, and made to revolve in a cap 
" or cover attached to the carriage." 

To prevent overturning a rod is used made with teeth or 
notches and " fitting into a case or tube/' at the bottom of 
which ".there are one or more springs to prevent the rod re- 
" turning after it has fallen. This rod and case or tube are 
" suspended near the top of the carriage by means of a 
" knuckle joint or hinge." The patentee also makes " use of 
" a bar to prevent the carriage proceeding after the rod or 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 193 

" case has fallen, which is fixed on the front of the hind axle 
" or other convenient place, and is kept up by a rod passing 
" under the coach from the case or rod" before mentioned. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1824, May 15.— No. 4957. 
JAMES, William Henry. — "An improved method of con- 
structing steam carriages, useful in the conveyance of per- 
sons and goods upon highways and turnpike roads without 
the assistance of railroads." 

This invention consists essentially " in adapting separate 
engines to the gear of each of the wheels on which the car- 
riage runs, instead of actuating them all by one engine as 
heretofore. These engines are of small dimensions, and are 
intended to be worked at high pressure, having their steam 
supplied by pipes connected with a boiler or generator 
situate in any convenient part of the carriage," the patentee 
stating that by means of this arrangement he is enabled " to 
vary the powers communicated to the respective wheels, 
and give to each a motion independent of any of the other 
wheels, so as to cause them to turn with different velocities, 
which is essential in moving the carriage in curves, or 
turning corners in the road. This is effected by slide valves 
or stopcocks opening or closing the apertures through which 
the steam passes to the respective cylinders, and these valves 
are worked either with levers by the conductor or engineer, 
or by* rods connected to the fore axletree, which, as it is 
turned upon its centre, is made to open or shut the slide 
valve or stopcocks," as requisite, and in some cases the 
steam may be shut off from the cylinders of one or more of 
the wheels, thus causing such wheel or wheels to act as a 
drag, and so retard the progress of the carriage. The details 
of the invention may be varied. 
[Printed, 7d. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1824, October 14.— No. 5017. 
GTJNN, James. — Improvements in coaches. The first of these 
improvements relates to a new arrangement of the framing of 
the coach body, by which the timbers may be placed edgeways 
for the sake of lightness, and by the disposition of the bed or 
G 289. a 



194 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

framing more room is afforded to the inside passengers. The 
back of the step shuts up against the lower part of the door 
and when water has to be passed through it is let down and a 
sheet of iron slipped into grooves made for the purpose, by 
which means entry of water into the coach is prevented. The 
door may also be made to open from the rear, by which 
arrangement the coach may be brought lower. 

By one improvement the boot supplies the place of the 
under carriage fitted at the upper side or top, with circular 
grooved locking plates, friction rollers and lubricators. Me- 
thods are described of strengthening the boot against thieves 
and of locking it. Plates of iron are inserted which revolve 
against any cutting or boring tool like a centre bit. An 
alarm is also described ; also a special strong box for bankers' 
parcels. 

The improvements also relate to the "axles and axletrees! 
The latter may be hollow for strength and lightness and the 
axletree arms may contain oil. Improved methods of fitting 
the axle boxes are shown, which cannot well be described 
without the drawings. 

The wheels are strengthened by a combined tire and stakes ; 
and the joints of the felloes may be secured by iron plates. 
In order to skid the wheels, studs or hooks are fitted on each 
side of the felloes which may engage with the claw end of the 
drag, a chain or bar attached to the carriage. 

The springs are arranged as follows. On the axletree or bed 
is fixed a cross spring equal to the extreme weight to^be car- 
ried. On each side of the axletree "or bed are fixed the eyes 
of a second and third spring, more elastic than the former, 
and which are suspended at or near the centre from the eyes 
of the cross spring by shackles. The body is then attached 
to the extreme ends of the second and third siDrings. " Erom 
" the eyes of the cross springs, or from the second and third 

springs, at their suspension from the same, are fastenings 
il to ironwork, which is attached to the boot and body of the 
" vehicle. They act in the following manner, viz., when the 
" second and third springs are overpowered, the ironwork 
" and fastenings come into action on the cross springs, and 
" consequently place on them the principal weight.'' 
[Printed, 7d. Drawing.] 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 195 

A.D. 1824, October 21.— No. 5024 
HARRIS, George Samuel. — " A machine for the purpose of 
" giving the most effectual and extensive publicity, by day 
" and by night, to all proclamations, notices, legal advertise- 
" ments, and other purposes to which the same may be 
" applicable, destined for universal information, and which 
" will henceforward render unnecessary the defacement of 
" walls and houses in the metropolis and its vicinities by 
" bill-sticking, placarding, and chalking, which latter prac- 
" tices have become a great and offensive public nuisance." 

This invention consists in the employment of a- machine or 
lantern which may be of cylindrical, octagonal, or any other 
convenient shape, and be composed of slight framings of 
metal, wood, or other material, arranged in such manner as to 
form a number of openings or panels, adapted to receive the 
bills or notices which it is desired to proclaim or advertize. 
This machine is mounted upon a carriage, being connected to 
the bed of such carriage by means of a bolt or axis on which 
it is capable of revolving, so as to exhibit every part of its 
surface in succession to the spectators, lights being placed 
inside the machine in foggy or dark weather, or at night, so 
as to render the notices legible in the manner of trans- 
parencies. The details of the invention may be varied, but an 
arrangement is set forth in which a machine or lantern is 
mounted upon the bed of a carriage having four wheels, and 
arranged so as to be drawn by a horse, the machine or lantern 
being turned slowly round as requisite by a person travelling 
with the vehicle. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1824, December 18.— No. 5056. 

GORDON, David. — Propelling carriages. The propulsion 
" is performed by the operation of a number of rods or pro- 
" pellers, which rods or propellers are attached at one end of 
" their extremities to a like number of cranks situated upon 
" one common axis across the carriage near to the hind part 
1 ' thereof, whilst their outermost extremities are formed so 
' ' as to be capable of seizing the ground in a sufficient degree 
' s to propel or drive the carriage or other machine aforesaid 
" forwards, being at the same time connected by rods or 

g 2 



196 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" cords with the extremities of certain levers, which are 
' ' operated upon by an equal number of excentric shapes or 
" wheels, the said excentric wheels being all fixed upon one 
1 ' common axis, receiving its rotary motion by a pair of equal 
" cog wheels from the main crank axis. By the said arrange- 
" ment, as the crank axis and excentric wheel axis are caused 
" to revolve with equal velocity by any adequate power 
" applied to them, the rods or propellers aforesaid will be 
" forced or thrown out backwards (or in the contrary direc- 
" tion to that in which the carriage is desired to be moved), 
t( and by the form or shape of the excentric wheels the outer - 
" most extremities of the propellers will only remain in 
' ' contact with the ground at the time when they are moving 
a with the greatest velocity, or nearly so ; at other times the 
" extremities will, by the action of the excentric wheels, be 
" taken up entirely off the ground. Thus a continuous 
" action will be kept up to propel the carriage or other 
" machine or implement forwards." The inventor claims 
" the right of employing bristles, whalebone, or other 
" pliable material, affixed to the under surface of the curved 
" feet of the propellers, as a substance to come into contact 
i ' with the ground, and hold sufficiently thereupon." 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1824, December 18.— No. 5060. 

SNOWDEIST, William Francis.— Propelling carriages. Part 
of this invention relates to the propulsion along a road of a 
carriage in two storeys. Upon the lower storey is placed 
horse gear, which on being turned by horses moving in a 
circle, communicates movement through gearing to a toothed 
wheel which takes into a rack placed on the road. The upper 
storey of the carriage is capable of being elevated or de- 
pressed at each end, by means of a screwed prop or pillar for 
the purpose of maintaining a level in ascending or descending 
hills. 

Another part relates to a carriage similarly worked by 
horses, but without the assistance of the rack on the road. 
The gearing drives the axles of the wheels, and the latter 
though loose on the axles, are compelled to revolve in one 
direction with the axles, by means of palls and ratchets. For 



FOR COMMON" ROADS. 197 

steering, the axles are placed in oblique positions by a handle 
and worm. The hind axle is connected with the leading axle 
by rods. 

The inventor makes the " rim " of the wheels of wood by 
" placing a series of blocks or pieces side by side, and attaching 
' £ them together, so that the grain of the wood shall radiate 
" from the centre to every part of the periphery." These 
blocks are not bound together by a tire but by side rings "of 
iron ; so that the wood surface runs on the ground. 
[Printed, Is. lOd. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1824, December 24.— Ho. 5063. 
STAFFORD, Daniel. — "Certain improvements on car- 
" riages." 

According to the first part of this invention certain iron 
frames or supports attached to and rising from the beds and 
axles of a carriage sustain certain springs, there being at the 
upper parts of the latter certain racks, and there being in 
gear with these racks other racks which are attached to the 
body of the vehicle, the arrangement being such that " if 
" from any unevenness of the road the carriage part of the 
" vehicle should be tipped to one side or the other the body 
" will still preserve its equilibrium by adjusting itself by 
" means of its own weight on the two racks," a certain rod, 
passing under the perch, being so shaped as not to prevent 
the swinging of the body, but being so placed as to prevent 
any sudden jerk from raising the body so high as to throw the 
teeth of the racks out of gear. 

Another part of the invention relates to apparatus which is 
meant " to be attached to the axle of a carriage, which serves 
" the purpose of a second axle, and also to keep on the 
" wheels," this apparatus consisting of certain arms which 
are jointed to the axletree and keep in place certain grooved 
plates, the latter receiving projections from certain caps which 
are screwed to the naves of the wheels. And another part of 
the invention relates to an improved axle box, and consists 
" in making the said box with a triangular-shaped bore, or a 
" bore of many sides instead of round, as is now in use, by 
" which means much friction will be prevented." 
[Printed, 8d, Drawings.] 



198 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

A.D. 1825, February 3.— No. 5090. 
BUESTALL, Timothy, and HILL, John.— Steam carriage. 
The boiler, with its furnace, especially designed for the pur- 
pose of raising steam speedily, is suspended by springs from 
a platform at the rear of the vehicle. On the platform are 
the driving engines. These are of what is generally known 
as the " grasshopper " type and the steam is supplied to them 
through a pipe coiled on itself, by which arrangement sufficient 
elasticity is secured to allow for the movement of the springs. 
The water is carried in a tank under the body of the coach. 
This tank is constructed to bear a high pressure and the 
water is forced from it to the boiler by means of air compressed 
into it by pumps worked by the engines. The engines drive 
the hind wheels through cranked axles. These may be made 
in two parts if desired, the cranks being kept in relative posi- 
tion by quadrants. The hind carriage is attached to the fore 
carriage by a joint and perch. The fore carriage has a pair of 
wheels through which the vehicle is steered by means of a 
toothed segment and gearing worked from the front. If 
necessary the power applied to drive the hind wheels, may 
also be communicated to the front wheels by means of a shaft, 
with an universal joint, worked by bevel gearing from the 
hind axle. Clutches are adapted to all wheels so that in 
turning the wheels are enabled to adapt their rotation to the 
curves and brake bands are fitted to the naves. A blast may 
be applied to urge the fire. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing^ 

A.D. 1825, April 12.— No. 5148. 
BEANDLING, Eobebt William. — Carriages and tramways. 
Part of this invention relates to the construction of a railway 
upon which carts may travel and, at pleasure, leave for the 
common road. It also relates to wheels which may be 
" single, double and triple tyred," that is have their tires so 
arranged as to produce different patterns of tread and flange. 
There is also a spring scraper. Shafts have hinged or flexible 
joints to prevent the vehicles being drawn off the line and 
shafts may be fixed at each end of the vehicle. A train of 
carriages may be made up by joining them by hinged bars. 
[Printed, bd. Drawing.] 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 199 

A.D. 1825, April 28.— No. 5157. 
RYDER, Samuel. — Attaching carriage poles. A frame of 
iron is constructed to be fitted between the fntchels, in which 
position it is secured by bolts and nuts. The centre of the 
rear end of the frame is pierced so as to form a conical 
socket. The front end, which lies in advance of and below 
the splinter bar is formed of two bars, the top being arched, 
between which bars the pole is inserted. The foot of the pole 
is fitted with an iron shoe, the point of which fits into the 
socket at the rear end of the frame, while at the part of it 
which fits into the front part of the frame there is on each 
side a wing or bracket to interlock with corresponding recesses 
in the frame. The pole being inserted in the frame is secured 
there by a screw pin passed downwards through the arched 
top of the front of the frame into the pole. 

A modified arrangement is shown, in which the screw pin 
secures the pole at the point, the above mentioned wings and 
recesses holding the pole securely in front. 
[Printed, IQd. Drawing.} 

A.D. 1825, May 10.— No. 5160. 

HILL, Thomas, the younger. — Carriages for tram and other 
roads. This vehicle is supported upon four wheels. The door 
for passengers is in rear, luggage being fixed in at the sides 
near the front of the carriage. The seats run longitudinally 
and are over the wheels. The latter are of wood and iron and 
have moveable flanges attached by bolts and nuts. The fore 
wheels turn round a main bolt in the under carriage and a 
contrivance is shown for keeping the wheels " in a straight- 
" forward position upon the railways." "When the carriage 
is running on the rails the shafts are connected with it simply 
by an eye bolt which runs on an iron rod " according [to the 
swerveing of the horse." On ordinary roads two loops on 
the frame of the carriage serve as attachments. 
[Printed, 9d. Draivings.'] 

A.D. 1825, May 14.— No. 5165. 
PYKE, Thomas. — "A machine or apparatus to prevent the 
overturning or falling of carriages." 



200 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

According to this invention there is suspended outside each 
hind wheel of the carriage, coach, or other vehicle a " pen- 
" dulum," or Ibar of metal, which is supported by other bars 
the lower ends of two of which descend to a "saddle" by 
which they are connected to the hind axle of the vehicle, 
while the other parts of these bars are curved outwards so as 
to pass over the springs and the wheel, and keep the pendulum 
at a certain distance from the latter, a third bar being con- 
nected with these and then carried downwards and backwards 
and connected to a corresponding bar proceeding from the 
apparatus on the other side of the vehicle. The pendulum 
hangs from a pin or bolt which passes through the upper ends 
of the two curved bars, this pin also passing through the 
upper ends of certain bow irons or bent bars the lower ends of 
which are fastened by means of a clip to the pendulum, to 
which these bow irons act as stays ; a diagonal stay iron and 
a horizontal tie bar being also employed in strengthening the 
two curved bars already mentioned, and a cap or cover being 
applied over the parts of the latter from which the pendulum 
is suspended, in order to protect those parts and the 
mechanism connected with them from being injured by the 
feet of passengers or otherwise. The lower end of the pen- 
dulum is provided with a small wheel, and the result of the 
whole arrangement is that on the vehicle leaning either to 
one side or the other beyond a certain extent the pendulum on 
that side would swing outwards, and the wheel at its lower 
end come in contact with the ground and run thereon, the 
vehicle being thus prevented from overturning. The pen- 
dulum is slightly bent at the lower part so as to prevent the 
wheel " from running back," and suitable arrangements are 
made to prevent the pendulum itself from moving too far 
either outwards or inwards. An apparatus of similar character, 
but of lighter and more simple construction, is described as 
being suitable for a gig or other two-wheeled carriage, bent 
springs being here employed " to prevent the gig from falling 
" back on ascending a hill," such springs being attached to 
the shafts and the latter being made in two parts* which are 
hinged together, this part of the arrangement being intended 
" to prevent the falling of the horse from injuring the 
" gig" 

[Printed, 7<L Drawing.} 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 201 

A.D. 1825, May 14— No. 5170. 
GURNEY, GtOLDswobthy. — Propelling carriages. This inven- 
tion relates to a method of propelling wheeled carriages on 
common roads by means of crutches or feet acted on by power. 
Each of these feet is fitted at the top with a friction roller 
apparatus which runs in grooves constructed in a perch or rail 
running longitudinally under the carriage. Consequently 
when the power of the steam engine is applied by means of 
levers to these crutches or feet, the carriage rolls over the 
upper ends of them during each stroke or step. The feet are 
attached to the roller boxes or apparatus by a spring joint to 
allow for inequalities of the road and to facilitate adjustment. 
By varying the lengths of the connecting levers the force of 
propulsion is increased or diminished, the carriage is steered 
by the action of an endless chain on a rigger affixed to the 
axletree of the. hind wheels between the rails constituting the 
perch of the carriage. 

[Printed, 7d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1825, June 14.— No. 5185. 

LINDSAY, John, Honourable. — Roads and wheels. This 
invention chiefly relates to the construction of tram and other 
roads, but it also provides for the use in carriages intended to 
run upon such roads, of a wheel having cogs upon it as well 
as an ordinary tread. The cogs run on a toothed way in order 
to facilitate propulsion, the ordinary tread of the wheel 
running upon the road pitching. 
[Printed, Id. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1825, June 18.— No. 5188. 
MASON, William. — " Certain improvements on axletrees." 

This invention consists in the employment of ' c a peculiar 
" kind of screw nut " along with a " check washer " to the 
end of an axletree, * ' whereby any required play may be given 
" to the wheel without danger of losing the nut/' and also in 
the use of a cast iron axle box, which is furnished with straight 
longitudinal cavities for the reception of oil and its distribution 
over the arm of the axletree. 

An arrangement is described in which a screw of much less 



202 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

diameter than the axle arm projects from the outer end of 
the latter, a semicircular groove^ passing along one part of this 
screw. The screw is provided with a suitable nut by which 
the "collet" is retained upon the axle arm, and in this nut 
are semicircular grooves, each corresponding with that in the 
screw. "When the nut is placed upon the screw a washer is 
placed behind the nut having a pin projecting therefrom 
which is made to enter the cavity found by the groove in 
the screw and that groove in the nut which is opposite to 
it, the nut being thus prevented from turning round in either 
direction, and the washer itself being retained in its place by a 
smaller screw with a large head which is inserted into the end 
of the axle arm. 

As regards the axle box the essence of the invention is set 
forth in consisting in a box of cast iron having cavities for oil 
formed in it at the time of casting. 
[Printed, 6cL Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1825, June 21.-2*0. 5194. 
COEBETT, Eoss, — " A new step or steps to ascend and de- 
" scend from coaches and other carriages/' 

This invention relates to a step or steps by which access 
may be obtained to and from the inside as well as the outside 
seats of coaches and carriages, and consists in the first place 
hi connecting the steps used for ascending to the inside of the 
carriage with the door, and so as to be turned down and folded 
by the opening and shutting of such door, thus enabling a 
traveller to enter and leave a vehicle without the assistance of 
an attendant. The steps are mounted on pivots in a fixed 
frame which projects downwards and slightly outwards below 
the door of the vehicle, the steps being capable of turning on 
their pivots, so as either to be brought into a horizontal 
position for use, or raised into an almost vertical position 
within the frame, the latter being furnished with aback cover- 
ing of leather by means of which the steps are kept clean 
when not in use. In order to raise and lower the steps 
a horizontal rod is jointed to the door, this being connected 
through the medium of a lever and another rod to a bell crank 
hung in a fixed bracket, and having proceeding therefrom 
jointed rods which are connected to levers attached to the 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 203 

steps, the result of the whole arrangement being that on the 
door being opened the steps are pushed downwards, while on 
the door being again closed they are raised into the frame, as 
already mentioned. 

In the other part of the invention, which relates more par* 
ticularly to steps for giving access to the outsides of vehicles, 
the arrangements are of similar character, the steps being 
here actuated, however, by a " handle lever," instead of by a 
door. 

[Printed, 7d. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1825, July 16.— No. 5216. 
COOK, Thomas. — Controlling horses. For the purpose of 
" causing the horses to exert their strength in contributing 
" to control," various modifications of one general form of 
apparatus are used. Straps or chains connected with the bits 
of the horses, are brought to the axletree or to winding appa- 
ratus connected therewith. In one form a bevel wheel on the 
nave works a ratchet wheel which winds up the straps when 
the apparatus is thrown into gear by the driver or other 
person having control thereof. Overwinding is provided 
against by automatic apparatus. 
[Printed, Is. hd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1825, August 11.— No. 5235. 
HIEST, William, HIEST, Henry, HEYCOCK, William, and 
WILKINSON, Samuel. — "Certain apparatus for preventing 
" coaches, carriages, mails, and other vehicles from over- 
" turning." 

This invention consists essentially t( in fixing to the top of 
" the coach, carriage, mail, or other like vehicle, a proper 
" support, which so long as the said vehicle maintains an 
" upright position, remains close to its side, but as soon 
" as it inclines beyond a certain point to one side or the other 
" flies out from the said vehicle into a perpendicular line and 
" supports it." 

An arrangement is described in which a coach has suspended 
from the top, on each side, an iron frame, having at its lower 
end a wheel. Springs are so arranged as to tend to press the 
frames constantly outwards from the coach, but are restrained 



204 CABKIAGES AND OTHEK VEHICLES 

from so doing, except the apparatus is required to act, by 
catches, with one of which the lower part of each frame is 
furnished, and which catches during the ordinary progress of 
the vehicle, take hold of certain horizontal bars or levers 
mounted in suitable bearings. From one end of each of these 
horizontal bars rises a vertical bar, the top of which is formed 
into a catch, and enters a hole in the bottom of a long box 
which passes across the top of the coach, catching or holding 
upon the side of such hole, and the vertical and horizontal 
bars being thus kept in a raised position. The bottom of the 
box is deeper in the middle than at the ends, and in the box 
is a heavy ball, which so long as the coach retains its ordinary 
position remains in the centre of the box, but on the coach 
leaning dangerously to one side runs to the end of the box on 
that side, disengages the upper end of thejvertical bar and 
allows that and the horizontal bar connected therewith to fall, 
the horizontal bar then liberating the catch of the frame on 
that side and allowing the springs to throw that frame 
outwards, when the wheel of that frame coming into contact 
with the ground will prevent the coach from overturning, 
another catch then keeping the frame in its outward position. 
Instead of the ball and box a pendulum may be used. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing,'] 

A,D. 1825, October 13.— No. 5267. 
EASTOJST, Josiah. — Steam carriages, &c. This invention 
relates partly to the construction of vehicles for ascending 
inclines, and secondly to the construction of tramroads. A 
rack may be laid in the centre of the road with which a pinion 
carried by an elevating and depressing frame on the carriage 
engages. This pinion is driven by power. Horizontal guides 
or pressure wheels may be also used, to grasp the sides of a 
central rib or rail. To tow carriages on the improved tram- 
road, the pole of the carriage projects laterally, so that the 
horse walks on a kind of tow path at the side of the road. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1825, November 7.— ]STo. 5279. 
SEATON, Thomas.— Constructing carriages and wheels, &c. 
The body of the carriage or waggon, is constructed of a system 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 205 

of diagonally placed or lattice-worked bars of wood or metal, 
secured at the intersections and to uprights, which latter fit 
into mortices in the bed pieces. Near the lower ends of the 
uprights are mortices into which are fitted horizontal bars, 
which support the floor of the waggon. The bed pieces are 
rectangular boxes of metal strengthened internally at intervals 
by blocks. of metal and externally by bands. 

The wheels are of iron, the spokes being springs of oval 
shape and are either arranged in single or double series. The 
naves are of cast iron or other suitable metal, into which the 
inner ends of the springs are secured. The naves may be 
cast on the axles or otherwise secured. The latter work 
through the centres of the blocks placed inside the above 
described bed pieces and they are secured by means of grooves 
at those parts where they run in the blocks, and garter pieces. 

The circular locking plate is shown. There are two hooks 
fixed to the upper fore-bed of the carriage which pass under 
the locking plate and serve to prevent the carriage rocking on 
the lower bed. 

The patentee claims that by this method of construction of 
carriage concussion is diminished. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1825, November 7.— No. 5280. 

HUNTER, G-eorge. — Wheels. This invention chiefly relates 
to various modifications of a system under which each of the 
wheels of the vehicle runs inside the periphery of a larger 
wheel, the latter thereby forming a rail or tram for the car- 
riage wheel to progress upon. Under some of these modifica- 
tions the large wheels have rails or ribs, the smaller corre- 
sponding grooves. In another form the inside of the larger 
or " road " wheel is flat and the carriage wheel is confined to 
its place by side pieces on the " road " wheel. These wheels 
may be of metal or partly of metal and partly of wood. 

An arrangement is also shown for turning the carriage 
without causing the fore wheels to move under the carriage 
and thereby enabling them to be made as large as the hind 
wheels. Instead of pivotting the axle at its centre, it is 
attached to the end of an arm at right angles to it. This arm 
is pivotted at its centre, and steadied at the end farthest from 



206 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

the axle. Consequently the axle turns at some distance from 
the centre of motion. 

[Printed, lOd. Drawing.^ 

A.D. 1825, November 8.— No. 5281. 

BRANDRETH, Thomas Shaw. — " An improved mode of 
" constructing wheel carriages to be used upon railroads, or 
" for other similar purposes." 

This invention consists in the first place in fixing the hind 
wheels of a railway carriage upon an axle in the ordinary manner, 
and then placing upon this axle a second axle on which are 
two " friction sheaves "having flat faces, these sheaves resting 
upon the axle of the bearing wheels, and sustaining the body 
of the carriage, such sheaves running upon the lower axle, 
between the naves of the wheels and certain inside collars. 
The axles of the sheaves and of the bearing wheels work in 
bearings which are supported in slotted brackets, projecting 
downwards, and connected at the lower ends with stays placed 
diagonally, the latter being connected at their upper ends by 
tie bars placed horizontally, and forming the main supporting 
beams of the carriage ; being fastened by means of flanches 
to wooden cross beams, upon which the floor of the carriage is 
laid. As regards the front wheels of the carriage the arrange- 
ment is similar, with the exception of there being in this case 
only one friction sheave, which rests upon the middle of 
the lower axle, working between two collars thereon. The 
sheaves are formed of iron, cast in iron cases or moulds, 
which gives smoothness and hardness to their faces, and the 
latter may, if preferred, be slightly rounded, so as to prevent 
the sheaves from "running on an edge," and the axles of the 
sheaves work in bushes of brass or soft cast-iron, which are so 
arranged as to have a slight amount of play in the bearing. 
Several advantages are mentioned as arising from the use of 
these bushes, and the parts of the invention mentioned above 
may all be applied to locomotive engines as well as to car- 
riages. The carriage body may either consist of a mere frame 
or platform on which may be placed bales, bags or boxes of 
merchandise, or it maybe composed of two boxes, "open to 
" each other in the middle," and connected at the top by 
hinges, and at the bottom by bolts and shackles; one box 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 207 

resting upon the front and the other upon the hind wheels of 
the vehicle, and being capable, on the removal of the bolts 
and shackles, of separating at the lower parts (the framework 
being so arranged as to separate with them) and allow of the 
discharge of the load into a vessel or receptacle beneath, the 
parts being prevented from receding from each other too far 
by means of certain chains or jointed rods. The patentee 
mentions that this mode of constructing the body of a 
carriage, " though new," he does not claim as being included 
in his patent, and also that the invention " is applicable to 
1 ' tram roads and other similar roads, though less beneficially 
" than to railroads." 

[Printed, hd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1825, December 3.— No. 5301. 

POPE, William. — " Certain improvements on wheeled car- 
" riages." 

This invention consists mainly in the application to a car- 
riage of what the patentee terms a " detached or revolving 
" hinder axletree," which is fitted to a second bed," and at- 
tached to the first or ordinary bed by " a revolving spindle," the 
arrangement in fact consisting in the employment of a hind 
axle from the centre of which a horizontal spindle projects, 
this spindle passing through a socket attached to the ordinary 
bed and also through an eye connected with the perch, the 
intention of the arrangement apparently being that the axle 
may turn to some extent in the socket and eye when the 
wheels are passing over uneven ground, there being in the 
" second bed" certain stops, "to receive, catch, or stop the 
' ' other part of the carriage wh en it is raised on either side to 
" a degree of danger," the parts being, moreover, strength- 
ened if necessary by the application of certain plates and 
bolts. In applying the invention to an old carriage the 
springs " remain on the old bed," and the additional axletree 
maybe cranked if desirable, "to bring the load nearer the 
t( ground." The patentee states that he occasionally makes 
use of the ordinary curricle bar, but arranged in such a manner 
as to become a fixture with the pole of the carriage, the bar 
resting on the horses' backs, " to stop or prevent the upsetting 
" of the carriage." In two-wheeled vehicles the ends of the 



208 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

shafts are secured to the horse's shoulders by bringing braces 
round the animal's fore legs close up to the breast, " to keep 
the ends of the shafts from shifting or rolling round." 

[Printed, bd. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1825, December 14.— No. 5310. 
ADAMS, Robert. — " Method of propelling or moving ear- 
" riages of various descriptions on turnpike, rail, or other 
" roads." 

[No Specification enrolled.] 

A.D. 1826, January 23.— No. 5325. 
STEPHENSON, Robert. — Axles. The object of this in- 
vention is to facilitate the passage of curves by giving to each 
wheel an independent motion. Each wheel is attached to a 
separate axle which extends across the carriage and at the 
other end is fitted with a ball and socket bearing. The wheel 
end runs in a vertical slot to allow a certain freedom of play. 
[Printed, %d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1826, May 23.— No. 5366. 

BIRT, Thomas P arrant. — " Certain improvements or additions 
" to wheeled carriages." 

This invention ' ' ensures the safety of the passengers from 
" accidents by overturning the coach, the equilibrium being 
" preserved by stowing the whole of the luggage at the 
" bottom of the vehicle instead of placing it upon the roof 
" agreeably to the mode at present universally adopted." By 
a novel mode of constructing the carriage "the inside pas- 
" sengers sit higher than the outsides, and all have their 
iC faces towards the horses. The outside passengers sit before 
" the inside in that part which was formerly considered as 
" tjie body of the coach, and are by that means placed four 
" feet lower than they are in the common stage coach ; the 
" luggage is placed beneath them in the bottom of the coach." 
The invention also includes " a new method of dragging the 
lt wheel on either side by a very simple and easy process. A 
(i small lever is fixed to the boot which is connected to a skid 
" iron fixed on the hind bed by means of a shaft, with a spring 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 209 

" attached to it, winch acts immediately the lever is thrown 
" off and places the skid under the wheel, where it is detained 
" until by an application of the driver's hand to the lever, it 
*' is released instantaneously." 

Another part of the invention relates to the arrangement of 
the splinter bar, " it working on a swivel from the centre of 
" each horse's draft affixed to the main bar," various advan- 
tages being mentioned as arising from this arrangement. 
The " draft of the carriage being from the spring" is men- 
tioned as another advantage, but it is not clearly set forth 
how this part of the invention is effected. 
[Printed, bd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1826, May 23.— ISTo. 5371. 

SLAGGr, Richard. — " An improvement in the manufacture 
" of springs, chiefly applicable to carriages." 

This invention consists " in rolling steel for making carriage 
( ' springs by grooved rolls, made convex in the bottom of the 
" groove, so as to make each side of the bars of steel concave, 
" also with horizontal rolls (not hitherto used) to keep the 
" edge of the bars of regular thickness ; by w T hich means the 
" spring is less liable to get out of order, and it also saves 
" much labor and time to spring makers by giving a con- 
" cavity to the bar which has hitherto been forged by the 
" hand." 

[Printed, 3d. No Drawings.] 

A.D. 1826, August 2.— No. 5400. * 

WRIGHT, Samuel Wellman. — Trucks for removing casks, 
&c. These improvements in the construction of trucks are 
intended to facilitate transmission of casks and other heavy 
packages in warehouses and other places, where such articles 
may be required to be piled one on the other or taken down 
and removed. 

The invention consists in fitting the truck with a skid upon 
which the cask or other object is to rest. This skid is ele- 
vated from the truck and lowered upon it by means of levers 
worked by chains and pulleys, or by rack gearing. If it be 
required to take down a cask from the top of other casks, the 



210 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE YEHICLES 

skid is raised to a level with it, after which tlie cask is hauled 
on to the skid by a chain and screw gearing attached to the 
truck. By working a handle the skid is then lowered on the 
truck and the latter may then be moved with its burden. 
Similarly casks may be lifted into their places and stacked. 
A loose skid is sometimes added to facilitate loading from or 
unloading on to the ground. Various modifications of the 
invention are shown. 

[Printed, 2s. M. Drawings."] 

A.D. 1826, August 22.— Eo. 5405. 

BUSTALL, Timothy, and HILL, John. — Propelling carriages 
by steam power. These improvements consist firstly in sup- 
porting the boiler on a third pair of wheels, in order that it 
may be as far removed from the carriage as possible. For 
good roads it is proposed to support and bolt the back end of 
the boiler on the axle, and the end next the engine or fore end 
on a centre pin fastened to the engine frame, " by which it is 
ft drawn on a forked perch." On bad roads where springs are 
necessary, the boiler is put into a frame fitted with springs 
hung on the before-mentioned pin and bolted into the axle. 
In the case of a vertical boiler it is put into a frame which 
hooks on to the rear end of the engine frame and has a pair of 
wheels at the rear. The latter with their axle, swivel on a pin 
fitted to the frame. 

The improvements also relate to a flexible joint in the steam 
pipe between the boiler and the engines. 

The propulsion is effected by means of cranks working 
toothed wheels which engage with other toothed wheels in the 
axles, the latter are loose on the axles but are put into driving 
gear by means of a sliding clutch. The toothed gearing is 
proportioned according to the speed and power. 

The carriage is steered from the front by means of a pitch 
chain passing round pulleys in the front and connected at the 
two ends with the ends of the front axle tree. The latter is 
pivotted to the end of the perch. The springs are under the 
platform of the conductor instead of being under the seat. 
{Printed, 10c?. Drawing.'] 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 211 

A.D. 1826, October 11.— No. 5415. 
JONES, Theodore. — Wheels. This invention consists in so 
constructing wheels that the weight of the carriage is sus- 
pended from the upper part of the wheel instead of being 
supported by the spokes upon the part on the ground. The 
spokes or suspending bars have conical heads fitting into 
countersunk holes or mortices in the felloes and tire of the 
wheel. Their other ends are screwed and fit into cells cast or 
otherwise constructed in the nave, where they are tightened 
up by nuts. Various forms of wheel are shown, with single 
and double rows of spokes. 

[Printed, Is. 3d. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1826, October 18.— No. 5420. 
VINEY, James, and POCOOK, George. — Propelling carriages 
by kites. " This Patent is obtained for an invention by which 
" kites are made to act as endyant sails, for the purpose of 
" navigating or drawing vessels or drawing carriages." " The 
" peculiarities of these kites are :— First, they are rendered 
" portable by folding up, there being joints in the wings, and 
' ' also in the standard. Second, there is a moveable distender, 
" by which the wings are spread. Third, they have four 
" lines by which their power is controlled or their course 
" directed. Fourth, the invention a] so consists of attaching 
" kite after kite at a convenient distance one behind the 
" other." 

"The Patent also includes carriages drawn by these kites. 
" The peculiarities of which are: — First, in the centre of 
" front seat is a T handle, the perpendicular spindle, of which 
" passing through the bed of the car, fits by a square at the 
" lower end into a small horizontal wheel fixed to the centre 
" pivot of front axletree ; by this apparatus, called the guide, 
" the course of the charvolant is directed. Second, beneath 
" the car, suspended by a spring, is a drag or regulator, acting 
" by a lever power or a windlass, by which the velocity is 
" controlled or the machine stopped. Third a platform with 
{< wheels is attached behind, for the carrying a poney." 
[Printed, hd. Drawing.'] 



212 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

A.D. 1826, November 18.— No. 5423. 
LACY, Henry Charles. — Springs. This invention relates 
to " the suspending of carriage bodies on elastic beds or 
11 bearings," such as spiral or other springs, or india-rubber 
blocks, "which elastic beds or bearings need not be fastened 
either to the body or the under-carriage of the vehicle, but 
are confined and kept in proper position for acting with 
effect by being enclosed in cylinders or cases, which cylin- 
ders or cases are firmly secured to the under carriage, each 
of which cylinders or cases having one or more guide 
pillar or pillars (also firmly secured), on which guide 
pillar or pillars a vertically moving bar or plate works, 
which bars or plates are connected by means of joints, links, 
or shackles to the body of the carriage ; and by means of 
which pillars and bars or plates so connected and attached 
the body of the carriage is suspended on the elastic beds 
or bearings, and kept in its proper position." 
[Printed, Is. Id. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1826, December 20.— No. 5438. 
ANDEEWS, Frederick. — Steam carriage. The various im- 
provements comprised under the head of this invention relate 
to a method of passing the crank shaft through an aperture 
constructed for the purpose through the boiler, by which 
means the boiler may be hung nearer the ground ; to a method 
of mounting the cylinder on springs ; to the fire box of the 
boiler, and also to a method of steering. The carriage is sup- 
ported on four wheels. In front of the carriage is a frame 
attached to the leading axletree and holding a single and 
smaller wheel. This wheel is controlled by a tiller from the 
carriage and the frame being weighed by luggage or otherwise, 
the movement to the right or left of the tiller or handle steers 
the carriage. The carriage is built over the machinery with 
accommodation for inside and outside passengers and a box in 
front for the steerer. 

[Printed, 8d Drawings.] 

A.D. 1827, January 15.— No. 5448. 
HALL, William Wilmot. — (A communication.) Propelling 
carnages. This invention does not relate to any peculiar 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 213 

construction of machinery for the above purpose, but it con- 
sists in constructing the boiler in such a way that, by means 
of a pump fitted thereto and worked by the engine, the heated 
gases, the products of combustion in the furnace, are drawn 
from the chimney or flue and forced into the boiler. Thence 
they pass with the steam to the engines. The piston of the 
pump has metallic packing and is single or double acting. 

[Printed, bd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1827, January 15.— No. 5450. 

NEYILLE, James. — Steam carriage. An oakTraming supports 
the machinery necessary for driving the hinder wheels. These 
are of large diameter, formed by connecting, the wooden 
felloes to the cast iron nave by means of a double set of 
wrought iron arms or spokes. The wheels are furnished with 
iron tires studded with steel buttons or projections, to secure 
adhesion. When steep hills are to be ascended, instead of the 
studs there are attached to the peripheries, plates of elastic 
steel about eighteen inches long, which are roughened on 
their outside surfaces. " These elastic steel plates are to be 
" the width of the tire, and are affixed at one end by counter- 
" sunk screws thereto, so that " when not compressed they 
" will form tangents to the circumference of the wheel." 
They will be enabled sc to assume the circular form of the tire 
" as they ascend with the wheel from the ground; at the 
' ' same time their extended surface will occasion greater re- 
" sistance and prevent the wheels from slipping." 

The axle of the hinder wheels is cranked and is worked by a 
pair of oscillating cylinders. The wheels are however loose 
on the axle and are driven by toothed differential gearing 
controlled by a clutch apparatus. The machinery is managed 
both from the front, where the conductor is stationed, and 
from the rear where the fireman sits on a seat supported by 
springs. The carriage is supported on horizontal springs, a 
centre and inverted one resting on the end of two others, 
and is steered by a toothed pinion and segment moving a 
steering wheel in front. A fan is used to urge the fire. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing.] 



214 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1827, January 15.— No. 545L 

MASON, William. — " Certain improvements in the construe- 
" tion of those axletrees and boxes which are usually termed 
" or known by the name of mail axletrees and boxes." 

In this invention the nave of a carriage wheel is provided 
with a cast iron box, wedged therein, and with end plates 
through which and through the nave bolts past as usual, the 
nave also being hooped as usual. On the arm of the axle, 
and enclosed by the inner portion of the nave, is a solid 
collar, the latter working inside the back plate of the nave, 
there being, however, a collar of leather between the two. 
On the other side of the collar on the axle is also another 
leather collar which bears against a projecting ring formed 
within the box of the nave the oil being thus prevented from 
escaping at that end of the box. The arm of the axle consists 
in the first place of a " wearing part" which is larger than 
the rest, there being beyond this a reduced part which leaves a 
space around it forming a receptacle for oil, and beyond this, 
again, is a part of still less diameter, this entering a cylindrical 
hole formed in the centre of a plug which is screwed into the 
front end of the nave box. The bottom or end of this hole is 
flat, but the end of the axle against which it bears is slightly 
convex, the friction between the two being thus reduced. A 
piece of leather may, however, be placed in the end of the 
hole if desired. In order to adjust the position of the nave 
upon the axle leather washers of different thicknesses are used, 
which may be placed between the flange of the screwed plug 
and the end of the nave, and the exact position of the plug 
may be adjusted by there being a number of holes in the end 
of the nave box, through any of which a screw may be passed 
which passes through the flange of the plug also. A similar 
effect may be produced by introducing washers of leather of 
different thicknesses into the hole in the plug. Oil for the 
lubrication of the parts is introduced through a hole in the 
plug, which communicates with other holes through one of 
which oil poured into the first hole finds its way into the 
reservoir in the front part of the nave box, the air escaping 
through the other hole. From the reservoir in front the oil 
passes along grooves in the box to a second reservoir in the 



FOB, COMMON BOABS. 215 

back of the latter, the whole of the parts being thus efficiently 
lubricated. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing,'] 

A.D. 1827, May 8.— No. 5497. 
BEJSTTLEY, David. — " An improved carriage wheel." 

In this invention a metallic bush is first formed, through 
which is an opening for the reception of a " straight axletree," 
there being in the outer surface of the bush recesses for the 
reception of the inner ends of the spokes of the wheel, and 
these recesses being so arranged that the inner end of one 
spoke is near one end of the bush, while the inner end of the 
next spoke is near the other end of such bush, plates being 
bolted to the end of the nave, into which the bush is inserted, 
the latter being provided with ribs or edge pieces which aid in 
securing it in its place in the nave, the latter being composed 
of wood, in the ordinary manner. The felloe of the wheel is 
of wood, and arranged in segments, the whole being sur- 
rounded by a tyre which consists of a hoop or rim, " welded 
" or otherwise fastened together with a concave surface," the 
parts of the felloe being held in position within the tyre by 
means of wedge pieces and bolts. 

The patentee mentions that he claims, as being of his 
invention the construction of a carriage wheel " the spokes 
* ' or radia of which constitute or represent the form of a 
" double cone, which by being united at the centre, as de- 
' ' scribed, will be much stronger and admit of a [change or 
" repair of any of its parts without injuring the other parts 
" of the wheel." 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1827, May 26.— No.. 5500. 
BUBGrES, George. — Wheels and carriages. — This invention 
relates firstly to an improved axle box, called by the patentee 
an " hexacycle axle box." The inside is formed of six equal 
convex segments of a circle whose diameter is determined by 
that of the spindle about which it is to revolve. The outside 
of the box is hexagonal and fits into the nave. 

It also relates to an improved wheel, the spokes and felloes 
of which are made up of twelve pairs of similar "hexagonic 



216 CARRIAGES A1STD OTHEE VEHICLES 

" segments of a circle, so disposed as to form six radiating 
" ellipses for the spokes and six peripherical ellipses for the 
" felloes." " The two ends of each peripherical semi-ellipse 
" are united to each other by a tenon and mortice ,? and " the 
" two ends of the semi-elliptical spokes are fixed into the 
" nave, by means of a triangular shoulder, the six ends of 
" three contiguous ellipses are united at the periphery of the 
" wheel by two metal plates, countersunk inside and outside 
" of the wheel and rivetted to each other," and " wedges are 
" driven from the periphery each quite through the semi- 
" elliptical " felloes and " only partially through the senii- 
" elliptical spokes." 

The improvements in carriages consist in disposing the 
wheels in particular positions to be calculated according to the 
methods set out in the specification. A carriage having a 
trapezoidal base is mounted on four wheels the axles of which 
are disposed at the corners of a square placed diagonally to 
the framing. Thus the front and hind wheel are in line, the 
two side wheels being parallel. A three-wheeled carriage is 
also described the position of the wheels being similarly 
calculated. 

" The direction of the carriage is effected by various peris- 
" trephic movements applied to the fore and hind wheels." 
Various methods are described, but " any other mechanical 
" contrivance capable of giving the directions required " may 
be used. 

The improvements also comprise what the patentee terms 
" hyperbolic shafts." These shafts are curbed hyperbolically 
and the mode of attachment to the splinter bar and a pole, and 
the points of attachment of the draught harness are deter- 
mined according to a method of calculation described in the 
specification. 

[Printed, Id. Drawing?^ 

A/D. 1827, June 28.— No. 5513. 

FULLER, Thomas. — " Certain improvements on wheel car- 
" riages." 

This invention consists in adapting to four-wheeled carriages 
apparatus " which is designed to prevent such carriages over- 
" turning, by preserving the body nearly in a horizontal 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 217 

ft position at the time that one of the wheels accidentally 
" passes over an obstruction or elevation in the road, and 
" which obstruction without this contrivance would inevitably 
" throw the carriage over." A circular horizontal locking 
wheel is affixed to the front part of the carriage, which bears 
upon the bed of the front axletree, and upon segments sup- 
ported by arms extending from the bed, being thus provided 
with bearings upon which it turns in the act of locking, the 
axletree bed itself being attached to and supported by the 
front springs of the vehicle. A horizontal bar crosses the 
middle of the locking wheel, and is attached to it by ears and 
bolts, there being a circular hole in the middle of this bar 
through which a pin passes, and this pin forming the pivot 
on which the locking wheel turns. The ends of the bar which 
extend beyond the wheel are cylindrical, and upon these are 
mounted plummer boxes or gudgeons, from which extend bent 
arms which support the front part of the body of the carriage, 
the result of the whole arrangement being that in the event of 
one of the fore wheels running over any elevated obstruction 
which may be in the road the axletree will as usual be thrown 
out of its horizontal position, but the body of the carriage in 
front will be retained in its horizontal position by the plummer 
boxes or gudgeons from which the bent arms proceed which 
support it turning upon the cylindrical ends of the hori- 
zontal bar. 

[Printed, 5d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1827, August 15.— No. 5542. 

SPONGr, William. — Antifriction axles. This invention con- 
sists in causing the revolving axle to bear against a single 
anti-friction roller instead of a fixed bearing. The wheels do 
not run on the main axletree but on shorter axles held at the 
ends of main axletree. These short axles run in a fork formed 
at right angles to the end of the axletree, the thrust being 
taken up by a stop or shoulder fitted to the axletree and 
properly lubricated. At the end of the axletree, outside the 
fork and above the axle is secured a friction roller, against 
which the axle rotates, the latter is held up against the roller 
by placing underneath it in the fork a block of wood or 
leather, which also holds the lubricating material. Hollow 



218 CAKEIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

places are constructed in the axletree to hold oil for lubri- 
cating. 

[Printed, 7d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1827, October 11.— No. 5554. 

GTFBJSTEY, GtOlbswoethy. — Steam carriage.^ The external ap- 
pearance of this carriage resembles that of the ordinary stage 
coach. It is mounted on four wheels as usual, and two small 
wheels, called pilot wheels, are added at the front end of the 
pole. These wheels are used to guide the carriage. The 
framework consists of three longitudinal perches placed parallel 
to each other, and extending the length of the coach. The 
two steam cylinders are placed horizontally between them. 
There are also two other longitudinal pieces disposed close to 
the hinder wheels. All five are united by transverse rails, so 
as to form a frame, the hinder end of which is sustained by 
the main axis of the hinder wheels and the fore end by the 
under carriage belonging to the fore wheels. The rear end of 
the pole extends beneath the centre perch, and is attached 
thereto by a bolt, around which the pole and the whole under 
carriage can be turned in order to give the fore wheels the 
required direction. " The axletree of the fore wheels bears 
" the pole by means of horizontal under springs which are 
" fastened crossways by their middles to the under side of the 
" pole, and their extremities are suspended from two other 
" short springs which are fastened crossways by their middles 
" upon the axletree of the front wheels." The pilot wheels 
are turned in either direction by means of a lever worked 
from the coach box. The tendency of the wheel is always to 
run in a straight line forwards, because a spring is fitted to 
keep them in their position. Consequently, directly the 
steersman ceases to restrain the lever, the pilot wheels adjust 
themselves. The movement of the pilot wheels turns the fore 
# wheels of the coach into the required direction. 

The front boot of the coach is reserved for baggage, and the 
coachman's seat is fixed on this boot. Three other seats are 
provided for outside passengers in the usual way, and a seat is 
fixed behind the framing for the engineman. The boiler occu- 
pies the place of the rear boot, and is immediately over the 
rear axletree. The body is sustained in front by iron branches 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 219 

fixed to the perches, and the hinder part rests oil two strong 
springs fixed upon the longitudinal pieces before mentioned. 
The weight of the hinder part rests on the axletree of the rear 
wheels by means of brass bearings " which are applied beneath 
" the longitudinal rails of the framing in order to receive 
" cylindrical necks formed upon the axis close to where it 
" enters into the naves of the wheels. The springs rest im- 
" mediately above these bearings. The middle part of the 
1 ( axis is received in another bearing which is fastened beneath 
" the middle perch. The two extremities of the axis of the 
" hinder wheels are round, and they are fitted into boxes in 
" the centres of the naves of the wheels in a similar manner 
" to the axletrees of other coaches, and the axis may turn 
" round independently of the wheels." A contrivance is 
provided by which the wheels or either of them may be made 
to turn with the axle. On ordinary roads one wheel may be 
free, the other being fast for driving purposes. 

The escaping steam passes into a tank surrounded by a 
water casing. A fan is used to urge the fire. The description 
of the engines is not included in the series. 
[Printed, Is. 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1827, December 4.— No. 5574. 
MEADEN, John. — Wheel tires. — This invention consists in 
making the tires concave on their inner surfaces, to fit convex 
felloes. The iron for the tire is first rolled to the required 
section, made into a hoop, and brought to size by hammering 
on a cone of the proper dimensions. To shrink on the tire, 
the wheel is securely clamped to a metal dish supported hori- 
zontally on a pin passing through the nave, and resting on a 
friction collar. . . . The tire is put on hot, after which the 
metal dish and wheel are tilted on the centre pin, which is 
fitted to a horizontal axis for the purpose, so that the periphery 
of the wheel dips into a water tank. There is a friction roller 
in the tank to prevent the wheel dropping too far. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1827, December 19.— No. 5591. 
HOLLOND, Thomas Stanhope.— Propelling carriages, &c— 
The propulsion is effected by means of a leading and a trailing 



220 CAEEIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

wheel connected by a system of levers arranged on the prin- 
ciple of a lazy tongs. These wheels are capable of moving 
with their frames along the longitudinal perch of the carriage, 
but by means of ratchets they can only rotate in one direction. 
If the lazy tongs be compressed, the leading wheel being 
unable to reverse its rotation, the trailing wheel must neces- 
sarily be brought up to it. Then as the lazy tongs is expanded 
the trailing wheel being unable to run backwards, the leading 
wheel is compelled to progress, and so propel the carriage. 
The compression and expansion are effected by hand levers. 
[Printed, Is. Id. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1827, December 21 — No. 5592. 
HABLAND, William. — Steam carriage. This invention re- 
lates to improvements in the engines and boiler used in the 
propulsion of a steam carriage. It also relates to the arrange- 
ment of a condenser, which is disposed on the framing of the 
carriage under what would in ordinary carriages be the driving 
box. 

The crank shaft is supported by four standards, " fitted with 
' ' sliding bushes to a motion corresponding with that of the 
" springs." On this shaft are two driving pinions of unequal 
size which gear with similar pinions on the hind axle. These 
driving pinions are thrown in and out of gear according as 
the speed is required to be increased or diminished. Perpen- 
dicular guides are provided for the purpose of keeping the 
crank shaft and axletree parallel to each other during the 
action of the springs. 

In order to steer the carriage, a vertical spindle extends up- 
wards from the centre of the fore axle. At the top it is 
fitted with a horizontal wheel worked by an endless screw or 
" toothed female screw," by turning which in either direction 
the direction of the wheels is altered. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1828, March 20.— No. 5628. 
GOUGH, Nathan. — Steam carriages. — The boiler is mounted 
at the back of the carriage, and the engines are placed in a 
box partly underneath and in rear of the carriage. They drive 
the hind wheels by means of pitch chains working on the ends 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 221 

of the engine shaft and pinions on the naves of the wheels. 
The conductor sits in front, and from his place, by means of 
hand and foot levers, controls the machinery and steers the 
carriage. 

The steering is done in the following manner. Each of the 
two front wheels is separate from the others, there being no 
transverse axletree. Each wheel is attached to a vertical 
pillar, which moves freely at the upper parts, and rests on the 
end of a transverse spring at the bottom. At the extremities 
of the short axletree arms there are connecting rods which 
are put in motion by a hand lever working a vertical shaft. At 
the time of working the hand levers the valves of the engines 
are so controlled by means of a shaft and gearing communi- 
cating with the steering gear, that the wheel on the opposite 
side to that to which the carriage is turning is caused to travel 
faster than the other. The engine is also fitted with differ- 
ential motion gearing worked also from the front of the car- 
riage. An index pointer is added to assist the steersman. 
[Printed, Is. lid. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1828, April 15.— No. 5638. 

WRIGHT, Lemuel Wellman. — " Improvement or improve- 
** ments in the construction of wheel carriages, and in the 
" machinery employed for propelling, drawing, or moving 
" wheel carriages." 

In this invention a strong framework is in the first place 
formed of a number of longitudinal beams connected by up- 
rights and cross bars, and on the top of this framework is 
placed a close carriage body for inside passengers, and also a 
body which is surmounted by a roof raised upon pillars, and 
furnished at the sides and ends with curtains which may be 
closed or opened at pleasure. There are also seats for a con- 
ductor and other persons. Below the carriage bodies are two 
metal cylinders for the reception of compressed air with 
which they are filled in the first instance from stationary 
reservoirs, the air being allowed to pass from them to a third 
cylinder in which it is rarefied and rendered more expansive by 
the heat from a furnace arranged for the purpose, pipes from the 
furnace leading hot air through the air in this third cylinder. 
Such air is then admitted to the cylinders of an engine suit- 



222 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

ably arranged in the lower part of the framing, the piston 
rods of the engine being provided with connecting rods, and 
these acting upon cranks in a shaft mounted in suitable bear- 
ings, and carrying pulleys from which straps proceed to 
pulleys fixed upon the naves of the hind wheels of the 
vehicle, such wheels being thus caused to rotate and propel 
the vehicle. If preferred, the heat from the furnace, or steam 
generated thereby, may be mixed with the compressed air in 
the cylinders of the engines, and the third cylinder mentioned 
above be dispensed with, and a crank or eccentric on the 
shaft worked by the connecting rods of the engines may be 
made to work a force pump, and so compress air into the 
cylinders first mentioned when the vehicle is going down hill, 
such pump also acting as a brake. The carriage is guided by 
means of a handle and certain shafts and gearing, by which 
motion is given to a pulley from which chains pass to a second 
pulley having connected to it other chains also connected with 
the front axle. At different stations in the road reservoirs of 
compressed air are maintained, from which the cylinders of 
the vehicle may be filled, and the invention includes a rotatory 
engine which is meant for propelling a carriage, this consist- 
ing essentially of a large cylinder having within it a smaller 
cylinder, the latter being provided with " piston leaves " which 
are hinged to it, against which steam or heated or compressed 
air may act, such piston leaves being opened and closed alter- 
nately by means of a stop piece and certain trip levers. 

The vehicle first mentioned is adapted to carry passengers 
and goods, and also to draw other carriages after it. 
[Printed, Sd. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1828, August 11.— No. 5680. 

HIGG-INS, John Lane. — " Certain improvements in wheel 
" carriages." I 

This invention relates to a carriage which is provided with 
two fore wheels, but with one hind wheel only. The perch is 
double, being composed of two parallel longitudinal bars, 
united by cross bars, and also passing through a transome, the 
hind wheel working between the two parts of the perch at the 
back. A "fore carriage" upon which the body of the car- 
riage rests, is described as consisting of a square frame, of 



FOB COMMON EOADS. 223 

which, the sides are curved downwards, this frame being sup- 
ported by springs which rest upon the axle of the front wheels. 
To the "bed" of the fore carriage, which is directly above 
the front axle, is connected an iron staple which forms a 
" double centre," the front of the perch passing through this 
staple, and certain curved pieces of timber which are con- 
nected to the transome working outside the ends of this staple, 
which extends over the greater part of the length of the 
transome. Futchells are connected to the fore carriage, and 
in one of the cross bars of the perch is a bolt or stud against 
which a curved bar or rod which is connected to the sway bar 
bears when the carriage is " on the lock," or being turned, the 
curved pieces mentioned above then turning around the ends 
of the staple. The result of the whole arrangement is that a 
body being placed on the fore carriage will turn with it "in 
" the same manner as a two-wheel carriage," the front 
wheels being of the same diameter as the hind wheel, and the 
body turning between them. Another body, boot, or seat may, 
however, be placed over the hind wheel, "with a recess for 
" that wheel to work in." The patentee mentions several 
advantages as arising from this invention. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1828, September 4.— No. 5694 
SEAWAED, John, and SEAWARD, Samuel.—" A new and 
" improved method or methods for propelling or moving car- 
" riages and all other vehicles on roads ; and also ships, boats, 
" and other vessels on water." 
\_2To Specification enrolled.] 

A.D. 1828, September 11.— No. 5700. 
MINTKEN, Thomas. — Seats, &c. for carriages and other pur- 
poses. — This invention consists in fitting a seat, such as an 
arm chair, with a moveable back and foot rest. These are so 
connected by a system of adjustable levers and palls, that as 
the back is raised towards a vertical position, the foot rest is 
simultaneously lowered, and vice versa. This movement may 
be performed from the chain itself by using the arms as fulcra. 
The invention is claimed to be useful in its application to 
carriages. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 



224 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1828, December 10.— No. 5727. 
RILEY, Zachariah.— Safety apparatus for carriages. This 
apparatus is for suddenly disengaging horses and for braking 
the wheels. 

The pins upon which the traces are hooked form part of 
an iron frame, connected with two levers, by means of which 
the frame and pins may be raised or lowered, the pins passing 
through the splinter bar. On raising the~ frame the ends of 
the pins enter into sockets in an upper iron bar for the 
purpose of holding the traces and when the frame is lowered, 
which may be done by releasing a lever held by a spring 
catch, the pins descend with it and release the traces. The 
act of releasing this lever also puts in motion another lever 
lying along the pole of the carriage. This lever acts to release 
the throat straps of the horses from the pole end, and also, 
when four horses are used, to release the swingletree. 

In order to prevent locking of the fore wheels when the 
horses are released the same operation causes a pin to pass 
through the futchels and to enter notches in the wheel plate, 
thereby fixing the fore carriage. 

The apparatus for securing the hind wheel, consists of a 
friction band round the nave and also a tumbler catch to be 
thrown by a lever into a groove in the nave of the wheel. 
This apparatus is worked by pulling a cord from the box or 
other part of the carriage. As the wheel always locks at the 
same point, a thick piece of steel is put upon the tire at the 
point where it then rubs against the ground, in order to save 
wear. 

[Printed, Sd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1828, December 15.— No. 5740. 

SLATER, John. — " Certain improvements on axletres, and 
the boxes for carriage wheels. 

The patentee thus sets forth his invention: — " I make a 
" large sized hole or hollow into the end inside of the axletree 
* * arm, and at or near to the bottom or lower part of the 
" said hole I make a small hole or holes into the side or 
" wearing part of the axletree arm, which hole or holes are 
" made to join and communicate with the large end hole 



FOE COMMON BOADS. 225 

" inside the said arm, and the small holes are made opposite 
" and pointing to the recess for the oil chambers in the 
" boxes of the axletree for introducing oil to the inside ; and 
" each box I first make in two or more separate parts, the 
" outside of wrought iron and the inside of brass or any other 
" metal or metals, with a recess or recesses, or oil chamber 
" or chambers inside or between the two metals. The out- 
" ward part or covering of the axletree boxes I make of 
" wrought iron, which iron is fitted on the outside of the 
" brass or other metal box, and is shrunk upon it while hot, and 
* ' both the outward and inward parts of the boxes are more 
1 ' secured together with screws or rivets for making the boxes 
" firm, which axle trees and boxes I make with or without 
" hole or holes in either of them, or the oil chambers or 
" recesses. And for the convenience of supplying the axle- 
" trees and boxes with oil there are recesses or grooves 
' ' inside the boxes and for my convenience I make the axle- 
" trees and boxes without any hole or holes, or oil reservoir 
" to either of them, and I make the inward parts of the boxes 
" of brass or any other metal or metals, and the outside of 
" the boxes I make of wrought iron, and secure the boxes to 
4 ' the axletrees in the usual manner, either with short screws 
" or long screws, bolts, or screws only, as most convenient, 
" the axletrees and boxes being so contrived that any of the 
" most approved principles may be applied for holding and 
" securing the boxes and wheels firm to the axletrees." 
[Printed, Sd. Drawing,'] 

A.D. 1828, December 18.— No. 5745. 
JOSEPHS, Edward. — " Certain improvements in wheels, 
" axletrees, and other parts of carts, waggons, and other 
" conveyances." 

This invention consists in certain arrangements for the 
purpose of enabling carts, waggons, and other vehicles of 
similar character, including trucks and drays, to be furnished 
with wheels of larger size than usual, " for the sake of obtain- 
" ing greater ease in the draught, and also for overcoming 
" any obstacles, asstones, holes, and ruts the more readily, 
" which it is the well-known property of high wheels to 
" effect." An arrangement suitable for a waggon is described 
in which the wheels are by preference six feet in diameter, 
G 239. H 



22$ CAEEIAGES AKD OTHEE VEHICLES 

" or higher/ ' the axletrees being cranked or bent downwards 
inside the arms, so that the parts of the axles upon which the 
body of the waggon rests are no higher than the axles of a 
waggon having wheels of the ordinary size. These portions 
of the axles are partially enclosed in woodwork, and secured 
to the summers or beams of the waggon by means of iron 
straps, the body of the waggon being, moreover, secured to 
the axles " sideways" by other straps or staples, and iron 
stays passing diagonally from the body of the carriage to the 
axles and aiding in maintaining them in their proper positions. 
One arrangement is set forth in which a waggon is provided 
with large hind wheels, while the fore wheels are of the usual 
size, and the patentee mentions that for the sake of obtaining 
f( greater strength, combined with lightness" he places all 
the beams or summers of the vehicle " edgeways of the timber 
" instead of breadthways," contrary to the usual custom. 
[Printed, Sd. Drawing,'] 

A.D. 1829, January 31.— No. 5764. 

PABKEE, Eobert. — " An improved drag or apparatus which 
" is applicable to stage coaches and other wheel carriages, 
" and whereby the motion thereof may be retarded or stopped 
" when required." 

' ' The structure of this improved drag may be explained by 
" comparing it to a human leg," the main parts consisting of 
a foot and shoe, an ancle joint, and a knee joint. The upper 
end of the leg is attached to the under side of the axle of 
the hind wheels of the vehicle by its knee joint, about 
which the leg is moveable, and may be drawn up by a person 
on the carriage pulling at a small line or chain and placing it 
upon a hook at the back part of the carriage. The drag is 
thus kept suspended, in an inclined position, the shoe being 
raised off the ground. The usual drag chain is connected kit 
one end to the perch or frame of the vehicle and at the other 
end to the foot of the drag ; the drag chain hanging slack 
when the drag is raised, and being clear of the ground. When 
it is requisite to apply the drag the small line or chain is 
detached from the hook (which may be effected by persons 
either inside or outside of the vehicle, and the drag then falls, 
bringing the shoe to the ground, the leg of the drag, by the 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 227 

advancing motion of the carriage, being then brought into 
a nearly upright position under the end of the axle, and so 
raising that end of the axle and the wheel thereon as to lift 
the wheel from the ground, the ordinary drag chain prevent- 
ing the drag from passing too far backwards. The drag now 
sustains all that part of the weight of the carriage which was 
previously borne by the raised wheel, and by its friction on 
the ground retards the progress of the carriage. The drag 
may instantly be released by again pulling at the small line 
or chain already mentioned, such line or chain being attached 
to the leg of the drag by a moveable ring, which with the aid 
of a bent lever and certain other details is adapted to confine 
the foot and shoe rigidly to the leg of the drag, when in 
action. The first effect of pulling at the line is to raise the 
ring and release the bent lever from it, the foot then becoming 
loose, and moveable about what is termed the ancle joint, the 
result being that the end of the axle descends and brings the 
wheel again to the ground, the further action of the line or 
chain raising the parts into their first position, another line 
or chain being so arranged that by pulling at it the end of 
the bent lever will be lodged within the moveable ring, again 
securing the foot rigidly to the leg ; a certain loop aiding to 
produce this effect. 

The details of this invention are minutely described, and 
may to some extent be varied. 
[Printed, Is. M. Drawings. .] 

A.D. 1829, May 30.— No. 5796. 

WINANS, Ross. — Diminishing friction in carriages. Accord- 
ing to this invention four secondary or friction wheels are 
employed "or two, if applied to two-wheeled carriages, made 
" of cast iron or other proper materials, and of about one-third 
" to one half the size of the running wheels, and having a rim 
" projecting on one side of each of them, the inside periphery 
" of which is turned smooth and cylindrical ; the necks, pivots, 
" or gudgeons of these secondary or friction wheels being 
" but short, they may of course be proportionally small in 
" diameter, and they must be made to turn in brass or other 
t( proper bearings affixed to the frame of the carriage, in 
" order to reduce or diminish their friction as much as 

H 2 



228 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" possible. The four main cast iron wheels which run 
61 upon the surfaces of the two rails of the railway may 
" either he fast or loose upon their axles, or one of them be 
" fast and the other loose, as occasion may require." " These 
u axles are made to extend on each side beyond the naves of 
" the main wheels, and are formed into cylindrical necks or 
" pivots, which act underneath the inside peripheries of the 
" friction wheels on each side, and thus hold up or support 
" above the rails the friction wheels and the frame and 
" body of the carriage, together with its load, and when the 
" carriage is moved forward the necks or pivots of the axles 
" roll or turn within the peripheries of the friction wheels, 
" causing them also to revolve slowly, whilst the necks or pivots 
" upon the ends of the axles of the friction wheels revolve 
" still more slowly in their brasses or bearings, and thus the 
" friction is reduced." 

The invention includes a mode of enabling carriages to 
travel round curves by giving the axles a certain degree of 
play in the bearings in which they work ; and also a mode of 
lubricating the axles and friction wheels. The power of 
turning curves is given by allowing the axle arm a certain 
liberty of play in the inside of the periphery of the friction 
wheel. 

[Printed, Is. Id. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1829, July 4.— No. 5808. 

CRABTREE, Robert. — Propelling carriages. A beam pivoted 
at its centre carries two rolling discs or weights, one at each 
end of the beam. They are connected by a system of bars 
after the fashion of a lazy tongs. To the support of the beam 
is also fitted a pendulum the upper end of which is connected 
with the lazy tongs. The effect of the oscillation of the pendu- 
lum is that the tongs are compressed on one side or the other 
of the centre of motion of the beam and consequently the 
position of the sliding weight on that side is also altered. 
The consequence is that the beam rocks, and this movement 
is made use of to work cranks in the wheel axles, or to propel 
the carriage by means of props or crutches. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawings.'] 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 229 

A.D. 1829, July 4— No. 5809. 
K1STOWLES, Margaret. — "An improvement in axletrees for 
" and mode of applying the same to carriages.' ' 

In this invention each fore wheel of a carriage has a separate 
axletree, and works loosely upon the arm thereof, as usual, 
the axletree being provided at some little distance inside the 
arm with a vertical standard or fulcrum mounted at the upper 
and lower parts in suitable bearings, the upper ends of the 
fulcrum being mounted and steeled, "soas to bear the weight 
' ' of the carriage and yet revolve without comparative fric- 
li tion," the axles turning upon these fulcra when it is 
necessary to turn the carriage. Diagonal braces are so placed 
as firmly to secure the axletrees to the standards or fulcra, 
and to the axletrees are also connected arms, which are 
united by a cross bar to which the pole of the carriage is 
jointed, the arms being also jointed to the axletrees in such 
manner that " they may play up and down in case the carriage 
11 is upon springs." The result of the whole arrangement is 
that when it is requisite to turn the carriage the movement of 
the pole in an angular direction causes both the axles of the 
front wheels to assume simultaneously angular positions cor- 
responding therewith. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1829, July 4.— No. 5811. 
SCULTHOEPE, George King. — "Certain improvements on 
" axles or axletrees, and coach and other springs." 

This invention consists, firstly, " in causing the arm of the 
" axle to be separate from the bed," and " to revolve in 
" the bed while it is fixed in the nave," this part of the 
invention including also "a mode of impeding or retard- 
" ing the revolutions or action of the said arm by means 
" of a wedge." The axletree bed consists of an iron bar 
passing across the carriage framing, and having, project- 
ing from it downwards, bearings in which work short axles, of 
which there is one to each wheel, the wheel being fixed upon 
the axle arm, outside the bearings, and wheel and axle revolv- 
ing together. Below each axle is mounted a lever, in con- 
nection with which is a wedge, and by pulling at a chain 
connected to the end of this lever, which chain may extend 



230 CAEKIAOES A"NT> OTHEE VEHICLES 

to any convenient part of the carriage, the wedge may be 
forced between the inner side of the bed and the axletree, 
thus retarding the movement of the latter end of the wheel, 
a spring removing the wedge from the axle when the cnain is 
released. The axletree and bearings are surronnded by a box 
or case, which serves to preserve them from dirt and also as a 
reservoir for oil. The iron bed of the axles is bolted to a wooden 
bed, placed immediately over it, and adjusting screws are 
applied to regulate the end play of the axles. 

Another part of the invention relates to an improved spring 
for carriages and other purposes, and consists in the employ- 
ment of a hollow inverted cone, which may be made of cast 
iron, and which is to be supported by suitable framing. To 
this inverted cone a cap is^fitted which is provided with a central 
collar, and through this collar a vertical rod is passed on the 
upper end of which " whatever weight is to be supported must 
" be placed," there being at the lower end of this rod a strong 
forked steel spring, which, as the rod is pressed down, is 
compressed by its ends bearing against the inner sides of the 
cone, such sides, however, causing a tendency to reaction in 
the spring and thus giving elasticity to the action of the rod, 
the inside of the cone being duly supplied with oil. 
[Printed, hd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1829, July 25.— No. 5819. 
QUETUST, Louis—Improved form of carriage. The patentee 
thus describes his improvements : — " My improved vehicle or 
" combination of vehicles is entirely supported upon one 
" single broad wheel of large diameter, such single wheel 
" being situated in the centre of the spaces between several 
" coach bodies, magazines, or boots, which are to contain 
" passengers, and luggage or goods, and which bodies, 
magazines, or boots are combined together by peculiar 
" mechanism so as all to hang on a framework which is 
*' supported by two pivots, one at each end of the axle of the 
" large single wheel, the said pivots projecting out from each 
" end of the nave or centre of that wheel in order to support 
** the said framework j the suspension and combination of the 
" different bodies to the said framework being effected in 
" such manner as that they shall exactly balance each other 



FOB COMMON EOADS. 231 

" at the opposite ends of the axle of the -wheel, as well as at 
" the opposite points of the circumference of the wheel before 
' f and behind the same, and also in such manner as that the 
" centre of gravity of the whole of the vehicle or combina- 
" tion of vehicles shall be considerably lower than the centre 
" or axle of the central wheel, whereby a security against 
" overturning or upsetting is obtained ; for the single wheel 
" which supports my new or improved vehicle or combination 
" of vehicles, being equally urged in opposite directions by 
" the balanced weights of all the several combined bodies, 
" will, of itself, have no tendency to depart from the vertical 
" position unless the centre of gravity of the whole mass is 
" moved forcibly sideways by accidentally coming in contact 
" with some obstacle ; and, to prevent any chance of over- 
" turning in such case, four rollers or small wheels are pro- 
" vided, one at each of the angles of the framework within 
" which the single central wheel is included, and upon which 
" framework all the bodies depend, so that there are two of 
" the said rollers on each side of the central wheel, or two 
" before and two behind the axle of that wheel. None of 
" these four rollers touch the ground when the great wheel is 
1 ' vertical or nearly so ; but whenever the wheel is caused by 
' c any obstacle to incline over considerably to one side, the 
<c rollers on that side will come to touch upon the ground, 
" and prevent so much inclination as would endanger the 
" oversetting of the vehicle ; and the said rollers are attached 
" to the framework by the intervention of springs, which 
' * yield when either of the rollers touch the ground, so as to 
" avoid any shock or concussion, and by the reaction of those 
" springs the great central wheel will be restored to the 
" natural vertical position as soon as the impulse which 
" caused it so to incline over on one side has ceased, and 
" when the equilibrium of the different bodies which are 
" suspended, as aforesaid, on the opposite sides of the wheel 
" regains its influence to preserve that wheel in its vertical 
" position. In some cases the said new or improved vehicle 
te may be made with only one body or vehicle suspended 
" concentrically with the wheel, and occupying the interior 
" of the wheel, which, in that case, can have no spokes or 
cc naves, but must be only a circular ring to which four or 
"■ more strong rails are firmly fixed so as to project out each 



232 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" way at right angles to the plane of the ring or wheel ; and 
" at each of the ends of those four or more rails crosses are 
" fixed to unite all the rails together, in order to form a sort 
" of cage or lantern framework which rolls over and over 
" when the ring of the wheel rolls along the road ; the weight 
" of the whole cage being supported upon the ring of the 
" wheel, which forms a zone at the middle of the length of 
" the cage. Within the interior of the cage the body or 
" vehicle is suspended upon centre pins, which are fitted into 
" the centres of the two crosses which form the ends of 
' ' the cage, the said centre pins being concentric with the 
" rim of the wheel; and by this means of suspension the 
" body or vehicle being made heavier on one side will always 
" hang the same way upwards within the cage or framework 
" when the same is rolling round to advance along the road. 
" Or otherwise, the new or improved vehicle or combination 
" of vehicles may consist of two distinct bodies or vehicles, 
" suspended and equally poised at the two ends of the axis of 
" a central wheel, which is made with spokes and a central 
" nave, and a long axis projecting out each way from that 
" nave in order that^ the said bodies or vehicles may be 
" suspended therefrom, one at each end, or at opposite sides 
" of the central wheel, in such manner as that each body or 
" vehicle may hang freely down from the said axis, or the 
" same way upwards." 

[Printed, 2s. 4d. Drawings.'] 



A.D. 1829, August 5.— No. 5827. 
BB0VOF, Thomas. — "An improved coach, particularly 
" adapted for public conveyance and luggage." 

This invention consists in " a new combination and arrange- 
" ment of various parts which have been heretofore used in 
*' carriages of different descriptions," but which parts are 
here combined and arranged in such manner that a vehicle 
is produced which possesses the advantages of lightness, 
safety , steadiness of motion, and great capacity for carrying 
luggage, which luggage is "on springs, and locked up under 
" cover." The vehicle is without perch or frame, the body 
thereof being brought nearer to the ground than usual. The 
fore carriage is made with " under springs," and " applied 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 233 

" immediately beneath the bottom of the fore boot, whereby 
" the pole, being upon springs, gives some ease to the wheel 
" horses." The hind axle is cranked downwards " so as to 
ts allow the usual hind boot to be enlarged at bottom into a 
" capacious luggage box," which extends forward under the 
body of the coach, the weight of the luggage being nearer to 
the ground than in ordinary arrangements, and great facility 
being afforded for loading and unloading, the danger of over- 
turning being thus also reduced. The springs of this vehicle 
are disposed lengthwise, and not combined with cross springs, 
" whereby much weight and wear is saved," and in conse- 
quence of these arrangements " the chief parts of the works " 
may be made "rather lighter than usual," and yet with les3 
risk of the vehicle breaking down, " because the parts thereof 
' * are less exposed to the strain of the swinging motion of the 
" body " on the spring. The body of the vehicle is fortified 
Underneath by making the bottom pieces, or " rockers " to 
extend the whole length of the vehicle, such rockers being 
curved upwards at the front ends " to clear the wheel transom 
" in locking," and being deep enough at the hinder ends "to 
" give the extra depth at bottom to the inside of the body 
" for the feet of the passengers." These rockers are 
strengthened by means of iron plates, cross framing, and 
boarding. The door at the back of the hind boot does not 
open down to the bottom of the luggage piece, and the cross 
piece beneath that door strengthens the bottom and also pre- 
vents parcels from falling out. The hinder springs are fixed 
across the hinder axletree, and from the ends of these springs 
the hinder part of the body is hung by iron fastenings which are 
fixed to the sides of the rockers, the eyes at the hinder ends 
" of the springs being oval, " in order to allow the springs to 
" play," and to the under Bides of the rockers are connected 
the inner ends of two other springs, these being provided at 
their lower sides with strong leather braces also connected to 
the rockers, and both springs and braces passing backwards 
to the cranked part of the hinder axle, the leather braces 
being united to that part of the axle by shackles, these springs 
and braces not only retaining the cranked axle in its place in 
the event of the upper springs giving way, but also at all 
times serving to assist such springs. 
[Printed, bd. Drawing.'] 



234 CAKBIA.GES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1829, September 30.— No. 5853. 

MOOBE, John. — Propelling and steering carriages, &c. The 
propulsion is effected by causing the power to act on bars that 
turn partly on the axis of the propelling wheels, such bars 
having clips at their ends worked by spring apparatus, in such 
a way that each bar seizes the periphery of the wheel in its 
clip, carries it partly round, releases it and then repeats the 
stroke. 

The fore carriage which is mounted on two wheels is 
pivoted at the front end ofj a perch, at the other end of which 
the remaining portion of the carriage is similarly pivotted. 
In front of the fore carriage is a horizontal pulley worked by 
a hand lever or wheel. A rope passes round this pulley, 
along each side of the fore carriage to a pulley on the perch 
between the two portions of the carriage. Then the rope 
crosses itself and the ends are then fastened to the front 
corners of the rear portion of the carriage. By turning the 
steering pulley therefore, the hind wheels are directed at the 
same time that the fore wheels are steered either way. 

The improvements also relate to steam condensing appa- 
ratus. 

[Printed, lOd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1830, January 26.— No. 5887. 
JOHNSON, G-eorge Frederick. — " A machine or apparatus 

which is intent ed as a substitute for drags for carriage 
" wheels and other purposes." 

This invention relates to the application of brakes to the 
naves of the wheels of carriages. On the nave of each wheel 
to which a brake is meant to be applied is fixed a ring, the 
periphery of which may be of angular or any other suitable 
form, a brake, of corresponding figure internally, being 
mounted upon a pivot or fulcrum which is supported by a 
projection from the bed of the carriage or the back of the 
axle. An arrangement is described in which each of the hind 
wheels of a four-wheeled vehicle has a ring and brake applied 
to it, the two brakes being pressed upon the rings simul- 
taneously when requisite by means of a lever mounted upon 
a suitable fulcrum, and being connected at its lower end to a 
second lever or bar, which passes across the framing of the 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 235 

vehicle between the wheels and is connected at the ends to 
the brakes throngh the medium of links, the arrangement 
being such that by moving the first lever in one direction the 
brakes are pressed upon the rings, while on moving it in the 
other direction they are released therefrom, the upper end of 
that lever forming a handle which may be conveniently 
operated upon from the back seat of the vehicle. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1830, February 27. No. 5906. 
GRISEOTHWAITE, William.— " An improved method of 
" facilitating the draft, or propulsion, or both, of wheeled 
te carriages." 

[JYb Specification enrolled.'] 

A.D. 1830, February 27.— No. 5908. 
POOLE, Moses. — (A communication.) — "A certain combina- 
" tion of or improvement in springs applicable to carriages 
" and other purposes." 

This invention consists "in so applying the weight of a 
" carriage or other body to be supported by a spring plate as 
" to cause the said plate to twist in a spiral direction, and the 
" tendency of which to untwist causes the necessary reaction 
" and elasticity required when the said body is put in 
" motion." 

An arrangement is described as being applicable to a stan- 
hope or dennet, in which the shafts consist of prolongations 
of the sides of a frame which extends backwards below the 
body of the vehicle, the splinter bar being connected with the 
front of this frame. Within this frame, and parallel with 
the sides thereof are mounted two broad spring plates of steel, 
which are held firmly, midway of their length, by clamps 
fixed upon the axletree, with which the plates each form an 
angle of about forty-five degrees, being inclined towards each 
other, and being furnished at the ends with pivots which rest 
in suitable bearings attached to the sides of the frame. With 
the under side of the body of the carriage are connected other 
clamps and bearings which sustain other spring plates, 
similar to those first mentioned, but forming right angles 
therewith, and from these plates arms or levers project 



236 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

which are connected by means of shackles with similar arms or 
levers projecting from the other plates, the result of the 
arrangement being that on the weight of the carriage body 
coming upon the arms or levers the latter will twist the spring 
plates to which they are fastened in a spiral direction, " the 
" spiral turning different ways from the centre" of each 
plate. 

From one part of the Specification it would seem that the 
plates are slightly twisted into the spiral form before being 
applied to the carriage. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1830, February 27.— No. 5913. 
HOWARD, William. — " Certain improvements in the con- 
" struction of wheels for carriages." 

This invention consists essentially in the employment of 
certain " spoke shoes," into which the outer ends of the spokes 
of a carriage wheel are inserted, these spoke shoes being each 
rivetted to the inner part of a wrought iron ring called the 
" shoe ring," the latter being surrounded by an iron tyre, 
which may either consist of one complete ring, or be put 
on in separate " streaks" or strips. The spoke shoes are in 
the first place connected to the shoe ring, being of suitable 
curvature at their outer ends to adapt them for fitting closely 
to the inside of the ring, and each shoe is secured to the ring 
by two rivets. Each shoe is formed with a recess for the 
reception of the end of a spoke, and when the spokes have 
been secured in the nave of the wheel their outer ends are 
forced sideways into the recesses of the shoes, each recess 
being then closed by a plate which is rivetted to the shoe and 
keeps the spoke within it. The ends of the spokes do not 
reach to ends of the recesses in the shoes, wedges of wood 
being driven into the shoes beyond the spoke ends, and iron 
wedges, again, being driven into the wedges of wood, the end 
of each spoke being protected from injury by the wedges by a 
small plate of metal. These operations being completed, the 
tyre is then placed outside the spoke ring, and completes the 
wheel, no wooden felloe or rim being used. If preferred, the 
spoke shoes and spoke ring may all be cast together in one 
piece, instead of being united by rivetting. 
[Printed, 7d. Drawing.'] 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 237 

A.D. 1830, July 1.— No. 5950. 
OLIVE, John Henry. — Propelling and supporting carriages. 
This invention relates firstly to the application of wheels of 
larger than usual diameters, which wheels are driven by 
machinery through cranks, pinions or pulleys, all of larger 
diameter than usual for the purpose of obtaining greater 
leverage. For common roads these wheels should be from 
eight to twelve feet in diameter. 

It also relates to a method of propelling vehicles by means 
of a large driving wheel placed in the centre of the carriage. 
The two ordinary leading wheels are on an axletree which, 
swivels on an upright perch for the purpose of steering the 
carriage. The two hind wheels are attached to the carriage 
by under- springs, and only a small portion of the weight of 
the vehicle is thrown upon them. The chief weight is borne 
by the large central wheel. " The action by which the loco- 
" motive machinery is advanced along the road being thus 
" applied in the middle of the breadth thereof, the machinery 
" will be found to turn more readily aside, and to be more 
" completely under the command of the person who gmides 
" or steers the same than it would be if made according to 
" the usual plan." 

[Printed, 4>d. No Drawings.^ 

A.D. 1830, July 19.— No. 5956. 
EAWE, John, junior, and;BOASE, John.— Steering and 
propelling carriages. The motion of the ^driving axle is 
communicated to the driving wheels by means of curved 
radial arms which are keyed firmly to the axle and at their 
other extremities are bolted to an iron ring, screwed to the 
wheel spokes. " The whole of the frame and engine is sup- 
" ported on springs ; and to allow springs to be applied to the 
" cranked axle, two strong rods are used; each of these is 
" firmly jointed at one end to the frame, and attached at the 
" other end to the cranked axle by bearings, by which means 
" the frame is allowed to rise or fall freely, while derange- 
" ment thereupon is prevented." 

In order to steer the carriage a fifth and smaller wheel is 
supported in a circular frame in rear of the two leading 
wheels. This circular frame runs by friction rollers against 



238 CARKIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

another and similar frame superposed. The latter is attached 
rigidly by bars to the leading axle. The wheel may be 
swivelled to right or left by means of a hand wheel and con- 
necting rods attached to the circular frame, and by this means 
Mie leading wheels are also turned. 
[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1830, August 5.— No. 5965. 
BTJTHYEN, John. — Propelling carriages. This invention, 
which is also applicable to the propulsion of boats, consists in 
fitting a toothed pinion on the driving axle and communicating 
motion to the pinion in the following way. Two other 
pinions are arranged in a frame in a line with each other and 
the' first pinion. They all then gear together. Upright arms 
are fitted loosely on the axes of the two latter pinions and are 
connected with a horizontal bar with handles at the ends. On 
the upright arms are palls which take into the two pinions, 
but reverse ways, so that by pulling alternately from the 
ends of the horizontal bar the toothed pinions are alternately 
acted upon and move always in the same direction, at the 
same time communicating motion to the pinion on the driving 
axle. 

[Printed, 8d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1830, August 5.— No. 5971. 
MALLET, William. — Wheelbarrows. The inventor makes 
the bodies of these barrows of iron by stamping or pressing a 
plate between dies. The metal overlaps at the angles, and if 
the sides of the barrow are more upright than usual he cuts 
a piece off at the corners, but still leaves sufficient to overlap. 
He likewise turns the edge or rim a little outwards. He 
avoids the formation of angles where the sides join the front 
ends and bottom of the barrow. This is done to increase 
strength and prevent lodgement of water. For the latter 
purpose a few holes are also pierced with the burr downwards. 
Angle iron may also be rivetted round the edges to strengthen 
them. 

The framing and legs of the barrow are made of angle iron 
rivetted or screwed together. The ends of the side pieces are 
socketted to receive wooden handles. Yarious methods of 



FOE COMMON EOAD& 239 

attaching the body to the framing are shown. The wheel is 
of iron. The ends of the spokes fit into mortices in the rim. 
The spokes are bent until the ends will enter the mortices and 
are then straightened. The axle of the wheel is screwed so 
that the latter may be held on it between and by means of 
two collars, through which also a pin may be passed. The 
ends of the axle run in case-hardened iron block. 
{Printed, lOd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1830, August 5.— No. 5972. 
PEAESE, John. — " An improved method of making and 
" constructing wheels, and in the application thereof to 
" carriages." 

In this invention the rim of the wheel is composed of an 
inner and an outer iron ring, the inner ring having holes in it 
for the reception of the outer ends of cylindrical iron rods which 
form the spokes of the wheel, such holes being so arranged 
that each alternate rod points towards and is secured to one 
end of the nave, while the other rods point towards and are 
secured in the other end of such nave. The holes in the inner 
ring through which the spokes are passed are widened out- 
wardly, and the outer ends of the spokes are thickened so as 
to fit into and fill such holes, being then secured from moving 
outwards by the outer ring being placed around them. The 
nave of the wheel is composed of wood, hoops of iron being 
placed around the ends, and projecting beyond them, the 
inner ends of the spokes passing through holes in these hoops 
and being secured therein by nuts screwed upon them. The 
outer end of the nave is covered in by a metal cap, and the 
inner end is nearly closed by an iron plate, having, however, 
a hole through its centre for the passage of the axle arm, the 
cap and plate being secured to the nave by screws which pass 
entirely through the nave, and bind all three together. In the 
centre of the nave is embedded a box of iron, brass, or gun 
metal, wings projecting from the box entering grooves in the 
nave, in the ends of which grooves wedges are afterwards 
inserted. The metal in the centre of the box is removed, a 
receptacle for oil being thus formed, such oil being introduced 
through a hole in the nave, which is furnished with a screw 
plug. Cavities for oil are likewise provided at the inner end 
of the nave and within the outer cap. 



240 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

An iron axletree is described, which is provided with wings, 
in which are holes for the passage of screws by means of 
which the axletree is secured to the carriage, the ends of the 
axletree being hollow, and receiving within them the 'inner 
parts of two cylindrical iron or steel arms, on which the wheels 
turn, each arm having a groove in the inner part for the re- 
ception of the end of a pin by which it is prevented from 
turning round. On the outer end of each arm is a head which 
prevents the wheel from leaving the arm by moving outwards, 
the plate on the inner end of the nave having the hole therein 
made slightly conical, and working against the end of the 
axletree, which is of corresponding figure. The exact position 
of each axle arm in the axletree is determined by means of a 
screw which passes through the axletree and enters a hole in 
the arm. The head of this screw is square, and when the 
screw has been inserted into its place a bent bar, having a 
square hole therein which fits upon the head of the screw, is 
fixed to the axletree by other screws, the first screw being thus 
prevented from becoming unscrewed by the shaking of the 
carriage or otherwise. The iron spokes may be ornamented 
by being covered with brass or other metal. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1830, August 24.— No. 5986. 
MASON, William. — " Certain improvements on axletrees, 
" and also the boxes applicable thereto." 

According to this invention the arm of the axletree is cylin- 
drical, and has a solid collar formed upon its inner end. A 
cavity is formed within it, by boring from the outer end, for 
the reception of oil, a hole leading from this cavity to a 
shallow groove which extends along the upper part of the 
arm. That part of the arm which immediately adjoins the 
collar is of conical form, and that part of the axle box which 
works therein is of corresponding figure. The box is of cast 
iron, and at its inner end embraces the collar on the axle arm, 
other parts of the box fitting upon other parts of the arm, but 
four longitudinal cavities being formed in the interior of 
the box for the reception and circulation of oil. In the 
outer end of the box is a female screw thread for the 
reception of the screwed part of a " cupped oil cap," which 
is thus secured to the end of the box, the inner part of 



FOB COMMON KOADS. 241 

this cap being of conical form, and having a short tube or 
neck projecting from it into the oil cavity of the axle arm, 
and conveying the supply of oil to such cavity. The wooden 
nave of the carriage wheel is of the usual construction and the 
nave and box are retained in their place upon the axle arm 
by there being three wrought-iron screw bolts passing from 
projections on the exterior of the inner end of the box, a cir- 
cular plate which is placed upon a cylindrical part of the axle 
itself, behind the collar of the arm being provided with holes 
through which the three bolts pass, there being a leather 
washer placed between the circular plate and the back of the 
collar, and nuts being then screwed upon the bolts so as to 
draw the plate and washer tightly against the inner end of 
the box, such plate and washer then bearing against the back 
of the collar and preventing the box and nave from leaving the 
axle arm. 

The three bolts are secured in the projections upon the axle 
box by being placed in the mould in suitable positions when 
the box jp cast, and the inner ends being jagged to prevent 
them from being afterwards drawn out of the metal. A 
" guide pin," by means of which the plate and washer are 
always brought into one position before being screwed to the 
box is also connected to the box in the same manner, and 
passes through holes in the washer and plate provided to 
receive it, and in addition to the leather washer already 
mentioned a second washer of the same material is placed in- 
side the collar on the axle arm, and a third upon the screw of 
the capped oil cap, the escape of oil from any part of the box 
being thus effectually prevented. By removing the nuts from 
the three screws connected to the box and withdrawing the 
plate and washer therefrom the wheel may be easily removed 
from the axle'arm. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1830, August 31.— No. 5991. 

HANSON, John. — Propelling and guiding carriages. The 
first part of this invention has reference to a method of pro- 
pelling steam carriages. The crank shaft is fitted with differ- 
ential gearing and chains which pass round pinions on the 
axletrees. By throwing the different sizes of pinions into 



242 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

gear the speed of the carriage may be regulated. The axle- 
trees are supported in bushes or boxes working freely in horn 
plates and attached to the springs which latter are secured in 
the usual way to the framing of the carriage. By these means 
the wheels and axles are free to move by the springs and yet 
preserve the driving power unaffected. There is no claim 
for machinery. 

Only one wheel of each pair is fast on the axle. The wheels 
are fitted to the axles by a species of ball and socket joint, 
that which is fixed to the axle being keyed through the joint. 
The wheels are also held in frames swivelling on the carriage 
and worked simultaneously by levers, so that in changing the 
direction of the vehicle, each one of the wheels is turned into 
the required direction at once. 
\Printed, Is. 3d. Drawings^ 

A.D. 1830, September 7.— No. 5994. 

WILLIAMS, Peter. — Preventing carriage accidents. Part 
of this invention relates to locking or braking the wheels 
and part to a system of apparatus for disengaging the horses 
from the carriage. 

For the purpose of skidding the wheels, the naves are sur- 
rounded by friction bands which, by turning a screw, may be 
made immediately to clip the naves and so hinder the turning 
of the wheel. To prevent backing ratchet projections are 
fitted to the nave band which come into contact with a pro- 
jection on a catch piece when the latter is let down from its 
usual position for the purpose. 

To enable the horses of pole carriages to be disengaged at 
will, an apparatus is attached to the carriage consisting of a 
rotating rod to which are hinged bolts round which the trace 
loops are placed. This rod may be worked by a rim or a hand 
lever. The crab at the pole end may similarly be released 
and with it the leaders. Modifications of this releasing gear 
are applied to the cases of single horse carriages. 

In gigs and other two wheeled vehicles a prop is fitted 
underneath, furnished at the lower end with small wheels 
or rollers. This is for the purpose of keeping the shafts 
off the ground in case it should be necessary to release the 
horse. 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 243 

A skid or shoe is also described. It is attached to the 
wheel axle by a pair of bars and may be lowered and raised at 
will from the vehicle. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1830, September 21.— No. 6000. 
CHURCH, William. — <c Certain improvements in the con- 
" struction of boats and other vessels ; a part of which improve- 
" ments are applicable to the construction of carriages." 

This invention consists in the first place in the substitution 
of thin metallic plates in lieu of the ordinary framework and 
planking employed in building the hulls of vessels and the 
bodies of carriages. In order to give the requisite lateral 
strength to the plates of metal, they are fluted, furrowed, or 
otherwise corrugated, and they are united together by rivets 
or bolts, some of which not only unite together these plates, 
but also pass through and combine with them on the outside 
other plates or sheets of metal which are plain, and likewise 
bars which pass across the ridges of the corrugated plates on 
the inside, the joinings being carefully arranged so as to be air- 
tight. Instead of the cross bars, plain sheets of metal may be 
used, and instead of the outside plain sheets, thin planks of 
wood may be employed, these also crossing the furrows of the 
corrugated sheets. 

In constructing the decks and sides of vessels two thick- 
nesses of corrugated metal, crossing each other at right angles, 
may be used, thus producing decks and sides of great strength. 
The invention is mentioned as being applicable in the con- 
struction of "carriages of various descriptions," for which 
reason it is noticed here. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1830, October 6.— No. 6006. 

HEATON, John, HEATON, William, HEATON, George, 
and HEATON, Reuben. — Steam carriages. This carriage is 
supported on four wheels, the two leading wheels being car- 
ried by an axis moveable round a centre pin. The conductor 
sits in front and by turning a winch, tightens a chain on the 
required side and so moves the axletree towards that side. 
The heavy machinery is fitted in the framing, which is sup- 



244 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

ported on springs by the main wheels, their axle being curved 
to pass under the boiler, a curved bar also unties its ends and 
passes over the top of the boiler. The engines drive a cranked 
shaft fitted with variable toothed gearing communicating 
motion to another shaft also cranked. This gearing is thrown 
in and out by clutches from the conductor's seat, he being 
thus enabled to vary the speed. The motion of the second 
shaft is communicated by means of connecting rods, to a third 
crank shaft carried by supports attached to the main axle 
itself. The main wheels are driven from the latter shs.ft by 
toothed gearing, and the latter shaft not being influenced by 
the springs the gearing does not miss. The intermediate 
shaft is on that part of the carriage supported by springs, but 
the connection as described is not affected by the action of 
the springs. 

A system of inclined teeth and catches is applied to the 
main wheels to allow of one moving in advance of the other 
in turning and also to arrange for backing the engines. The 
starting gear is worked by the conductor's foot, and a friction 
brake is also provided. 

[Printed, Is. bd. Drawings.] 



A.D. 1830, November 4.— No. 6027. 

BE AMLEY, Thomas, and PAEKEE, Eobert,— Propelling 
carriages, axle box, and wheels. Part of this invention which 
relates to the propulsion of carriages on common roads, con- 
sists firstly in constructing them with three wheels and a 
perch, two wheels in front and one behind. The rider lies on 
his breast on a saddle and propels the vehicle by means of 
his feet which fit into stirrups. A shoulder band holds him in 
position and his hands are free to stear the carriage by a hand 
wheel acting on the front wheels. Secondly, the system may 
be modified by adding a wheel and adapting the apparatus so 
that two men can work it. One lies as before and the other 
works in an erect position. The vehicles are provided with 
brakes. 

In order to secure the wheel to the axle, instead of using 
the nuts and bolts, as in the ordinary mail coaches, passing 
from inside to outside of the nave, the inventors grip a 
flange on the axle between the nave and a screwed collar. 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 245 

The nave and collar may also be further secured by a screwed 
key. 

Elastic wheels are made by fitting spiral springs in each 
spoke. The spokes are arranged so as to diverge from the 
periphery to the nave. The periphery is narrow and is formed 
of wood in an iron channel. 

\ Printed, 2s. Id. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1830, November 4— No. 6030. 
GILLET, Augustus Whiting. — Wheels. This improvement 
consists in " the adaptation of what may be called a perpetual 
" railway to carriages of different kinds, which is formed by 
" a circular rib or rail placed round the interior of the felloe 
" of the wheel, and upon which circular rib a small wheel 
" with a grooved periphery is intended to run, which small 
" wheel, bearing its portion of the burthen of the carriage, 
" by running upon a smooth even surface greatly facilitates 
" the progress of the carriage when the larger or running 
tl wheel passes over heavy or uneven ground." 
[Printed, Sd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1830, December 13.— -No. 6052. 
WITTY, Richard. — Propelling carriages. The inventor pre- 
fers to use these cylinders placed horizontally on the framing. 
They are single stroked, one end of each being properly closed 
and valved, the other open to the air. The front ends of the 
cylinders are closed, so that ' ' the elastic force of the steam is 
" exerted on the front or closed ends of the cylinders, and at 
" the same time upon the pistons which then move in a con- 
" trary direction." The piston rods work a cranked axle to 
which the wheels are fitted. To facilitate backing the centre 
cylinder may be made double acting, both ends in this case 
being, of course, closed. The object of the inventor to be 
attained by this apparatus is "to convert the reaction of the 
" steam upon the ends of the cylinders into a projectile force, 
" which force is employed in propelling the carriage" "for- 
" ward or in a rectilinear direction, while at the same time 
" the force of the piston itself is employed in producing 
" angular or circular motion being connected to a wheel or 
" wheels which are thus turned round." 
[Printed, bd. Drawing.] 



246 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1830, December 17.— No. 6054. 
GRAHAM, Augustus. — (A communication.) — " Certain im- 
" provements in the application of springs to carriages." 

The object of this invention is to lessen the jolting of the 
bodies of carriages, "and this desirable object may be effected 
" in various ways." The springs may be made either of 
wood or of steel, and may either be attached to the perch or 
framework of the carriage, or to the body of the carriage, 
or to both, but between the springs and the perch or 
framework or body of the carriage, an axis or axes is or are 
introduced, " with necks or pivots turning in pivot holes made 
" in the ends of the supports or crane necks attached to the 
" perch or framework or body of the carriage," there being 
fixed upon such axis or axes " either excentric or concentric 
" wheels or pulleys of different diameter, and with bands, 
" cords, chains, or straps to them, by means of which they 
" are connected with the perch or framework and the body of 
•' the carriage; or, otherwise, the said axis or axes may have 
" arms or levers of different lengths affixed upon them, from 
" the ends of which said arms or levers links or eyes may 
1 ' proceed to the supports or crane necks, and thereby connect 
" the perch or framework with the body of the carriage." 

The details of the invention may be greatly varied, in ac- 
cordance with the particular construction of carriage to which 
it is desired to apply the invention. 
[Printed j 6d. Drawing. ] 

A.D. 1831, March 4.— No. 6090. 
NAPIER, David, NAPIER, James, and NAPIER, William. 
— Propelling carriages. The " improvements in machinery 
" for propelling locomotive carriages consist, first, in com- 
(( municating the power of the engine or engines for propel- 
" ling the carriage to the wheels by means of a belt, strap, or 
" band, made of leather or any other suitable material, and 
" which belt or band works upon two pulleys or drums, the 
" one fixed upon a shaft connected with the engine or engines, 
" the other fixed upon or connected with the axle or wheels 
" of the carriage (more than one of which belts may be used 
" if necessary)." The "second improvement is in the con- 
1 ' str notion of the steam boiler or boilers." 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 247 

A.D. 1831, June 7.— No. 6124. 

PEAESE, John* — "Certain improvements on wheeled car- 
" riages, and apparatus to be used therewith." 

According to one part of this invention there are affixed to 
the under part of the body of a cart certain cross beams, 
these having attached to them iron supports formed of bars 
arranged lengthwise of the vehicle, but curving downwards 
in the middle, and there being connected to the middle 
of each support a screwed loop, there being jointed to 
the latter certain pieces by means of which the cart body 
is suspended upon or from the axletree. From the same 
points to which the loops are connected are also hung the 
inner ends of four bars, the outer ends of which are bolted to 
the under side of a wooden frame which passes below the 
axletree, and through gaps formed in the suspending pieces 
mentioned above, the shafts of the cart being attached to this 
frame. 

The body of the cart is kept in a nearly horizontal position 
when descending or ascending a hill by means of four iron 
rods which are jointed to loops affixed upon the suspending 
pieces, there being attached to these rods chains, which pass 
underneath certain pulleys and are then affixed to the cart 
bottom. These pulleys are mounted upon pivots affixed to the 
wooden frame already mentioned, and the result of the ar- 
rangement is that on descending a hill the body of the cart is 
not only kept in a nearly horizontal position, but is thrown 
backwards, a contrary effect being produced upon a hill being 
ascended. And in order to preserve a parallelism between the 
shafts and the wheels certain jointed levers are arranged in 
combination with the wooden frame and the suspension pieces, 
and, by the aid of certain connecting rods, prevent any twist- 
ing or crossing movement between the shafts and the axletree. 
To the suspension pieces are, moreover, connected jointed 
brakes, these being likewise jointed to the body of the vehicle, 
and in such manner that they come into action upon the naves 
of the wheels when the cart is descending a hill. Another 
arrangement of drag or brake is described as being applicable 
to a four-wheeled carriage if desired, in this arrangement a 
brake composed of curved pieces jointed together being 
brought into action upon the nave of a wheel when the vehicle 



248 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

is descending a hill, by means of a lever and a sliding rod 
carrying hooks, the breeching being connected to one of these 
hooks, and the result being that during the descent of the hill 
the breeching, coming into contact with the hind quarters of 
the horse, causes the rod and lever to press the brake upon 
the nave of the wheel, while the other hook, being the draft 
hook, so acts when the vehicle again arrives upon level ground 
as to cause the brake to be again disengaged. A certain stop, 
a pin and other minor details, are employed in regulating the 
movements of these parts. m An improved axletree and box are 
also described, the axletree having a shoulder formed thereon 
near the front, and, instead of upon the back or inner end of 
it, as usual, the box having a corresponding shoulder formed 
within it, and there being a ring or flanch fitted tight upon 
the axletree and keeping a leather collar stationary between it 
and the inner end of the box, in order to retain the oil within 
such box ; a hole passing through the side of the box as well 
as through the nave of the wheel for the purpose of admitting 
oil to the parts, a screw plug closing these holes when neces- 
sary. In another modification of this part of the invention 
the box has a shoulder within it, near its front end, but 
instead of a shoulder being formed upon the axletree a tube 
is introduced into the box, and prolonged towards the centre 
of the carriage, " and externally, so as in fact to form the 
" axletree," the wheel being retained thereon by means of a 
cylindrical pin or bolt which is passed through holes made in 
the parts. 

[Prmted, Is. 8d. Drawings."] 

A.D. 1831, July 27.— No. 6142. 
BANCE, John. — (A communication.) — "An improvement in 
" the construction of heads or hoods for cabriolets, gigs, or 
" other open carriages whereof the heads or hoods are re- 
" quired to fold down behind the back of the seat when out 
" of use." 

[JYb Specification enrolled.'] 

A.D. 1831, August 10.— No. 6150. 
COCHEANE, Alexandeb.— Propelling carriages. — The car- 
riage described in this specification is propelled by manual 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 249 

power. The person propelling sits in a rowing position and 
by working a lever puts in motion a cranked axle. Several 
persons may be so employed if desired, the several levers 
being united in their action on the crank shaft. The nave of 
each wheel is free from the end of the cranked axle, each 
being supported by its own guides or framing. A pin is so 
contrived as to drop in between them for the purpose of throw- 
ing them into gear ; so that in turning the carriage round, all 
that is necessary to facilitate the operation is to release the 
wheels on one side by withdrawing the pin or bolt. In order 
to increase the speed the movement of a pulley on the driving 
Bhaft may be made to communicate motion to a smaller pulley 
on the wheel axle. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing,'] 

A.D. 1831, August 10.— No. 6151. 

MASON, William. — " Certain improvements in the construc- 
" tion of wheeled carriages." 

In this invention there is jointed to each outer end of an 
axletree bed a " Collinge's axletree," the latter being each 
united with the bed by means of a cylindrical pin or bolt 
passing through a hole formed at the end of the bed, and a 
guide piece which is secured by a screw and nut, leather 
washers being inserted into suitable recesses in the parts, in 
order to prevent escape of the oil which is applied to lubricate 
such parts, a hole being provided for the introduction of such 
oil, and this hole being provided with a screw plug. The oil 
is spread over the surface of the cylindrical pin or bolt by 
means of a side branch leading from the bottom of the hole 
into a groove formed around the pin, and also by means of 
longitudinal gaps or cavities made within the hole. The 
outer ends of the guide pieces, which consist in fact of arms 
or levers of some length, are jointed to the splinter bar by 
means of pins or bolts and other details similar to those 
employed in connecting the axletrees with the bed, the futchel 
or socket for the pole of the carriage being connected to the 
central parts of the fore axletree bed and of the splinter bar 
by similar means, and the swingle trees being also jointed in 
the same way to the splinter bar. The result of the whole 
arrangement is that on the swingle trees, splinter bar, and 



250 CABBIAGES AND OTHEB VEHICLES 

pole of the carriage being moved either to one side or the 
other in order to change the direction of motion of the 
carriage, the axles and wheels receive a corresponding move- 
ment, the carriage being thereby turned with facility. The 
fore wheels of the carriage are furnished with cast iron boxes, 
as usual, and the springs, framing, and other parts of the 
vehicle may be arranged in such manner as may seem most 
convenient, the details of the invention being capable of 
modification. 

[Printed, 6cl. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1831, September 5.— No. 6158. 

FOBBESTEB, George. — Wheels. This invention consists in 
making wheels of a combination of wrought iron or steel and 
cast iron. A skeleton wheel is first constructed of either of 
the two former metals. It is then coated with lead or bis- 
muth, or tin or zinc and is afterwards laid in a mould which is 
then closed and filled with molten iron. By this means the 
steel or iron core is imbedded in the cast iron. 
[Printed, hd. Drawing,'] 

A.D. 1832, January 24.— No. 6213. 

PALMEB, George Vaughan. — Cart for excavating. This 
cart has attached to it certain apparatus for digging or loosen- 
ing the earth. Bound the inside of the rims of the wheel are 
a number of buckets or compartments into which the earth 
is thrown by the excavator, and is by them raised and de- 
livered into the cart by the rotation of the wheels. These 
buckets, rim and tire may be made of iron in one piece. The 
tire or outside of the rim is, of course, smooth for road travel- 
ling. The bottom of the cart is made with folding doors 
through which the earth is unloaded. The excavating apparatus 
is raised or lowered by a chain. 
[Printed, lid. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1832, February 9.— No. 6220. 
CHURCH, William. — Steam carriage. The first part of the 
invention relates to the construction of the framing. When 
it is built up of wooden rails they are united by slips or 



FOR OOMMOH ROADS. 251 

clamps of iron. By this method the necessity of morticing 
and tenoning is obviated. The framing may also be constructed 
of metal rods or bars, the junctions being secured by socket 
joints fastened by cotters. 

The invention also relates to the construction of the wheels, 
which are of considerable breadth and of large diameter. ' ' They 
are formed by the union of several hoops of elastic wood, 
connected together and secured by clamps bound round the 
hoops which constitute the felly or rim. The outer periphery 
of the wheel is bound by a hoop of iron forming a tire ; and 
the spokes consist of elastic curved plates of steel or springs 
bending and moving upon joints. The outer ends of all the 
elastic spokes are attached to the felly by joints at the backs 
of the several clamps, and the reverse ends of these elastic 
spokes are connected by joints to a pair of metallic rings firmly 
fixed by radial and diagonal rods to the nave or metal box of 
the wheel in the centre. These running wheels are fixed 
upon short rotary axles and the weight of the carriage bearing 
upon these axles causes the peripheries of the wheels to 
bend into slightly oblate figures or flatted curves as they 
pass over the road. This deviation from the circular figure 
of the wheel, by its increased surface causes the wheel to 
take more firm hold of the ground, and consequently to be 
less liable to slip round or sink into the road. The springs 
thus introduced into the wheels, it may be observed, serve 
as substitutes of the springs usually employed. But in 
order to afford greater elasticity," the patentee makes use 
of an air cylinder, the piston rod of which holds the short 
axles. To prevent lateral movement of these axles, rods are 
jointed to the framework and to the axles. Another rod is 
connected with the inside of the wheel axle by a ball and 
socket joint, which holds the axle endwise. By means of these 
rods the carriage can vibrate vertically only. Oil or water is 
used to pack the piston. 

The working power is communicated to a crank shaft in the 
usual way. A chain pulley on the shaft drives the running 
wheel by means of an endless chain carried over a similar 
pulley on each of the axles of the running wheels. The speed 
may be varied by introducing differential pulleys worked by 
clutches. 

[Printed, 4s. 4$, Drawings.] 



252 CAEBIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1832, March 8.— No. 6241. 

GIBBS, Joseph, and CHAPLIN, William.— " Certain im- 
" provements in wheeled carriages, and in the means of eon- 
" structing or making the same." 

The first part of this invention relates to bo arranging the 
wheels and axles of a carriage as to facilitate the turning of 
the carriage. Each wheel is mounted upon a short shaft or 
axle, carried by an upright shaft which is placed in sockets or 
loops fixed to an upright standard, or to some part of the 
carriage framing. The springs of the carriage, which are 
connected to the under part of the body of the carriage by 
screw bolts and shackles, have circular holes in their centres, 
through which holes the lower parts of the upright shafts 
pass, collets or washers being then placed upon such shafts, 
below the springs, there being then placed upon such collets 
arms or levers, which the patentee calls guiding levers. The 
inner portion of the pole of the carriage is placed within two 
square sockets, one of which is connected with the splinter bar 
and the other with the upper end of a cylindrical shaft or axis 
placed in sockets or loops affixed to the front of the body of the 
carriage, a central diagonal brace connected with the splinter 
bar descending to the lower end of the upright shaft or axis, 
and thence spreading out on each side and forming a double- 
armed lever, to each end of which is jointed a connecting rod, 
these connecting rods being jointed to certain sliding rods, in 
combination with other connecting rods which are jointed 
to the ends of the guiding levers, the result of the whole 
arrangement being that when the pole of the carriage is moved 
to the right or the left in turning the carriage the axles and 
wheels are brought into positions corresponding therewith. 
Another modification of this arrangement is set forth in which 
two double armed levers are used, which are connected by 
crossed chains, the sliding and connecting rods being in this 
case dispensed with. Another modification of this part of the 
invention is described in which the upright shafts are con- 
nected with " telegraph" springs by " stirrup shaped parts." 
In another arrangement each of the guiding arms or levers is 
formed in one piece with its upright shaft, and so bent as to 
facilitate its junction with either the sliding rods or the chains 
mentioned above. 



FOE COMMON EOADS, 253 

In another part of the invention two wooden perches are 
placed under the body of the carriage, iron plates, and wooden 
blocks or stays, forming two beds, at the ends of which the 
axletrees of the fore and hind wheels are fixed by means of 
the stirrup- shaped parts mentioned above. 

Another part of the invention relates to framing the bodies 
of carriages, and consists in introducing rods of metal into 
the wooden panels in place of the ordinary ribs and standards, 
the panels being combined in various modes, as, for instance, 
by means of angular pieces of metal, slips, &c. The bending 
of the panels, when necessary, is facilitated by cutting gaps 
or notches across them previously to boring the holes to receive 
the metal rods, and where the panel is in more than one 
piece the rods may be furnished with screws, or with screws 
and heads, or other such arrangements for securing the parts 
together. 

[Printed, Is. Wd. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1832, April 13.— No. 6258. 

EOBEETS, Eichaed.— Steam carriage. Part of this inven- 
tion relates to a method of arranging the driving gear with 
the object of allowing for unequal rotation of the wheels on 
one axle, for instance, in turning the carriage to one side or 
the other. The wheels are driven by pitch chains from pinions 
on the crank shaft. The wheel axle is in two parts, so that 
either wheel can revolve independently. The pinions on the 
driving shaft are fitted with bevel wheels, but are not keyed 
to the shaft. Between them is a carrier or third bevel wheel 
mounted on an arm projecting at right angles from the cranked 
driving shaft. As the shaft rotates, this carrier causes the 
bevel wheels and consequently the chain pinions to rotate, but 
if one wheel turn rather more quickly than the other, the 
carrier is simply turned somewhat on its axis. A modification 
of this principle is shown, consisting of spur gearing. 

A steam cylinder is fitted to the carriage for the purpose of 
tightening a friction band round a disc on the driving shaft, 
for the purpose of acting on a brake. 

The peripheries of the wheels are made of two pieces of 
angle iron ri vetted face to face on the tee ends of the spokes. 
The latter are shouldered where they fit into a rabbet round 



254 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

the nave, and a wrought iron ring is shrunk on each end of 
the nave over the projecting shoulders of the spokes. 
[Printed, Sd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1832, August 15.— No. 6297. 
JAMES, William Henry. — Steam carriage. The driving gear 
of this carriage is on the following plan. On the crank shaft 
of the engine are keyed three pinions for driving pitch chains. 
All these are of different sizes. Above the crank shaft is an 
intermediate shaft carrying also three pinions, but of equal 
size and loose on the shaft. Each one of the latter group of 
pinions may be thrown into gear by clutches with any one of 
the former group, and as the former pinions are of varying 
sizes, the speed will be proportioned accordingly. At the 
extremities of the intermediate shaft are other pinions carry- 
ing pitch chains which drive pinions on the hind axle. The 
clutch apparatus is worked by pedals from the conductor's 
place. 

The steering is effected by turning a winch in front of the 
carriage. This in its turn, by means of gearing, rotates a 
horizontal screwed shaft, upon which are two nuts attached by 
bars to the fore axle. The movement of these nuts along the 
screwed shaft turns the leading wheels as desired. The opera- 
tion of steering, however, also releases the driving power from 
the wheel on the inner track. 

The conductor is able to stop the carriage at pleasure. Fric- 
tion bands are also applied to the wheels as brakes, and these 
are under his control. The fire is urged by a blowing appa- 
ratus. A steam signal trumpet is fitted to the carriage. The 
patentee also describes improved boiler and pumps. 
[Printed, 2s. Drawings."] 

A.D. 1832, September 22.— No. 6310. 

GIBBS, Joseph, and APPLEGATH, Augustus.--" Improve- 
" ments in machinery for cutting out wood for carriage wheels, 
" and for cutting and shaping the wheels." 

According to the first part of this invention, the stock or 
nave of the wheel having been turned, and the central hole 
bored therein in the usual manner, is placed upon an upright 
spindle or mandril which is furnished with a dividing plate 



FOE COMMON" EOADS, 255 

having grooves or divisions radiating from the centre which 
serve to regulate the positions of the mortice holes, a detent 
pin, carried by a bar which moves backwards and forwards, 
entering first one groove and then another as the dividing plate 
is moved round, and holding the stock or nave in position while 
being operated upon by boring bits. The nave is moved round 
at intervals by a friction roller, and when one set of holes has 
been bored in the nave, it is raised by means of a screw and 
nuts, and a second set of holes bored therein, "and in this 
t( manner any additional circles of holes may be made." One 
part of the machine is moveable, and may be placed at different 
angles with the other parts if requisite, so that the holes in 
the nave may be bored at such angles as may be desired. 

Another machine is described, in which two circular saws 
are employed to cut the tenons of the stock ends of the spokes, 
the rough spokes being supplied, during the operation, by 
moveable carriages mounted upon a sliding bed, and directed 
during the operation by certain gearing adapted for the 
purpose. 

Another machine is set forth as being adapted for shaping 
the spokes, which is effected by the employment of a cylin- 
drical cutter mounted upon a moveable carriage, and other 
apparatus combined therewith, a <( pattern spoke" being so 
arranged as to control the operation. Another machine is 
described, in which circular saws are made to form the outer 
tenons, or those at the ends of the spokes, and also slits in the 
ends of the spokes for the reception of wedges ; and other 
machines are set forth as being suitable for boring the dowell 
holes in the ends of the felloes, the holes in the felloes for the 
reception of the spokes, and shaping the sides of the felloes, 
these machines embracing various arrangements of mechanism 
for giving motion to boring bits and saws by which these 
operations are effected. The details of all these machines are 
Yerj fully set forth, but will only be understood with the aid 
of the drawings annexed to the Specification. 
[Printed, 2s. \Qd. Drawings.} 

A.D. 1832, September 29.— No. 6318. 

G-IBBS, Joseph, and APPLEGATH, Augustus.— Steam car- 
riage. This carriage is supported upon three wheels, two 



256 CABRIAGES AND OTHEB VEHICLES 

driving wheels in rear and one steering wheel in front. The 
cylinders oscillate on steam trunnions, the piston rods working 
up and down in guides. They turn cranks at right angles to 
each other, and the latter in turn rotate toothed pinions. These 
are capable of gearing with pinions on the wheel axle, and as 
they are of different sizes the speed may be varied according to 
the proportions of the pair in gear. The axis of the former 
pinions is connected with that of the latter, that is the axle, 
by means of bars. By this means the wheels are always kept 
at the proper distance apart, and although the carriage is hung 
on springs, still the pinions can only move axially one to the 
other. The pinions on the axle are thrown in and out of gear 
by clutch apparatus. 

The steering is effected in the ordinary way by means of a 
handle on a vertical shaft turning toothed pinions, and so 
moving the leading wheel. The latter is fitted with elliptical 
springs. The conductor's seat is over the water tank. 

The specification also shows this carriage propelling a pas- 
senger coach. In this case the two are connected by an iron 
bar or perch, the steering wheel being removed from the steam 
carriage to the coach. It also shows such a carriage engaged 
in hauling trucks. In this case the steering wheel is retained, 
the engine preceding the trucks. 

The invention also relates to engines and boilers. 
[Printed, Is. 9cZ. Drawings.'] 



A.D. 1832, December 20.— No. 6351. 
SAXTON, Joseph. — Propelling carriages. — For this purpose 
rope traction is employed, and the object of the inventor is to 
provide for a speed in the carriage greater than that of the 
endless propelling rope. 

For this purpose the latter is passed round a differential pulley 
or drum, that is to say, a pulley or drum having two channels 
or grooves one smaller in diameter than the other. The upper 
part of the horizontal endless rope is passed round the smaller 
pulley, the lower part round the larger pulley. The effect of 
this arrangement, according to the inventor, is to create a 
tendency in the pulleys to turn on a mean point situated between 
the ends of the two diameters. By this tendency the true 
centre of the two pulleys is moved horizontally a considerable 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 257 

distance in proportion to the travel of the rope. This 
movement of the true centre is made use of to propel the 
carriage. 

The pulleys are fitted in front of the carriage, and one oi 
them may be released from the other when it is desired to 
arrest the propulsion. In one arrangement the smaller pulley 
works also on one of the carriage wheels. The endless rope 
passes over supporting pulleys, and is kept tight by weights. 
[Printed, 9d. Br awing,'] 

A.D. 1833, January 29.— No. 6377. 

REEDHEAD, John. — Fore carriage, axles, and brake. — The 
wheels are on separate short axles. Each axle is fixed in the 
nave of its wheel, and turns with it. It turns inside a short 
axle box which practically forms a short axletree. This axle 
box is fitted with antifriction rollers against which the axles 
turn, and proper arrangements for lubrication. The axle 
boxes of the fore wheels swivel on their centres, pins passing 
through them for the purpose. These pins have eyes through 
which the axles pass. Each axle box is connected by bars 
with a splinter bar, consequently each horse of the pair of 
wheelers is attached to a separate splinter bar, and as he turns 
to right or left he correspondingly swivels the pivotted splinter 
bar, and with it the axle box. The splinter bars are connected 
by rods with the pole frame, so as to preserve uniformity of 
motion. The axle boxes and their splinter bars thus consti- 
tute two systems of parallel motion. By this means greater 
locking power is claimed to result, and larger wheels may be 
used. As a brake the patentee fits a brake drum to the spokes 
of a hind wheel, and surrounds it by a brake band operated 
by the guard. The brake may also be applied to a fore wheel, 
and is then adapted to move with the wheel as it locks. In 
this case the coachman makes use of it when necessary. 
[Printed, Is. 6d. Drcnvhif/s.'] 

A.D. 1833, February 21.— No. 6390. 
GORDON, Alexandek.— Steam carriage. The carriage de- 
scribed in this Specification is supported on four wheels, the 
two front wheels being carried by an under carriage for the 
purpose of guiding the vehicle. The two hind wheels are 

G 239. I 



258 CABEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

drawn by means of a cranked axle with which they are con- 
nected by clutch apparatus. The carriage framing is supported 
on the hind wheels by springs. The cylinders are horizontal, 
bolted down to the framing, and are worked by valves of the 
patentee's invention. The piston rods work with friction 
rollers in guides. The bearings of the cranked axle are 
stayed to the framing so as to maintain the relative positions 
of the crank shaft and the valves. 

The invention also relates to improvements in boilers and 
condensers which may be applied to steam carriages. 
[Printed, Is. 4cl I)raivings.~} 



A.D. 1833, April 4.— No. 6406. 

BOYS, Edward, junior. — "A machine or apparatus for pre- 
" venting accidents with carriages in descending hills, or in 
" other perilous situations." 

In this invention a skid pan is connected with a base on which 
rest the lower ends of two arms which ascend diagonally, and 
are joined at the upper ends, being there also jointed to the 
shorter arm of a lever which is mounted on a fulcrum carried 
by a bearing supported by one of the axles of the vehicle. A 
chain passes from one of the arms to the under side of the 
lever, this being meant to give strength to the apparatus, and 
from the end of the longer arm of the lever passes a strap or 
band which proceeds to a roller or windlass, the latter being 
of two diameters, and having also connected therewith a second 
strap which is attached to the end of an arm fixed to the upper 
ends or point of junction of the diagonal arms first mentioned. 
The different diameters of the roller or windlass are meant to 
accord with the different spaces which have to be moved 
through by the points to which the straps are attached, the 
roller or windlass being turned by any convenient means when 
it is desired to apply the skid, and the result being that the 
diagonal arms press the skid pan upon the ground. To the 
base with which the skid pan is connected is attached one end 
of a rod or chain which answers the purpose of an ordinary 
drag chain, "and the arrangement may be varied by placing the 
lever and straps in different positions, the patentee recom- 
mending that in some cases 3 in addition to the apparatus men- 
tioned above, there should be placed on the opposite side of 



FOR COMMON ROADS, 259 

the vehicle a second skid pan with base and diagonal arms, 
but without the lever, such skid pan being brought into opera- 
tion by merely unhooking a chain, strap, or cord, which at 
other times keeps it from the ground. 
[ 'Printed, Sd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1833, May 2.— No. 6415. 

COLLINGE, Charles. — "An improvement or improvements 
" in the making or manufacturing of axletrees." 

This invention relates to improvements in the manufacture 
of boxes and axletrees, for which a patent was granted to John 
Collinge, the father of the present patentee, the latter stating 
that in the formation of such boxes great loss has been sus- 
tained by their cracking when they were heated red hot and 
plunged into water to harden their inside surfaces, this evil 
arising from the unequal dimensions of the head and the body 
of the box, as well as " the peculiar quality of the metal " em- 
ployed, such metal being cast iron. According to the present 
invention the body of the box is formed of wrought iron 
" scrolled and welded in a similar manner to that adopted in 
" the manufacture of twisted gun barrels," the interior being 
then carefully bored out, and the inner surface case-hardened. 
The head of the box is formed of cast-iron, and not subjected 
to the process of hardening, and in the arrangement described 
the head and body of the box are connected by the head being 
in the first place decarbonized and softened, and the body of 
the box being then turned down to some distance from one 
end, and into a slightly conical form, the larger part being at 
the end, and the cast-iron head being then heated so as to be 
expanded sufficiently to pass over such larger part, and then 
placed upon the turned down end of the body, being then 
allowed to shrink thereon, and the two parts thus becoming 
firmly united. 

Before the heated cast-iron head is placed upon the body of 
the box the latter should be set upright, the lower end having 
been previously stopped by a cap or other means, and the body 
should then be filled with cold water, which will prevent it 
from being softened by the heat of the head. After the head 
is placed upon the body, the internal shoulder of the head and 

i 2 



260 CARRIAGES AND OTHER YEHIOLES 

other parts must be turned and finished by the usual means. 
Another mode of uniting the head and body is described as 
consisting in screwing them together, the parts being immove- 
ably fixed by a solution of sal-ammoniac being placed between 
them, or by heating the head and allowing it to contract upon 
the body as in the first arrangement. 
[Printed, Id. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1833, August 7.— No. 6456. 
REES, David.— "Improvements in drags or apparatus to be 
" applied to carriages." 

This invention relates to several arrangements of drags for 
carriages. In one arrangement a drag or shoe is jointed at 
one end to a lever or frame jointed to the hind axle of the 
carriage, there being connected to the lever or frame a strap 
or chain which passes upwards to the seat of the driver or 
that of the guard (if the apparatus be applied to a coach), and 
is there secured by a catch when the drag is not required to 
act, the lever aud drag being then raised into such a position 
that the drag is some distance from the ground. By releasing 
the strap or chain from the catch, however, the lever and drag 
are allowed to fall, the latter passes under one of the wheels 
of the vehicle, being restrained from passing too far by a drag 
chain of the usual character. 

Another arrangement is described in which the drag, instead 
of being jointed to the lever or frame at one end, is jointed 
thereto about midway of its length. In both these arrange- 
ments the carriage must be backed, as usual, before the drag 
can be released from the wheel, but another arrangement is 
described in which the drag may be drawn up while the 
carriage is in motion, this being effected by the application 
to the drag of a catch, which upon being liberated from a 
certain latch has the effect of causing the wheel of the car- 
riage to lease the drag and again come into contact with the 
ground, allowing the drag to be raised without difficulty. 
The catch is liberated by pulling at a strap attached to the 
eye of a lever, the movement of the latter setting free the 
catch. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 261 

A.D. 1833, October 28.— No. 6494. 

REDMUND, David. —Wheels. Such of the improvements 

under this invention which relate to wheels are thus described 

by the patentee : — 

" I construct mine for the most part of malleable cast iron." 

For Lorn pig * ' I sometimes substitute what is called ' refined 
' or forge iron (in the state of preparation to which it is 
'brought previously to puddling or tilting'). This iron 
when cast I subject to a bright red or the ordinary anneal- 
ing heat for about eighty-four hours, when it will be found 
sufficiently tough and malleable. I cast the nave of my 
wheel hollow to admit the axletree box and to form a cavity 
for oil, with a fixed flange in the outer surface of which are as 
many semi-cylindrical cavities as there are to be spokes. 
A corresponding loose flange, w T ith the same number of 
hollows on its inner face, with a circular central aperture, 
fits over the boss of the nave, and when bolted to the face 
of the fixed flange, completes the cylindrical sockets for 
the central ends of the spokes. These sockets may be 
cleaned out by a half round bit. For steam carriages the 
inner end of the nave is prolonged to admit a chain wheel 
or other driving gear to be keyed upon it ; an axletree box 
of the ordinary kind is driven tight into the central aper- 
ture of the nave, and provision made by small perforations 
in the box to admit the oil from the oil chamber to pass 
the rubbing surfaces. The spokes of my wheel are hollow, 
cast from the Lorn pig, and converted to the malleable state. 
The general form of the shaft of the spoke may be conical 
or cylindrical, but when less strength is necessary, I form 
them as if the hollow shaft has been slit through a portion 
of its length, and each half curved outwards." Then the 

wheel is made elastic and ornamental. " The spokes near 
their outward extremities have a shoulder, beyond which 
they are turned cylindrical on the outside and tapped 
within. The felloes are cast in segments, and in corre- 
spondence with each spoke there is a boss which is bored 
true to receive the end of it, and comes down upon the 
shoulder of the spoke. In putting on the felloes, a pin or 
bolt at the heading joints holds them in their places until 
the rim or inner tire comes on, which, being shrunk upon 



262 CABKIAGES AND OTHEB VEHICLES 

" the felloes, holds all firmly together. This rim tire must 
" be bored opposite the hollow ends of each spoke, and the 
" holes countersunk to admit the screws which connect more 
" firmly the spokes, felloes, and inner tire. The outer or 
" wearing tire I put on in segments, and fix in its place by 
" bolts passed through the felloes and both tires, and drawn 
il down, by nuts on their inner ends. A space of about half 
" an inch should be left at each heading joint of the outer 
" tire to allow of the extension of the metal under wear. 
" When the outer tire is worn down it may be readily re- 
" placed. When the ornamental or split spokes are used, a 
' * tube with a cap or plug may be inserted in one of them to 
" convey oil to the oil chamber in the nave, otherwise a screw 
" hole may be made into the chamber in any convenient 
" situation. To prevent the spokes turning in their sockets 
" in the nave, it is advisable to fix them by steady pins 
* ' through one of the flanges ; they may or may not be filleted 
" within the socket." 

{Printed * Is. 9cl. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1833, December 20.— No. 6529. 

QUAINTEST, Louis. — " Certain improvements in the construc- 
{( tion of carriages." 

One part of this invention relates to a mode of lubricating 
the arms of the axles of carriages, and consists in the employ- 
ment of "several reservoirs of oil, grooves, and canals, which 
" communicate with one another by a main canal. One of 
" these reservoirs is placed at the collar of the arm, in the 
" box; and another is a cap which is screwed into the box at 
(C the end of the arm, along which arm a canal or conduit is 
" made, which forms a communication between the two first 
" reservoirs. By means of this contrivance the whole length 
" of the arm is constantly bathed in oil, which is incessantly 
" sent from one reservoir to the other by the motion of the 
" wheels during their rotation, consequently no fear need in 
" future be entertained either for the unequal wear of the 
" arms, or for the naves becoming heated by the dry friction, 
" as is frequently the case with ordinary axles and boxes." 
These arrangements are set forth in detail, and their effects 
explained. 



FOB COMMON ROADS. 263 

Another part of the invention relates to a brake for car- 
riages, and consists in the first place of a bar capable of sliding 
to and fro beneath the body of the carriage, this bar having 
at its hinder end a cross bar carrying brakes, which when the 
bar is drawn forward are pressed against the hinder wheels 
of the vehicle. This bar is acted upon when necessary by 
chains connected with a roller so placed as to be easily turned 
by a handle near the driver's seat, and also with a rod capable 
of sliding on the pole of the vehicle, the outer end of which 
forms a hook to which the harness of the fore horses is 
attached, the result of the whole arrangement being that on 
turning the handle in one direction not only is the bar carry- 
ing the brakes drawn forward so as to bring them into contact 
with the wheels, but the sliding rod on the pole is drawn 
backwards, a certain ring being now removed from certain 
guiding pieces placed on the pole near the rod, and the trac- 
tive power of the leading horses aiding in applying the brakes. 
On the handle being released the parts are returned into their 
first position by means of certain spiral springs, one of which 
is coiled round the pole, and the other connected with the 
apparatus at the back of the vehicle. Instead of a roller and 
handle for bringing the apparatus into action a " tread wheel " 
may be employed, being brought into action by the feet of 
the driver of the vehicle. 

Another part of the invention relates to the building of 
carriages, and is thus set forth : — 

" This new description of carriage is particularly distin- 
iC guished from those that have been built in Europe up to 
" the present day, by the strength of the timber of which it 
" is built, and the manner in which it is ironed. The timber 
" of which this carriage is built is partly of this country, and 
" partly foreign, such as the stinking wood, black wood, &c. 
" These latter give the carriage strength and lightness at the 
' l same time. With respect to the iron work, it is applied in 
" the least perceptible manner, and in the places where the 
" carriage suffers most straining." The patentee states that 
he has not furnished any drawing in illustration of this part 
of the invention, as he intends "to apply it to all sorts of 
(t carriages." 

Another part of the invention relates to a mode of detaching 



264 CABKIAGES AND OTHEK VEHICLES 

horses from a carriage in case such horses should run away. 
The arrangement employed consists in the first place of a rein, 
" which goes from the body and descends to the level of the 
" shafts, where it divides in two, each of its ends taking a 
" spring to which is affixed the iron work that holds the 
" trace, the end of which enters the shaft and upon which 
' ' the horse exerts his strength to draw the carriage ; by 
" means of two rollers the trace is allowed to pass and freely 
' f when the spring is drawn back to detach the horse when 
" running away." At the back band the patentee proposes 
to place two hooks, " which in drawing horizontally would 
" hold up the shafts," but on the traces being loosened and 
falling perpendicularly would " cause the hooks to open by 
" the help of two rollers and two springs," the breeching 
being (l fixed partly to the back band and partly to the traces. 
" It can be imagined that the traces becoming loosened by 
" the rein which goes to the body the remainder would detach 
" itself by the weight of the shafts." 

Another part of the invention relates to a species of carriage 
which the patentee calls the " precaution," and which is 
meant for use in carrying on war with the more savage races 
of mankind. This part of the invention consists essentially 
in " a cuirass, musket-proof, mounted on a simple four-wheel 
" carriage, sheltering those enclosed in it from head to foot, 
" moving and governed by the latter, and in which is united 
" every means of defence, internally and externally, in guns 
" and pikes." 

Another part of the invention relates to vehicles " which 
" are to be propelled by the weight they carry," certain 
arrangements of wheels, pinions, catches, air-pumps, and 
other apparatus, being set forth as applicable in carrying out 
this part of the invention, the goods or other articles to be 
carried being placed in cylinders, it being stated that the 
changing of the position of these cyliuders " causes the car- 
" riages to be propelled." 

[Printed, 2s. lid. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1833, December 20.— No. 6532. 
PIEBSON, Josiah Gilbeet.—' 'Certain; improvements in the 
" construction of bolts and latches to be attached to doors 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 265 

" and other situations where a secure fastening may he 
" required." 

This invention consists in " several novel features" adapted 
to the fastening of doors, &c. ; but relates principally to the 
employment of a series of peculiarly formed sliding pieces, 
which the patentee proposes to call " the web of the lock," 
such pieces being " used for confining and securing the bolt 
il or latch, and preventing its being moved back by any other 
" implement in the absence of the key which has been fitted 
" and adapted to its particular use." 

The details of the invention are set forth at some length, 
and will not be understood without the aid of the drawings 
annexed to the Specification ; the patentee claiming particu- 
larly the adaptation of changeable sliding web pieces for 
locking or confining the bolts or latches, rendering the in- 
terior of the lock inaccessible by securing the face plate 
through the agency of bolt and key ; and also the construc- 
tion of a staple which receives the tongue of a bolt adapted 
to it. 

[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1834, January 13.— No. 6540. 
TIGA.E, Pinnock. — "Wheels. These wheels, which are made 
of metal, are constructed upon the principle of suspension 
and support combined. For the purpose of enabling this 
principle to be put into effect, the spokes are screwed both 
into the nave and felloe. The outer ends of the spokes may 
be made square for the purpose of facilitating the screwing, 
the square ends being subsequently cut off smoothly with 
the periphery. The spokes maybe solid or tubular and in 
the latter case may have a wood core. They may be arranged 
in different ways and are screwed into a metal nave. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1834, January 25.— No. 6550. 
HICK, Benjamin.— ''Certain improvements in locomotive 
" steam carriages, parts of which improvements are applicable 
" to ordinary carriages and to steam engines employed for 
" other uses." 

[ISFo Specification enrolled.] 



266 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

A.D. 1834, March 29.— No. 6585. 
DOUGLAS, John Cooper. — Propelling carriages. The motive 
power which the inventor claims to use for this purpose is to 
be derived from the alternate action of atmospheric pressure 
on two pistons contained in one cylinder and separated by a 
diaphragm. The cylinder is carried in a frame which moves 
to and fro horizontally in guides. To it is attached a double 
rack which in these reciprocations, works toothed segments 
from which the motive power is applied. 

The specification also shows a carriage fitted with this 
apparatus. The latter is applied to the perch under the 
carriage. In this carriage the seats at the back are raised 
above those in front. 

The invention also relates to a method of preventing over- 
turning of carriages. The apparatus for this purpose consists 
of a pair of levers crossing one another under the carriage 
and pivotted near their ends. The long arms of the levers 
are attached to opposite sides of the carriage near the bottom. 
The short arms have bars extending from them upwards to 
the sides of the body immediately above them. 
[Printed, Is. Id. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1834, March 31.— No. 6588. 
MILLICHAP, George. — " Certain improvements on loco- 
" motive machines or carriages." 

In this invention there is supported upon a raised framework 
a certain shaft or axis on which are fixed two spur wheels, one 
of these being much larger than the other, and there being 
at each end of this shaft or axis a winch or handle by which 
rotary motion may, if desired, be communicated to such shaft 
or axis and wheels. This rotary motion may be given to the 
shaft by means of manual labour, or a steam engine may be 
employed to rotate the shaft, there being upon the axes of 
the bearing wheels of the carriage other toothed wheels of 
different diameters, these corresponding with the toothed 
wheels first mentioned, and the shaft or axis on which these 
wheels are fixed being so arranged as to slide to and fro in 
its bearings, the different wheels being thus placed into and 
out of gear with each other, and the power and speed of the 
mechanism being thus varied. The fore part of the framing 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 267 

of the carriage is connected with the front part by means of an 
axis and bearings so arranged that in case one of the wheels 
of the vehicle should rise over an obstacle in the road the 
two parts of the framing of the vehicle adapt themselves 
thereto. And in the first part of the framing is mounted 
steering or guiding apparatus, the fore wheels of the vehicle 
" turning with a locking motion similar to ordinary carriages/' 
a winch and certain gearing enabling the conductor of the 
vehicle to guide the latter as requisite. 
[Printed, lid. Draivings.*] 

A.D. 1834, July 3.— No. 6637. 

HARDY, James. — " A certain improvement or certain im- 
" provem ents in the making or manufacturing of axletrees 
" for carriages." 

[No Specification enrolled.] 

1834, A.D. September 25.— No. 6679. 
TONGUE, Cornelius. — " Certain improvements in apparatus 
" for preventing accidents to travelling carriages of various 
" descriptions." 

In this invention an arm or lever is jointed at its upper end 
to a plate of metal fixed to the axle of a carriage or in some 
other convenient situation, and is curved and forked at the 
lower end, and has jointed to such forked part a drag, the 
latter being furnished with projections which facilitate its 
being jointed to the lever or arm. The fore end of the drag 
is formed into a loop or hoop, whereby it may be connected 
with a chain of the usual kind, and towards the other end of 
the drag, and on each side thereof, are projections which 
serve as guides to assist in conducting the drag to its proper 
position beneath the wheel when required to impede the 
progress of the carriage. A chain connected to the lever 
is carried upwards and onwards, and directed by means of 
rollers to the seat of the driver of the vehicle, or to that of 
the guard, or if desired to the interior of the carriage, the 
end of the chain being placed upon a hook or knob when it 
is desired to keep the drag out of action, the drag being then 
raised from the ground ; but on releasing the chain from such 
hook or knob the lever falls and allows the drag to pass under 



268 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

the wheel, the chain already mentioned as being attached to 
the nose of the drag, and which chain is also connected to the 
fore part of the carriage, preventing the drag from passing 
too far under the wheel. More than one drag may be applied 
to a vehicle if desired. 

[Printed, M. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1834, October 8.— No. 6689. 
HICK, Benjamin. — Locomotive and wheels. Part of this 
invention relates to the construction of a steam carriage or 
' locomotive, that described in the specification being intended 
to run upon a railway. The cylinders which are " overhead " 
receive steam on the upper side of the pistons only, from 
which arrangement it is claimed that greater freedom from 
vibration and better adhesion result. Differential gearing 
with suitable disconnecting clutches, is fitted to the driving 
axle. 

Wheels for common road and other purposes are made with 
iron naves and rims connected by iron discs. These discs are 
bolted to flanges on the nave and are fitted and held in angle 
recesses in the rim. 

[Printed, Is. 2d. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1834, November 4.— No. 6707. 
GIBBS, Joseph. — " Certain improvements in carriages, and in 
" wheels for carriages/' 

This invention relates to " a peculiar arrangement of the 
" spokes and naves of wheels, whereby wheels may be con- 
" structed with greater facility" than according to the 
ordinary system. The nave is of metal, and also constitutes 
the axle box, and the spokes of the wheel are so arranged that 
the end of one spoke is near one end of the nave while the 
end of the next is near the other end thereof. The spokes 
thus appear, " when the wheel is viewed edgeways, to form 
" the two sides of an isosceles triangle, of which the nave 
" represents the base," the spokes, however, being placed at 
equal distances asunder in the felloes of the wheel. The 
spokes maybe so formed at the inner ends as to "just fill 
" in and wedge one another," or there may be longitudinal 
grooves cut or cast on the outer surface of the nave or axle 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 269 

box for the reception of the inner ends of the spokes. The 
outer ends of the spokes are inserted into mortices in the felloes 
of the wheel, and there are certain plates and screws so 
arranged that by tightening the screws, the plates being 
drawn nearer together, cause the spokes to expand the felloes 
" and make the whole wheel more rigidly secured," one of 
these plates being easily removeable for the purpose of 
removing and replacing a faulty or imperfect spoke. The 
spokes may be expanded, according to another modification 
of the invention, by means of a central cone around which 
their inner ends are placed, such cone being adjustable by 
means of screws or bolts. 

The invention also embraces an arrangement of springs 
for carriages in which spiral springs are each connected at 
one end to a shaft or axis and at the other to the interior 
of a drum or barrel, there being wound around these barrels 
straps of leather which are connected at one end with the barrels 
and at the other with supporting rods which are connected 
with the shafts or some other convenient parts of the carriage. 
And in order to prevent the shaft or axis to which the springs 
are connected from turning round, and also to prevent the 
carriage from rising and falling in an improper direction, 
certain flat bars of steel are connected at one end with the 
shaft or axis and at the other with the shafts or framing of 
the vehicle. 

[Printed, lOd. Draivings.~] 

A.D. 1834, November 20.— No. 6719. 
WHITESIDE, Robert.— Wheels for steam carriages. The 
springs are placed within the wheels in order that the relation 
between the engine and the axle may be uniformly maintained. 
They are spiral and are attached by their outward ends to 
four equidistant points on the inside of the periphery, and at 
their inner ends to the axle box which passes through a ring 
of a diameter sufficient to allow for the play of the springs. 
The spokes of the wheel are secured in this ring. Between 
the above-mentioned equi-distant points two square frames 
are fitted, one within the other. The outer one may move to 
and fro in one direction, the inner one to and fro in the 
direction at right angles, the latter being in fact carried by 
the former. To the latter an iron plate is attached, having a 



270 CABBIAGES AND OTHEB VEHICLES 

central aperture for the insertion of the axle box which is 
secured to it. The axle box is thus inside the inner ring of 
the wheel, but is not attached to it in any way. The twisting 
force of the machinery is thus not liable to tear the springs 
from their place. 

The invention also relates to a method of packing and 
lubricating rotary engines which may be used for propelling 
carriages and other purposes. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawings."] 

A.D. 1834 November 25.— No. 6722. 
BABLOW, Eobert Joseph. — " Certain improvements in 
" springs applicable to carriages and other purposes." 

This invention consists " in the use of springs having very 
" little elastic play," the patentee stating that he is thus 
" enabled to construct springs and use materials much lighter 
" and cheaper and more easily replaced and repaired than 
" heretofore," the elastic play obtained being, moreover, 
multiplied to any required extent " through the medium of 
is two arms of unequal lengths, causing the shorter arm to 
" act upon the spring and the longer arm to sustain the 
" carriage or other weight for which elastic play may be 
" required." 

An arrangement is described in which a recess or mortice 
is formed in the framing of the carriage to receive six short 
pieces of spring plate, these plates being divided into two sets, 
which are kept apart by iron stops, the latter being retained 
in position by flanches. "The plates of each set or spring 
" lie one on the other without requiring any fastenings," the 
recess or mortice in the framing of the carriage being suitably 
shaped for the reception of the spring plates. A bolt of iron 
or steel is placed above and another below the springs, and 
levers are so arranged that when the outer ends thereof are 
acted upon by the weight of the carriage a li nipping action " 
is exercised upon the two sets of springs. These arrangements 
may be variously modified, in some cases one set of springs 
only being used, while in others a cushion or bag of atmo- 
spheric air is used instead of springs. And tbe invention 
may be applied not only to wheeled carriages, but also to the 
hanging of the seats of easy chairs, and to sedans. 
[Printed, Is. 9d. Draiuing.] 



FOB COMMON EOADS. 271 

A.D. 1834, December 23.— No. 6733. 
HANSOM, Joseph. — Improved carriages. One form of 
carriage described in this Specification is supported on two 
large wheels which are attached to the carriage body by short 
spindles. The inner ends of the spindles fit into boxes in the 
framing ; the outer ends are fitted into the naves of the 
wheels. The shafts "are on a level or nearly so with the 
' ' centres of the wheels and also with the centre of the main 
" body part of the carriage." 

Another form of carriage is supported by a pair of wheels 
or rather rings, which completely surround the body and 
turn on friction rollers or their equivalents, attached to the 
transoms. This carriage is shown as being capable of acco- 
modating four persons. The shafts are similarly arranged 
to those of the first -mentioned vehicle. 

The invention also relates to a method of hanging a cart 
body from the axletree in such a way that it can be lowered 
to the ground if desired. The axletree is fitted with a lever, 
from the short end of which the body is suspended. The 
other end being drawn down by a rope passing round a drum 
attached to the shafts the body is raised, and when relieved 
the lever allows the body to fall to the ground. 
[Printed, Is. 3d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1835, February 25.— No. 6772. 
AITKEN, William. — "Certain improvements in the con- 
" struction of carriages to be propelled by animal or other 
" power." 

An arrangement is described in which a carriage frame is 
in the first instance formed of oblong rectangular shape, and 
strengthened by cross bars. Across the under side of the 
frame, about midway, is fixed an axletree, and on each side 
of the side bars of the carriage frame, are iron staples or eyes, 
two or more on each bar, secured by screws or bolts, on which 
hang as many coiled steel springs. On each pair of springs 
hangs a strong cross bar, so formed at each end as to catch 
into a loop or eye at the lower end of each spring, and in 
these cross bars the body of the carriage rests. The carriage 
frame is mainly borne by two wheels of large diameter, a 
third subsidiary wheel, however, of much smaller diameter, 



272 CABKIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

being attached to a revolving frame which is placed under 
the fore part of the carriage frame, and swivels on a centre 
pin. 

In order to prevent the^ carriage from being tilted up by 
the occasional preponderance of the load behind the axletree, 
the patentee employs a stay, " beneath the hind parts of the 
" carriage," which, carrying a small roller having vertical 
play under the pressure of a spiral spring, "will give ooca- 
is sional support without impeding the onward motion of 
' ' the vehicle ; or the stay may be used without a spiral 
" spring, the springs supporting the carriage acting for the 
" accomplishment of the object." 

The details of the invention are set forth at some length, 
and include a brake by which the progress of a carriage may 
be checked when travelling down hill, or when the horses 
become unmanageable ; means of facilitating the changing of 
the horse or horses employed in drawing vehicles are also 
described, as well as various means of liberating such horse 
or horses from such vehicles, pulleys, ropes, brake levers, and 
other mechanism being also engaged in carrying out the 
invention. 

[Printed, 2s. M. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1835, February 25.— No. 6773. 

HYNES, Patrick Seyton. — " Certain improvements in 
" wheels, axletrees, and boxes, and in and apparatus for 
" retarding or locking carriage wheels." 

According to one part of this invention the axletree of a 
carriage is furnished with shoulders or enlargements of peculiar 
form, through which are passed bolts which are furnished 
with springs tending to press them constantly in one direction, 
or towards the naves of the wheels, cords or chains, however, 
being connected with the bolts, which are passed round pulleys 
carried by bridges or brackets screwed to the axletree, and 
are then led to some convenient parts of the carriage, and 
then secured to hooks or holdfasts. Strong plates of gun 
metal or wrought iron are affixed to the inner ends of the 
naves, and in these plates are holes or recesses for the reception 
of the ends of the bolts, the result of the arrangement being 
that on the cords or chains being liberated from the hooks or 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 273 

holdfasts the springs press the bolts into the holes or recesses 
in the plates, thus stopping the rotation of the wheels, and 
consequently the progress of the carriage. In order to protect 
the tires of the wheels from extra wear when this apparatus is 
brought into action plates of soft steel or case-hardened iron 
are let into the tires at points corresponding with the recesses 
in the plates in the naves. These arrangements may be 
varied, rods or levers, or other equivalent mechanism, being 
in some cases substituted for the bolts and springs. 

The invention includes a mode of constructing a " double 
" axle-tree box/' this being composed of two cylinders or 
tubes, one being smaller than and being inserted within the 
other, the space between them serving as a reservoir for oil. 
The inner cylinder, through which the arm of the axletree 
passes is perforated at equal distances by holes through which 
a constant supply of oil passes to the axle arm. The smaller 
cylinder is screwed into the other for a portion of its length, 
and each end of the box is provided with a cap, the escape of 
oil from the box being thus effectually prevented, a screw 
plug being provided on the removal of which a supply of oil 
may be introduced into the box. Various nuts, collets, 
washers, and other instruments for securing the box within 
the nave of the wheel are described, but these are all of the 
ordinary character, and form no part of the invention. 
[Printed, 7d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1835, March 4.— No. 6781. 
BERGIN, Thomas Fleming. — Connecting and buffing car- 
riages. This invention though described in connection with 
railway carriages is claimed as applicable also to trains of 
vehicles in common roads. 

The invention " relates to improvements on the apparatus 
" called the buffing apparatus " and its object is to apply 
" arrangements or combinations of coiled springs with rods 
" proceeding from end to end of the carriage, which shall at 
" once offer a most advantageous apparatus for receiving and 
" transmitting the motion from one carriage to another, and 
" also prevent any prejudicial effects of concussion in starting 
" or stopping a train of carriages, and also be highly suitable 
" for preventing any prejudicial effects taking place in the 
" event of two trains coming into contact." The rods rest 



274 CAKKIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

upon rollers which allow them to move freely backwards or 
forwards, one rod, however, only being used to each carriage, 
and " about four feet of coiled or spiral springs " of " graduated 
" strengths " being placed on the rod just within each end of 
the carriage framing, one end of each of the sets of springs 
resting against a collar or boss on the rod and the other end 
against a small box of iron attached to the carriage frame. 
The rod extends about two feet beyond each end of the 
carriage, and has at each end " a buffer head," the patentee 
stating that he has used a welded iron tube in place of a solid 
rod, and mentioning various advantages as arising from the 
arrangements described. The frame of the carriage is 
strengthened by diagonal tension rods. 
[Printed, Is. Id, Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1835, March 11.— No. 6785. 
BACON, Joshua Butteks. — Steam carriage. This carriage 
w r hich is described as intended to run on a railway, but which 
is claimed as equally applicable to common roads, is driven by 
means of steam issuing from the ends of rotating arms con- 
tained within a cylinder or jacket. The axis of these arms 
carries a pinion which gears into another on the axis of a 
series of consecutive discs or pulleys. Against one of the 
latter there is pressed another pulley having on its axis a 
smaller which is caused to bear on the upper part of the 
periphery of the driving wheel for the purpose of causing it to 
rotate. The adhesion of these .pulleys is effected by levers 
which form also part of the suspensory system of the vehicle. 

An arrangement of levers is also provided for the purpose 
of adjusting the weights carried by the wheels, and the leading 
and trailing wheels are so connected by levers that the driver 
may, on turning a curve, cause the trailing wheels to adapt 
themselves to the course. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1835, March 13.— No. 6790. 
ADAMS, William Bridges. — Wheels. The improvement in 
wheels consists, firstly, in strengthening the periphery by in- 
serting a hoop of iron within the usual circle of wooden felloes, 
and secondly, in substituting for the spokes usually employed, 



FOR COMMON KOADS. 275 

circles or hoops of steel secured to the above-mentioned rim and 
a central axle box. These spring hoops may be strengthened 
by multiplying the plates. They are also capable of being 
made in various patterns. The wheels may also be divided or 
flat. The central axle box is fitted with an annular oil chamber 
which surrounds the axle. The box is perforated with holes 
for the passage of the oil, which by the rotation of the oil 
chamber is constantly being raised and poured through them. 
By the use of these wheels carriages may be suspended by 
a simpler system of springs ; and in order to enable four large 
wheels of equal size to be applied to a carriage, the patentee 
shows a system of bringing the fore carriage to the main body 
to which system however he lays no claim. 
[Printed, Is. 6d. Dr divings. ~] 

A.D. 1835, March 16.— No. 6791. 
CHUKCH, William. — " Improvements in apparatus to be 
* ' employed in the conveyance of goods and passengers by land 
" or water, parts of which said improvements are also appli- 
" cable to the ordinary purposes of steam engines and other 
" steam apparatus." 

One part of this invention relates to the boilers of locomotive 
carriages meant for use on common roads. An arrangement 
is described in which various water chambers surround certain 
furnace flues and a fuel or coking chamber, a steam chamber 
furnished with safety valves and a steam gauge being also 
provided. The fire bars are composed of tubes filled with 
water, and the fuel is supplied to the furnace through a 
hopper which is provided with double shutters, and opening 
into the coking oven or chamber, all these parts, with their 
adjuncts, being fully set forth, and at considerable length, 
motion being communicated from the working parts of the 
engine to the axle of the hind wheels of the vehicle, the 
wheels themselves being fixed upon the ends of tubes which 
are locked to the crank shaft by clutches, the axle itself 
turning between antifriction rollers mounted in slings or 
boxes to which the springs of the carriages are attached. The 
fore wheels are mounted upon separate short axles, connected 
with suitable steering apparatus by which the vehicle may, be 
guided in any requisite direction, and a friction band or drag 



276 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

is placed around a brake wheel, and so arranged that the 
conductor, by pressing upon a lever with his foot may tighten 
such band and so retard the motion of the vehicle at pleasure. 
According to one of the figures in the drawings annexed to 
the Specification the vehicle is provided with a body for the 
accommodation of both inside and outside passengers much 
resembling that of an ordinary stage coach. The details of 
all the parts of the vehicle are very fully set forth, and illus- 
trated by a number of elaborate drawings. The other portions 
of the invention do not require notice here. 
[Printed, Ss. Drawings."] 

A.D. 1835, April 4.— No. 6807. 
HARDY, James. — Axles. The first part of this invention 
relates to the manufacture of shafts by arranging around a 
cylindrical core a number of radial bars or segments pre- 
viously rolled to true pattern, and then subjecting the whole 
to a welding temperature and completing by rolling or 
swaging. 

It also relates to the manufacture of axles. These are cut 
with a chisel and pieces of steel are inserted in the cuts. The 
axle is then heated in an air furnace and swaged in dies. 
By this means that part of the axle which bears the friction of 
the wheel is protected. Collars are fashioned on axles by 
means of dies. 

[Printed Id. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1835, April 14.— No. 6812. 

INGLEDEW, John.— Safety wheel and axle. This invention 
relates to the construction of a metallic wheel, the spokes of 
which are inserted in mortices in the nave and periphery, or con- 
tinuous felloe, and secured therein by wedges or keys. Inside 
the hollow of the nave is inserted a circular wedge or hollow 
cone or sleeve, which keeps all the fastenings in place. By 
this arrangement the spokes are secured against the effects of 
shunting strains. 

The axle runs in an elongated box attached to the carriage 
framing. A screwed centre pin keeps it in proper position in 
the box. The wheel is secured to the arm projecting from the 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 277 

box by means of a screw nut. The details of the invention 
cannot be clearly rendered without the assistance of the 
drawings. 

[Printed, 10d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1835, May 9.— No. 6828. 
SIMPSON, William. — "A safety drag or lever slide for 
'' carriages." 

In this invention a large bent lever is employed, which is 
mounted upon a fulcrum below the hind axle of a carriage, 
one arm then projecting diagonally backwards and downwards, 
and the other arm, which, is longer than the first, projecting 
forward under the body of the carriage. The end of the arm 
first mentioned carries a shoe or drag, and with the end of the 
longer arm a chain, strap, or rope is connected, which is 
thence carried onwards to a barrel furnished with a winch, 
and which is mounted in such a position that the winch may 
be turned by the driver of the vehicle, the result of turning 
the winch being that the rope, strap, or chain being coiled 
upon the barrel draws up the end of the longer arm of the 
lever, and so causes the shorter arm to descend and press the 
shoe upon the ground. On the axis of the barrel is a ratchet 
wheel, and a catch or spring is so arranged as to act upon the 
teeth of this wheel, and prevent any return motion of the 
barrel until it is desired that the drag shall no longer operate, 
when the catch or spring is released by means of a pedal and 
other apparatus, and the movement of the barrel is reversed 
and the lever moved back into its first position by means of a 
spring, again raising the shoe from the ground. In order to 
increase the power of the apparatus a chain or rope may pass 
from the barrel to a large pulley, upon the axis of which is a 
smaller pulley, a second chain or rope proceeding from the 
latter to the lever, and the shoe may be studded for use in 
frosty weather. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1835, May 27.— No. 6840. 
BERG-IN, Thomas Fleming. — " Certain improvements in the 
" method of suspending and adjusting the bodies of railway 
" and all other wheeled carriages." 



278 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

In this invention instead of the body of the carriage being 
mounted upon springs arranged in the ordinary manner, it 
is suspended from " crane-neck standards " which project 
upwards from the framing of the carriage and sustain links 
composed of rods jointed together and capable of adjustment 
in length by means of screws, and having combined with them 
a number of chains, springs, pulleys, and other adjustable 
rods and apparatus by which the body of the carriage is 
supported. The details of the invention which are somewhat 
complex, will only be understood with the aid of the drawing 
annexed to the specification, these details, moreover, being 
capable of variation. The object of the invention is to suspend 
carriages requiring the use of springs, " that whatever may be 
' ' the number of springs upon or from which any individual 
" carriage may be suspended or hung, the elasticity of all 
" the said springs shall be brought into play by any load," 
upon whatever part of the carriage such load may be placed, 
" or by any concussion of the wheels against stones or other 
" inequalities of the road over which the said carriage may 
" run ; or in other words in such a manner so as that all the 
" said springs shall be affected alike, or nearly so, that is, 
" compressed or extended alike, as the case may be, by the 
" imposition of a load upon the said carriage, or whenever a 
" concussion or jolt takes place by any one of the wheels 
" coming in contact with a stone or other abrupt obstacle." 
[Printed, Is. Id. Drawing."] 



A.D. 1835, August 14,— No. 

DAY, John. — Wheels. This invention consists in making 
wheels entirely of wrought iron. Each spoke is made with a 
portion of the periphery welded thereto at one end and a 
segment of the nave at the other. These are then all welded 
together, a plate being welded at each side of the nave. In 
some cases a thicker plate may be required on one side than 
on the other. A bar of iron may further be welded round the 
outside of the periphery, or a tire may be shrunk on. The 
joints are scarfed. The nave is then bored out and the axle 
secured therein, or instead, an axle box may be fitted for a 
loose axle. To secure the axle to the wheel keys are driven 
in longitudinally to the axis. The axle also projects beyond 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 279 

the wheel and has a groove cut round it. Two semicircular 
plates or collars fit into this groove and are attached by screws 
to the nave. They also hold in the keys. By this means the 
wheel is secured against accidental loosening. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1835, September 24— No. 6895. 
MASON* William. — Wheels and axles. This is a compound 
wheel. The felloes are built up of wrought iron parts jointed 
together and forming a channel to be filled in with wood. 
The nave is of cast iron with wood interior. The spokes have 
shoulders at each end. The whole is held together by a 
shrunk tire. 

Axle boxes are made of iron plates cut with grooves for 
lubricating fluid, bent and welded up and bored out truly. 
The requisite screw is cut on the outer end of the box. 

When axles have to be secured to the wheels, a collar is put 
on which turns with the axle, but being loose, adjusts itself 
when it becomes warm. The axle is keyed to the nave and 
further secured by a screw nut. A plate is fitted on the out- 
side of the nave and a screw passed through it into the axle. 
The axle box, a long tube, is attached in the ordinary way to 
the vehicle. Washers are provided to make all tight. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1835, December 16.— No. 6955. 
CAEPMAEL, William. — (A communication.) — Steam car- 
riage. This carriage has the form of a French diligence, or 
three bodied stage carriage. The boiler is contained in the 
hinder compartment and the machinery is underneath the 
carriage body. The driving wheels are worked by a cranked 
axle. For the purpose of relieving the latter from strain the 
naves of the wheels have boxes or sockets which fit the ends 
of the axle and which also bear the weight of the vehicle 
through the springs. They are also connected with the axle 
by clutches. In order to allow for the movement of the 
springs, the cylinders and driving machinery are secured in a 
frame suspended or pivotted under the carriage framing. The 
steam pipe is also passed to the cylinders near the point of 
support. 



280 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

The carriage is guided by a steam cylinder which acts on 
the swivelling axle by chains. The cylinder is also fitted as a 
" dasher " or " cataract " apparatus so that by closing a cock 
to prevent further passage of the oil or other fluid the wheels 
are held in the required position. A dasher cylinder is also 
fitted to the framing for the purpose of acting as a brake. 
The nave socket is fitted with an excentric, working a piston 
in this cylinder. By regulating the valve the wheel may be 
braked and by stopping the valve it may be caused to cease 
turning altogether. 

[Printed, lid. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1835, December 31. No. 6972. 
BLYTH, John. — "An improved method of retarding the 
" progress of carriages in certain cases." 

This invention consists essentially " in attaching a friction 
' * band, acting round a friction pulley placed on the nave of 
" the wheel, to the body of a frame of the carriage, and 
' ' hanging the body in such manner on the springs that when 
" any sudden check is given to the train, or when the car- 
f * riage is descending a hill, the body will slide forward and 
" draw the friction band tight around the friction pulley, thus 
st assisting the horses to pull up when required on level 
" ground, and to hold back when going down hill," without 
any attention being required from the driver to put the 
machinery by which this is effected into action. 

An arrangement is set forth in which a " saddle piece " is 
bolted to one of the hind springs of a vehicle Having four 
wheels, this saddle piece sustaining one end of a curved piece 
of metal, to which a second similar piece is jointed, others 
following in succession, and the whole forming a friction band, 
which is secured by means of an arm or bracket to one of the 
side frames of the vehicle. In the ends of the ordinary 
bearing springs loops or slots are formed, the frame or body 
of the carriage, however, resting directly upon cross or trans- 
verse springs, the ends of these being provided with antifric- 
tion rollers, which work in the loops or slots of the ordinary 
springs, and are capable of moving to and fro therein. Thus 
when the vehicle is descending a hill, or when the driver 
suddenly pulls up the horses, the body of the vehicle will 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 281 

move forward and the friction band become tightened around 
a pulley which is fixed upon the nave of one of the hind 
wheels. 

[Printed, 5d. Dratving.~] 

A.D. 1836, January 19.— No. 6984. 
HAESLEBEN, Charles. — Propelling carriages and improve- 
ments in wheels. The first part of this invention relates to a 
method of propelling vehicles by means of the walking move- 
ments of a horse upon an endless flexible platform which 
passes round rollers, and is by them caused to work the 
wheels. This platform is capable of angular adjustment so 
that the horse may be caused to exert more or less force as 
occasion may require ; moreover, if the platform be inclined 
the horse's weight is added to his work. 

Another part of the invention relates to the construction of 
a w r heel "the periphery of which admits of change of form 
" by pressure," the result being that the wheel offers a more 
extended surface to the ground on which it works than would 
be the case if the periphery were rigid. Such a wheel is not 
meant, however, to be employed as the bearing wheel of a 
carriage, "but as a supernumerary wheel." 

The spokes of the wheel are each composed of a hollow por- 
tion united to the nave and a second and outer portion capable 
of sliding to and fro to some extent within the first, a spiral 
spring being inserted between the nave and the inner end of 
the moveable portion of the spoke. To the outer end of the 
latter is attached a segment of the periphery of the wheel, the 
segment being also connected with the hollow part of the spoke 
by " stretchers," certain studs or cross arms being so arranged 
as to prevent the segments " from being turned out of the 
" plane of the wheel." The segment of the periphery attached 
to each moveable portion of spoke is flexible, and thus, as the 
wheel revolves that portion of the periphery which is in con- 
tact with the ground is flattened by the weight or pressure of 
the load being carried, such flattening bringing a larger por- 
tion of the periphery of the wheel into contact with the 
ground than would otherwise be the case. Such a wheel 
therefore " assists in the propulsion of the carriage by taking 
" hold of the ground, in addition to the hold of the tire of the 
" bearing wheel on the rail " 



282 CARRIAGES AND OTHER YEHICLES 

Another part of the invention consists in the application of 
a semi-cylindrical screen to the " leading end" of a carriage 
in order to "lessen retardation from atmospheric resistance " 
when such carriage is moving with great velocity. This 
screen may be composed of " very light materials " such as 
canvass or leather, or both ' ' supported by strips of whalebone, 
" pressed outwards by spiral springs that will yield in case of 
" any accidental pressure from without." 
[Printed, Is. 6d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1836, January 30.— No. 6992. 

BOULNOIS, William, the younger. — " An improved corn- 
" bination or arrangement of springs for carriages." 

According to this invention two springs of the ordinary 
form are combined together in the ordinary manner, one 
being inverted over the other, and the two being connected at 
the ends. Within these are two other springs, of similar 
form, but of smaller size, and the inner and the outer springs 
are united by means of blocks, the four springs being thus 
combined together and working in unison. The blocks extend 
both above and below the central parts of the springs, and on 
the axle of the carriage is a block or bracket which partially 
embraces the projecting part of the block which extends below 
the springs, while a similar block or bracket, connected with 
the proper part of the carriage partially receives the block which 
projects above the springs, the blocks of the springs being 
connected with the blocks or brackets on the axle and carriage 
by means of pins which form pivots or axes, the result of the 
whole arrangement being that the blocks are capable of a 
slight rocking motion, " and thus permit of lateral movement 
" to the springs," in addition to the ordinary " elastic play 
" up and down." This lateral action may be obtained by 
other means, as, for instance, by furnishing the end of one 
spring with a small pivot or axis which works in a strap or 
collar on the end of the corresponding spring. The patentee 
terms the inner springs " loading springs," but these, if de- 
sired, may be dispensed with, and the details of the invention 
be otherwise modified. 

[Printed, hd. Drawing.] 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 283 

A.D. 1836, April 23.— No. 7070. 

MASSE Y, Edward John.—" Improvements in railway and 
<l other locomotive carriages." 

According to this invention, two quadrangular frames con- 
stitute the main framing of the carriage there being one pair 
of wheels to each frame. " These two frames are coupled 
" together one behind the other by a bolt, there being a 
" washer between the frames to keep them apart, the bolt 
" having a head at one end and a split cotter through the 
11 other," or they may be connected " by screws and nuts by 
" which means the two frames, though securely held together, 
" are capable of movement in case of any inequality of the 
ff level of the railway or other road on which the locomotive 
<( carriage runs." "If the locomotive carriage have three 
" pair of wheels, then there are to be three frames, connected 
" to each other in like manner." 
[Printed, hcl. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1836, May 13.— No. 7093. 
ASHDOWNE, John.— Facilitating draught of vehicles. For 
this purpose a chain made up of a series of short iron bars is 
made to travel round with the wheel, and is laid on the 
ground in front of the wheel by means of a guide bar pro- 
jecting from the axle. The chain forms a road or railway 
upon which the wheel runs more easily than on the ground. 
\Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1836, June 7.— No. 7108. 
BOWER, Manoah. — "Improvements applicable to various 
" descriptions of carriages." 

This invention relates to that part of a carriage which is 
called the folding head or cover. The patentee states that 
" according to the ordinary construction of heads the same, 
u when folded down, are considerably in the way, and are 
" more or less heavy and unsightly," but that according to 
this invention such heads or covers " may be made to fold 
f; . down so completely oat of the way that the whole may be 
" out of sight," and that " such is the lightness yet strength 
ct and elegance of the combination of the parts " that they 
may be raised or lowered with great facility. 



284 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

An arrangement is described in which certain hollow 
standards are affixed to the framing of a carriage, these re- 
ceiving sliding standards, the latter being connected with a 
certain plate, and there being certain wire stretchers and 
frames or boxes combined therewith. This arrangement may, 
however, be varied, the details of the invention being depen- 
dent upon the particular form of vehicle to which the inven- 
tion is applied. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1836, July 13.— No. 7147. 
HORLIAC, Louis Matthias. — (A communication.) — "Certain 
" improvements in carriages and harness." 

\_No Specification enrolled.] 

A.D. 1836, August 6.— No. 7162. 
REINAGLE, Ramsey Riciiabd. — Carriages, wheels, pole and 
springs. This invention consists, firstly, in " the suspension 
' s of the body of a carriage upon springs attached to the upper 
" part or roofing," the frame of the carriage being connected 
with short axles on which the springs will rest, ' ' whether placed 
" under the roof's projection or on it, or against the side of 
" the body, or within the body, or if hooked to the body, 
" from a connecting bar, from arm to arm, or upon traversing 
" bars across the top of the framing, in the inside or outside, 
" and by any means of elastic india-rubber rope or chains," 
this part of the invention also including "the employment of 
" two large wheels at the centre of the body " and " separat- 
" ing the body from the usual connection with the first wheels 
11 and framing on which the driver and o.utside passengers 
" may sit," thus giving to the body of an omnibus or other 
four-wheeled carriage " the easy draught and simplicity of a 
" two- wheeled one." The body is united to the " front 
*' action" by means of "two pair of draught shaft arms" 
composed of rods of iron united by open or angle work, these 
arms passing from the axle of the large w T heels to the front 
frame. 

Secondly, the invention relates to the construction of 
" elastic anti- concussion wheels of larger dimensions than 
" ordinary." One wheel is described in which the spokes are 
composed of bars or strips bent into an elliptical or nearly 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 285 

elliptical form, the ends of these bars being secured in open- 
ings in the nave by wedges. Another wheel is described in 
which the bars or strips composing the spokes are bent into a 
more oblong figure than in the wheel mentioned above, this 
wheel being less elastic than the first. And a third wheel is 
described in which the spokes are composed of bars bent 
11 over a form the shape of an egg," a leg projecting from one 
part of the bar thus bent being connected with the nave of the 
wheel and the opposite part of such bar being united with the 
felloe, this wheel being " inflexible or incompressible." The 
spokes of all these wheels are connected with "trice-formed 
" iron tires or hoops," and the spokes of the first-named 
wheel are sustained near the nave by T-formed rests while in 
all the three large flanges are used which extend beyond the 
nave and aid in supporting the spokes. This part of the 
invention includes the casing of the wooden felloes of ordinary 
wheels with plates of iron. 

Another part of the invention consists in lt shaping the 
" tenons of wooden spokes wedge-formed," and inserting 
them into correspondingly formed mortices in the nave. 
" The angular cuttings of the mortices will prevent split- 
" ting." 

Another part of the invention consists in a mode of facili- 
tating the turning of a carriage * ' by employing triple arms 
" carrying friction rollers within a circular box or case, 
" capped over to keep out dirt," this circular box or case 
being apparently meant to form the front frame of the 
carriage mentioned with reference to the first part of the 
invention. 

Another part of the invention consists in forming a carriage 
pole of blades of steel, " bowed elliptically to afford a spring 
power " and having for a leader or leaders a piston rod acting 
upon a powerful spring within a tubular head, the object of 
this spring being " to keep each horse to his equal share of 
" work," while the spring action of the parts forming the 
pole ' ' will save much strain upon the carriage in sudden 
" starting." 

The invention includes a mode of constructing the bodies of 
" carriages " by panelling of sheet metal (iron principally) 
" over an iron framing." 

[Printed, Is. 4d. Dra/ivings."] 



286 CARRIAGES AND OTHER YEHICLES 

A.D. 1836, August 11.— No. 7170. 
HURLOCK, Reverend Robert Allen. — "Improvements in 
" axletrees," 

In this invention the axletree is divided into two parts, and 
the end of each part which passes into the wheel is of square 
section, and is secured in the wheel by screws and nuts or 
other suitable means. On the inner end of each part or single 
axle is also a projecting collar, these collars turning in grooves 
formed in a central axle box, and similar collars on the two 
parts working in grooves in the outer axle boxes, the two parts 
being thus retained in due position. The three boxes have 
each fixed on the upper surface a light iron bar, curved up- 
wards on each side in the form of a spring, and the ends of 
these curved bars are united by cross bars, the whole forming 
a kind of frame on which the body of the vehicle is* supported. 
By these arrangements each wheel revolves with its own part 
of the axle, independent of the other or others. 
[Printed, M. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1836, September 21.— No. 7188. 

POOLE, Moses. — (A communication,) — "Improvements in the 
" description of public vehicles called cabs." 

For this invention the body of the vehicle may be varied 
in form, but in all cases the entrance is from behind, either a 
single door or folding doors being used, as may be preferred. 
The axle is cranked, for the purpose of bringing the body 
near to the ground, and such body is described as being 
mounted upon " eliptical springs " made according to an 
invention for which a patent was granted to William Boulnois, 
the younger, on the 30th of January 1836, but other springs 
may be employed. The shafts are connected with the body of 
the vehicle by pin joints, and each shaft passes through a 
socket which is sustained by a bracket projecting from the 
front of the vehicle, the shafts being capable of moving up 
and down to some extent in the sockets, and being moreover 
provided with springs so arranged that ' ' the weight on the 
" horse is relieved.' 7 Steps are placed in front of the vehicle 
in order to give access to the driver's seat, which is on the 
top of the vehicle, and other steps are placed behind the 
vehicle for the convenience of passengers. Windows are 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 287 

placed in front of the vehicle, and also at the back, and 
ventilators, composed of flat narrow boards, mounted on axes, 
and capable of being variously adjusted, are also provided. 
In one arrangement of the vehicle the passengers occupy seats 
placed along each side, thus facing each other, this vehicle 
being meant for the accommodation of two passengers only, 
but another arrangement of vehicle is described in which 
more than two passengers may travel, one passenger sitting 
on each side of the doorway, and a third occupying a folding 
seat which may be placed across the doorway when the door 
is shut. In this arrangement the passengers sit with their 
faces towards the horse. The front part of this vehicle may 
be more or less open, and may be furnished with windows, 
folding blinds, and other conveniences, according to the taste 
of the builder. The construction of the framing of the vehicle 
is very clearly set forth in the drawings annexed to the 
Specification, and will only be understood with the aid of 
such drawings. The interior may be lined in any suitable 
manner. 

[Printed, 2s. Id. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1836, September 28.— No. 7197. 

PEARSON, Richard. — " Certain improvements in drags or 
" apparatus for retarding carriages." 

According to this invention pulleys are affixed to the hind 
wheels of the carriage to which it is desired to apply the 
invention, there being placed around these pulleys friction 
bands, which are composed by preference of steel springs 
lined with leather. A bar or axis is mounted so as to cross 
the framing of the carriage from side to side, and in connection 
with this are certain rods and arms, and a long lever which 
may be operated upon by the driver of the vehicle, a foot 
lever and foot board also being connected with the apparatus. 
The long lever may be retained in any desired position by 
means of a click or catch, and a rack arranged to receive it, 
the click or catch being raised from the rack by a handle 
when requisite. 

The invention is illustrated by a drawing which it will be 
necessary to inspect in order to understand the details of the 
apparatus employed. The invention may be applied to the 



288 CARRIAGES AND OTHER YEHICLES 

fore as well as the hind wheels of the vehicle, and either 
separately or in combination. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1836, October 20.— No. 7212. 
ADAMS, William Bridges. — Carriages. This invention 
relates, firstly, to an improvement in omnibuses, and consists 
in making the body of an omnibns " in two parts or half 
" bodies, whereof each one is mounted with suitable springs 
" in its own axletree and pair of wheels," which may be all of 
large diameter, the two half bodies being connected together 
" D 7 joint" work at the floor and at the ceiling," which 
permits of the vehicle readily adapting itself to turns or 
curves in the road, the two parts being, moreover, so con- 
nected as to allow a free passage from end to end of the whole 
vehicle, the floor of the one part being so extended as to 
project over a corresponding projection from the floor of the 
other, and the sides of the two portions of the vehicle being 
connected together by flexible material. The joints each 
have ""a prominence on the upper half or portion thereof 
' ' accurately fitted into a corresponding hollow cavity in the 
" lower half or portion of the same joint." 

Another part of the invention relates to the construction of 
a spring suitable for wheeled carriages, which consists of " a 
" bended bow, of any eligible elastic material, the two ends of 
" which are connected by an elastic or non-elastic cord, strap, 
" band, or chain of metal links, the middle part of the bow 
" being affixed to that part of the carriage which is provided 
' ' for supporting the spring, and the weight of the body of the 
" carriage being supported by the middle of the cord of the 
" bow." Or the middle part of the cord may be suspended 
on the support, and the middle part of the spring affixed to 
the body. The tension of the spring may be regulated by 
tightening or slackening the cord by means of screws or 
otherwise. 

Further, the invention relates to the construction of cranked 
or bended axletrees, and consists in forming such an axletree 
" of two broad but comparatively thin bars, disposed edgway 
ei upwards with a space between them," such space being 
filled with wood or partially occupied by blocks of wood or 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 289 

tubes of iron, the whole being secured together by bolts. 
Cranked or bended axles are also described as being formed 
in parts, joined together by overlapping at the bends, and by 
bolts. 

Another part of the invention relates to the construction of 
a two- wheeled cabriolet, to be drawn by one horse and driven 
by a person behind the body, the reins passing over the roof, 
and the driver either standing on a board or being seated, or 
reclining against a strap or bar behind the entrance door, 
which is at the back of the body, the front having a window, 
which, together with part of the roof, can be opened or closed 
at pleasure. 

The invention also relates to the construction of four- 
wheeled waggons, each having " a compound jointed "body 
" made in two parts, the floor of one part lapping over the 
" floor of the other part, and the overlapping parts being 
" united by a central turning bolt," the axles being bent 
dow r nwards so as to cause the body and its load to travel near 
the ground, the loading and unloading being effected by 
means of an opening in one side or other of the waggon, 
near the middle of its length. The four wheels are "full 
" sized," and the waggon is adapted to travel either end 
foremost. 

[Printed, 2s. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1836, November 8.— No. 7218. 
WHITCHER, John. — ' * Improvements in drags or apparatus 
" applicable to carriages." 

In this invention, which is described more particularly as 
being applied to a waggon, a beam or bar is in the first place 
fixed across the hinder axletree, there being jointed to this 
beam one end of a rod, the other end of which descends and 
is jointed to a skid, a second bar, also jointed to the skid at 
the same place, passing upwards to the perch of the waggon, 
and being also jointed thereto, these bars serving to sustain 
the skid and guide its movements in being raised and lowered. 
Jointed to the skid is also one end of a third bar, this extend- 
ing diagonally upwards, and having at its other end a pulley 
or antifriction roller which is placed between two curved 
guides which are supported by the cross bar or beam on the 
G 239. k 



290 CAKKIAGES AND OTHEK YEHIOLES 

axle, this pulley or roller, as the skid is raised or lowered, 
working between the guides, a short chain connecting the 
upper end of the bar which carries the pulley to the cross 
beam, and preventing it from moving too far. To the upper 
end of this bar is also connected a chain which passes over 
guide pulleys and onwards towards the shafts of the waggon, 
near to which it is united with two other chains, these passing 
along the shafts and being attached to sliding plates to which 
the tug chains from the horse's collar are hooked, the result 
being that when the horse is drawing the vehicle forward 
the skid is raised from the ground, but descends thereto on 
the horse ceasing to act upon the tug chains. Other chains, 
connected with the first, are so arranged that when the horse 
bears against the breeching in descending a hill the skid is 
likewise lowered. A drag chain is attached to the front of 
the skid, which passes over a pulley suspended from the body 
of the waggon and is then attached to one end of a hoop or 
open bar, the other end of the latter being attached to one 
end of a second chain which passes around a second pulley 
and is hooked to the bar which carries the antifriction pulley, 
a short chain from the centre of the latter being connected 
with the framing of the vehicle. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1836, December 19.— No. 7259. 
KOUTLEDGE, Thomas, and GALLOWAY, Elijah. — 
" Certain improvements in cabriolets and omnibuses." 

According to the first part of this invention a cabriolet is 
so constructed that the body is much lower than usual, the 
axle, which is straight, passing through the body of the 
vehicle at a short distance below the seat. The springs are 
such as are ordinarily used, and connected with the front part of 
the vehicle are two rollers or small wheels, which do not 
touch the ground under ordinary circumstances, but are so 
arranged that if the horse should fall they will "descend, 
" and probably prevent the cabriolet from being overturned.' * 
If preferred, one roller or wheel may be used instead of two. 
Another part of the invention relates to an improved sliding 
head or hood, wich is of corresponding curvature with the 
front of the vehicle, and is so contrived that it can be shut 



FOE COMMON HOADS. 291 

down and secured by any usual mode of fastening. The 
shafts, dashing irons, and other parts, are arranged in the 
ordinary manner, and the wheels are set forth as being made 
in accordance with the invention for which a Patent was 
granted to Joseph G-ibbs on the 4th of November, 1834, such 
Patent having been assigned by the said Joseph Gribbs to 
Thomas Routledge, one of the parties to the present Patent. 
The patentees, however, do not confine themselves to any 
particular form of wheel. 

A cabriolet is also described in which the wheels revolve 
upon arms which are either welded or otherwise connected 
with upright bars, these being joined at both their upper 
and lower ends to springs by which the body of the vehicle 
is sustained. Another part of the invention relates to the 
construction of an omnibus, the body of which, instead of 
having straight and parallel seats, with an entrance at the 
back, is divided about midway into two equal parts, the 
passengers entering through doors in the sides, and occupy- 
ing seats which are arranged so as to form portions of 
circles. The wheels are all of equal size, " and in turning 
" the carriage they all lock," the vehicle thus differing from 
other carriages, the fore wheels only of which can lock. 

Another part of the invention relates to an indicator for 
ascertaining the distance travelled by a cabriolet or omnibus. 
To the nave of one of the wheels is affixed an excentric ; this, 
as the wheel rotates, gives a reciprocating motion to a lever 
carrying a pawl, the latter moving a ratchet wheel one tooth 
at each revolution of the wheel, and thereby communicating 
motion to a train of wheelwork of ordinary character and a 
hand or pointer. The diameter of the wheel being known,- 
this apparatus may be made to show, upon a graduated index, 
the distance moved over by the carriage. 
[Printed, Is. bd. Drawings^ 

A.D. 1836, December 21.— No. 7266. 
GILLETT, Stedman, and CHAPMAN, John.—" Certain im- 
" provements in that description of vehicles called cabs." 

This invention consists, in the first place, in " the applica- 
- ' tion of a driving seat or box (or such like convenient support 

k 2 



292 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

*' for the driver) to tlie back of such, description of two- 
*' wheeled one-horse vehicles as are so constructed that the 
" passengers enter in front, and suitable for cabs." 

Secondly in a mode of ' ' applying and working of a window 
" or blind to cabs from the outside." Two glazed frames 
or windows are hinged together, and are capable of folding up, 
the upper frame being mounted on axes at each side of the 
vehicle, and a handle being so arranged that the driver can at 
any time give motion to the frames so as to open or close the 
window, projections from the lower frame working along 
curved inclined planes during such opening or closing, and a 
spring catch being arranged to hold the parts in position when 
closed,,which catch,, however, may be liberated by the passenger 
should he desire to operate upon the window himself. 

Thirdly, in applying " a safety frame and platform (by which 
(i the passengers enter in front) on springs when the driver's 
lt seat is placed either at the back or on the top and in front," 
the patentees stating, however, that they do not claim the 
application of such frame and platform for the passengers 
" when not placed together with the body of the vehicle on 
" springs," nor when the vehicle is " driven from a seat at the 
" side." 

Fourthly, in a mode of applying the side and back springs 
of cabs, " whereby the passenger's seat is below the position 
" of the springs," the axle of the cab, which is cranked, being 
" so formed that the springs may be horizontal, and the 
(t cranked axle stand off at an angle." 

Another part of the invention relates to apparatus appli- 
cable to cabs, for measuring the distances passed over. On the 
nave of one of the wheels is fixed an eccentric, near which is 
a bar bent at each end, and constantly worked to and fro by 
the eccentric, this bar carrying a curved plate which gives a 
to and fro motion to a lever, which, through the medium of 
certain other apparatus, moves a ratchet wheel one tooth at 
each revolution of the cab wheel, there being on the axis of 
the ratchet wheel a pinion which turns a wheel, on the axis of 
which again is a screw or worm which drives another wheel, 
the axis of which carries the hand of a dial or face/' which 
" is graduated to measure forty-five miles." The whole of 
this apparatus is placed under the passengers' seat, and en- 



FOR COMMON EOADS. 293 

closed so that it cannot be interfered with by the driver, but 
other apparatus of a similar character may be added to this so 
as to work the hands of two other dials, one of which may be 
within view of the passenger, and the other towards the driver, 
the latter being able to set these hands at zero on starting with 
a passenger, a stop being so arranged as "to prevent the 
" driver forcing the dials back beyond zero." 
[Printed, Is. M. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1837, January 11.— No. 7279. 

BRABY, James. — " Certain improvements in the construction 
" of carriages." 

This invention relates, in the first place, to a horizontal 
cranked axle or axletree which may be applied to various 
descriptions of wheel carriages. In one arrangement which 
is set forth, the axle is " curved to the segment of a circle." 
In another arrangement the axle is formed of one piece " bent 
" at a right angle." Other arrangements are described, in 
one of which a horizontal cranked axletree is formed in two 
pieces, while in another case a horizontal cranked axletree is 
combined with the common vertical cranked axle tree. The 
patentee states that the advantages resulting from the use of 
this horizontal cranked axletree are the facility with which 
perfect safety may be obtained by bringing the centre of 
gravity of the carriage and loading to the lowest point, the 
invention not being confined to the perfectly horizontal posi- 
tion of the axletrees when attached to the carriage, " but only 
" so far as they shall not deviate more than the angle of forty- 
" five degrees from the horizontal position." 

Another part of the invention relates to the springs of car- 
riages. An arrangement is described in which two curved 
springs are employed, which are attached to the lower part of 
a cranked axletree and also to scroll irons connected with the 
framing of the carriage, the intention of the arrangement being 
that the spring may * ' vibrate equally with a light as with a 
" heavy weight." A modification of this part of the inven- 
tion is also described, in which " double curved springs " are 
used. 

Another part of the invention relates to the construction of 
carriages, either for public or private purposes, the entrance 



294 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

for the passengers being by a door or doors or openings in 
front, and such carriages being provided with either two or 
three wheels, and so arranged as to be drawn by one horse ; 
while another part of the invention consists of improvements 
in the construction of public stage carriages or omnibuses for 
either one horse or more, and with four wheels, the entrance 
or entrances for passengers being either in front or before the 
fore axletree. All these improvements are very fully set forth, 
and their advantages described, one of the latter consisting in 
dispensing with the services of a conductor. 
[Printed, 2s. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1837, January 19.— No. 7285. 
MUEEAY, John. — " Certain improvements in the construe- 
u tion of carriages.'* 

[No Specification enrolled.'] 

A.D. 1837, February 23.— No. 7309. 
WESTON, Jasper. — "Improvements in certain wheeled car- 
(t riages." 

This invention is set forth at some length, and consists 
essentially in : — 

Firstly, " the application of a pole or shaft in such manner 
4 ' that it is over or above the back of the horse or other animal 
" harnessed thereto, in place of having the shafts or pole 
" at a position below the back of the animal," as usually 
practised. 

Secondly, a mode of harnessing horses or other animals to 
carriages by means of what the patentee calls t( riders," applied 
to suitable poles. 

Thirdly, in applying a driving seat to an under framing of 
a two-wheeled carriage, suspended from the axletree by 
springs, such seat being independent of the body of the 
carriage. 

Fourthly, in a mode of applying a driving seat to the body 
of a two -wheeled carriage at or above the head, so that the 
head may fold up notwithstanding the position of such driving 
seat. 

Other parts of the invention relate to certain arrangements 
of springs for carriages, according to one of which under 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 295 

framings are suspended from the axletrees by springs, and 
hanging the body of the carriage on further springs in connec- 
tion with the first. Also certain modes of arranging side 
doors to two-wheeled carriages, and a mode of apply ingDennet 
springs to the fore carriages of four-wheeled vehicles. Several 
modes of constructing elastic wheels are also set forth ; the ap- 
plication of metal or metal-bound naves to wheels with elastic 
curved spokes; elastic hoops fixed concentrically with the 
external ring of the wheel by means of tubes having rods pass- 
ing through them, or otherwise, forming one part of this 
portion of the invention, while in another case an external 
ring or felloe is supported by internal springs, some of which 
form angles at their points of junction with the felloe, and are 
connected with and supported by other springs attached to the 
nave of the wheel. The details of these arrangements, how- 
ever, will not be understood without the aid of the drawings 
annexed to the specification. 
[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1837, May 6.— No. 7364. 
HAYMAN, G-EOEGE.— "Improvements in two-wheel car- 

" riages." 

This invention " consists principally in the attaching a 
" double-action elastic steel spring to the back part of each 
" shaft immediately behind the treads, which springs (the 
" shafts being fixed in pivots) are so constructed as to act 
' ' equally well, whether the horse be ascending or descending 
" a hill, coming into effective play by a pressure from above 
" or below. From the peculiar properties of* this spring the 
" body can be so suspended on the shafts and wheels as to 
" almost entirely relieve the horse from the weight usually 
" thrown on his shoulders. He will thus be less liable to fall, 
" and the safety of persons in the vehicle will be to a great 
" degree insured." 

" The front cross bar of wood to which the draft bar or 
« springs are generally attached is in this carriage dispensed 
« with, and a slight bar of iron placed' immediately under- 
" neath and close to the bottom of the body, so that the 
" chance of a horse's striking his hind legs in fast trotting or 
" galloping (which according to the old construction was a 



296 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" fruitful source of accidents) is here entirely got rid of. A 
" principle well known, but new as applied to the draught of 
" carriages, is adopted. A spiral spring capable of resisting 
" the pressure of from one to sixty pounds is attached to the 
" side of each shaft so as to move freely, over which is an 
" index plate and pointer as in the spring balance. From a 
" hook attached to each spiral spring the horse draws," and 
the pointer " will at all times show what the resistance to the 
" carriage is, and should this at any time be much increased, 
" the owner will have information that the carriage is out of 
" order, and be enabled to have it rectified before his horse 
" has suffered from the increased draught. The gentle and 
" pleasant action of the spring will tend to prevent the chafing 
" of a horse's shoulder." 

The invention embraces the employment of an axle box of 
wrought iron, which is furnished with an external screw thread 
at the inner end for the reception of a screwed clip or collar, 
which, in combination with a fixed collar on the axle, keeps 
the wheel in its place on such axle, a cap being, moreover, 
screwed to the outer end of the box. 
[Printed, 8d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1837, May 10.— No. 7369. 

HAGUE, John. — Wheels. This invention relates to "wheels 
" which are employed on railways." 

The first part of the invention consists in forming each 
spoke of a wheel of two flat bars which are united at the outer 
ends, the inner ends, which are to be united to the nave, 
being some distance apart, but so bent towards each other 
that a short portion of each bar lies parallel with a corre- 
sponding portion of the next, and is bolted thereto, a nave of 
cast iron being then run upon and enclosing these short 
portions. The ring or felloe of the wheel may be composed 
of wrought iron, the outer ends of the spokes being inserted 
into mortices or holes formed therein ; or a ring of cast iron 
may be run upon such ends, the latter in either case being 
" forged into a tenon." In the case of a cast iron ring being 
used, however, it should be cast before the nave, and allowed 
to cool before the casting of such nave, in order to avoid the 
evils of unequal contraction. Instead of each spoke being 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 297 

composed of two bars it may consist of one bar suitably bent ; 
or four bars may be united at the outer ends, the inner ends 
standing somewhat apart, and being enclosed in the nave as 
already described. 

Another part of the invention consists in coating the inner 
ends of the spokes, or of any other instruments by which the 
nave and the felloe are united, with copper or brass, in order 
' ' that when the nave is cast thereon the same may be more 
li securely combined with the spokes." The ends of the 
spokes are first cleansed by the use of an acid, then dipped 
into water and powdered borax placed thereon, and when dry 
made red hot and dipped into melted brass or copper with 
which they thus become coated, and the nave is then run 
upon them. 

Another part of the invention consists in securing the outer 
ends of spokes in the holes of the ring, or felloe in which they 
have been placed by heating the spokes and the felloe, and 
then causing melted borax to run into the joints and after- 
wards melted brass or copper, the spokes and felloe being thus 
" brazed" together. 

[Printed, 8d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1837, May 22.— No. 7376. 
LEAK, Elijah.— Windows for carriages, &c. This invention 
consists in raising and lowering windows of carriages, build- 
ings, &c. by means of racks attached to the sashes and worked 
by pinions turned by a winch. 

The windows may also be fitted with waved racks, either 
attached to the frame or to the sash. Springs and rollers 
engage with these, so that the window may be retained in any 
position. 

[Printed, lOd. Drawings.'] 

AD. 1837, July 19.— No. 7404. 
PEAESE, John. — " An improvement or improvements in the 
" construction of wheels." 

In this invention wooden spokes are combined with diagonal 
stays " in such manner as to act on the double principle of 
" sustaining the weight of the load from above by suspension, 



298 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

" and from below the nave by propping," the diagonal stays 
being so applied as to " take the side strain of the load on the 
" wheel." 

An arrangement is described in which the spokes of the 
wheel are straight, but have combined or united with them 
stays which are curved outwards, both the inner ends of the 
spokes and those of the stays being of dovetail form, and 
being secured in the nave of the wheel (which is of consider- 
able length) by wedges of wood, into which are driven thin 
wedges of iron. The outer ends of the spokes are variously 
formed, but are in all cases so combined with the felloes that 
" they will not be able to be drawn in towards the nave by 
" the load," pins or dowels of iron connecting the spokes with 
the felloes, and the latter being surrounded by an iron ring or 
tyre which is " shrunk on in the usual way." 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1837, November 4— No. 7457. 
IEEMOISTG-EE, Eichard Joshua.-— " An improved spring or 
" arrangement of springs for wheel carriages." 

This invention consists ' ' in making the spring or springs of 
" wheel carriages of such forms, and placing or arranging 
" them in such manner in connection with the axles or axle- 
" beds that when impinged upon or put in motion they vibrafe 
' ' in a curvilinear direction round the points of suspension of 
*' the body of the carriage, whereby the concussions to which 
" the wheels, axles, and axle-beds are subject from the in- 
" equalities common to the surface of all roads, and from 
" occasional obstructions, are intercepted by the said springs, 
" and more effectually diverted from the carriage bodies than 
" by any other mode heretofore in use." 

Various modes of carrying the invention into effect may be 
adopted, one arrangement being described in which a ' * bell 
crank spring" is connected at the lower end with a te gallows " 
fixed upon the hinder axle-bed of a carriage, the upper arm of 
the spring being joined to a " scroll standard," rising from 
the perch of the vehicle, the elbow of the spring being attached 
to a loop bolted to the body of the carriage, such elbow 
thus forming " at once the fulcrum or centre of the spring and 
." one "of the points of suspension of the carriage body." 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 299 

Moveable quadrants, dram springs, and other mechanism 
are also mentioned as being applicable in carrying out the 
invention. 

[Printed, &d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1837, December 5.— No. 7497. 
GOTTAM, George. —"Wheels for " railway and other car- 
" riages." 

This invention " relates to certain modes of constructing 
" wheels for carriages for railways or roads, and for turnpike 
' e roads, whereby the welding of the spokes with the outer 
" ring may be performed with greater facility than hereto- 
" fore." 

Several modes of carrying out the invention are described, 
but the main feature of the invention consists in rolling bars 
of iron with one or more ribs projecting from the surface and 
then welding the spokes of the wheel to such ribs so that the 
bars may constitute the tyre of the wheel. These tyres may 
either be flat on the outside and thus be suited for use on 
common roads, or they may be flanged so as to be suitable for 
use on railways and the spokes may be variously formed, being 
in some cases double and further apart at the nave of wheel 
tl#n at the point at which they are welded to the rim or tyre, 
^he nave of the wheel may either be cast upon the spokes or 
be otherwise formed and sheets of steel, or steel and iron filings 
may be used to ensure an effectual welding of the spokes and 
the ribbed bars. One mode of carrying out the invention is 
described in which the wheel, as being formed, is mounted 
upon a vertical axis on one side of which is a forge and on the 
other an anvil, the wheel being thus constantly heated at one 
point and hammered at another. 
'[Printed, Is. lOd. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1838, January 31.— No. 7559. 
PEPPEKOOENE, Geoege Eydee.— Attaching horses to car- 
riages. The object of the inventor is to support the greater 
part of the weight of the animal drawing the carriage, in 
order that its fullest power may be applied to purposes of 
draught alone. For this purpose the horse is supported in a 
two wheeled carriage connected with the main carriage. The 



300 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

axle is bent and passes over its back, and this axle is fitted 
with a spring bar apparatus from which the horse derives its 
suspension. This bar is raised to the proper position by a 
lever and winch, or by analogous means. A peculiar saddle 
for the horse is described. There may also be an under bent 
axle in addition to the former axle. This passes from side to 
side underneath the horse. 

A method of guiding the conjoint carriage by means of a 
vertical rod at the point of connection with a horizontal 
pulley below, is described. Also what the patentee calls a 
" traversing perch " bearing at each end upon the centre of 
the axles. These axles traverse in slots in the perch. 

The invention also relates to a brake or skid, acted on from 
the driving seat. The brake blocks or skids are small wheels 
at the ends of a horizontal bar worked by rods from above and 
connected with springs under the carriage. A cord is used, 
operated by a pulley on the axle or elsewhere, to draw the 
blocks* to the wheels and, if great friction is required, by 
tightening the cord the action of the wheel will draw the brake 
between the periphery of the wheel and the roadway. 
[Printed, lQcl. Draivrng.} 

A.D. 1838, February 21.— No. 7571. 

GRIME, Jeremiah.— Wheels. This invention consists firstly, 
" in the particular arrangement and disposition of such parts 
" as are necessary to form the wheel, which is to be entirely 
" constructed of wrought iron ; and afterwards, by means of 
tl suitable machinery or apparatus, the whole is to be com- 
" pressed and welded into a solid wheel, and during such 
1 ' latter process the felloe, with its flanch, and the spokes and 
" nave or boss, will all be so perfectly united by the working 
" or welding of the metal that no joint, imperfection, or 
" weakness will be perceptible ; but as the wheel will be thus 
" rendered into one mass "of wrought iron, and the flanch 
" formed upon the same piece or bar as the felloe, the 
' f necessity of a separate tire iron is dispensed with, and con- 
' { sequently the outer rim or periphery of the wheel is more 
" durable, as it is impossible that the flanch or tyre iron can 
" work off or become loose, it being all welded into one 
" mass." 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 301 

Various modes of carrying out the invention are described, 
in some cases a number of plates being " piled " together in 
forming the wheel, the arrangement being such that the 
grain or " end of the iron" shall always cross or diverge from 
the centre of the wheel, thus rendering the wheel stronger and 
more durable. In other cases the wheel consists of bars of 
wrought iron, the grain of the iron being so arranged as to 
" present itself to the rail or road upon which the wheel 
" runs." In other cases a rolled bar forms the felloe of the 
wheel, the nave and arms being formed of piled plate iron or 
partly of plate and partly of bar iron. 

Wheels are also described as being composed of a felloe of 
solid bar iron, having a flanch formed on its periphery and 
being conected with the nave by helically coiled springs, this 
arrangement reducing the concussions given to the carriages 
in passing over irregularities in the road or way. 

The machinery employed in forming these wheels is de- 
scribed in detail and includes apparatus for punching holes 
out of plates of metal in order to form the spaces between the 
spokes or arms of the wheel, a cutting tool connected with the 
shorter end of a lever and also certain " shears " being em- 
ployed in this part of the invention. Apparatus for heating 
and welding the metal composing the wheels is also described 
this much resembling a reverberatory furnace in which the 
metal intended for the wheels is made to revolve slowly while 
being acted upon by a " rammer " or other suitable tool ; this 
apparatus being applicable not only in the formation of new 
wheels, but also in the repairing of old ones. 
[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 183S, February 24.— No. 7575. 
HOULS TON, John. — "Improvements in apparatus for stopping 
" or retarding carriages." 

This invention " relates to a mode of applying friction 
" springs to the axletrees of wheels of carriages, and by such 
" arrangement of the friction springs, the same being 
" enclosed, the parts are not liable to get deranged, the 
" admission of dirt, as is the case with other retarders, being 
" thereby prevented." 

An arrangement is described in which there is applied to 
one of the wheels of a coach a box or case within which is a 



302 CAEBIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

curved spring, one end of this spring being carried by a piece 
of iron keyed to the axle, and the other end of the spring 
being pinned to a crank which is mounted on a separate shaft, 
and from which a rod proceeds to the seat of the coachman or 
guard, such rod being furnished at the upper end with a rack, 
in gear with which is a pinion, by turning which, by means 
of a handle provided for the purpose the crank presses the 
spring against the interior of the box or case. A catch is 
arranged inside the box " to prevent the wheel moving back- 
" ward should the horses jib," and a plate fixed on the axle 
" incloses the apparatus, so as to keep out dirt, dust, or 
" other injurious matters." The invention may be applied, 
if necessary, to all the wheels of the vehicle. 
[Printed, 6d. Br awing. ~\ 

A.D. 1838, April 21.— No. 7619. 
MACNEE, James. — "An improvement or improvements in 
" carriages." 

This invention consists "in a new and improved method of 
" connecting the fore part with the hinder part of any four- 
" wheeled carriage or vehicle, that is, the parts commonly 
" called the fore carriage and hind carriage, by means of a 
" perch bolt placed at a greater distance behind the fore axle 
" than has hitherto been practicable with what is termed the 
*' full locking wheel," and also by means of what the patentee 
terms "a segmental plate placed at a considerable distance 
" in front of the perch bolt, and which segmental plate is 
" connected with both parts of the carriage ; as also in those 
" cases in which the foot board may rest on the one part of 
" the carriage and the seat on the other, in communicating 
" such motion to the seat as shall maintain it always in its 
" proper position with reference to the foot board." 

The patentee states that by these arrangements, "when 
" the fore carriage is turned on its centre in the process of 
" locking, the wheels and axle revolve round it in such 
" manner as to throw the inner wheel clear of the carriage, 
" and thus admit of a wider lock with a given size of wheel, 
" ora larger wheel with a given degree of lock, than by the 
" old method, where the perch bolt was placed farther 
" forward." He further states that he does not limit himself 
" to any particular circle, or segment of such circle, nor to 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 303 

"any particular form or dimensions of bolt or other con- 
" nection," by which the improvements may be carried into 
effect, as various ' * modifications may be adopted with the like 
" effect." 

[Printed, KM. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1838, May 3.— No. 7631. 
BALL, John. — {A communication.) — ' ' Improyements in car- 
" riages." 

The object of this invention " is to decrease friction of the 
" draft of wheel carriages," and the invention consists " in a 
" mode of applying friction rollers to the axletrees of the 
iS wheels of carriages." The friction rollers " are applied to 
" the axletrees, and the axletree boxes revolve on the friction 
" rollers ; hence the friction rollers remain stationary as to 
ie position with the axletrees to which they are applied, and 
<s they reduce the friction of the axletree boxes by supporting 
" such boxes, and touching at only very small part of the 
" inner circumference of each of the boxes." 

An arrangement is set forth in which three friction rollers 
are employed, such rollers having "necks" at each end, on 
which they turn as axes. Hollow bearings of steel, or other 
suitable metal, are let into grooves or recesses in the axletree, 
such grooves or recesses also receiving the friction rollers, the 
arrangement being such, however, that the rollers do not 
touch the axletree, certain collars being so contrived as to 
receive the necks or axes of the rollers. The axletree box is 
cylindrical, and hardened on its inner surface, the friction 
rollers revolving freely within this box, and there being a 
screw plug at the end of the box which which may be removed 
when it is desired to lubricate the parts. A ring projecting 
from the axletree, and a circular plate at the inner end of the 
axle box, keep the wheel in its place on the axle. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1838, June 2.— No. 7666. 
HARDY, James. — " Certain improvements in rolling making, 
" or manufacturing shafts, rails, tire iron, and various other 
" heavy articles of metal and in the machinery or apparatus 
" used in the same." 



304 CARRIAGES AJNTD OTHER VEHICLES 

This invention consists in adapting the principles set forth 
in the specification of a former patent granted to the present 
inventor in 1835, JSTo. 6807 " for manufacturing axle-trees for 
" carriages and other cylindrical or conical shafts, and apply- 
" ing the same principles to the manufacturing of certain 
" articles, as square or polygonal shafts for machinery rails 
" for trams or railways, and the tire irons for wheels, and 
" various other articles, by a certain process of rolling bars 
" of iron to certain figures, and after fagotting such rolled bars 
* ' together bringing them into the required form by rolling 
" or by swages attached to a tilt hammer or metal helve." 
The patentee introduces " as portions of the said mass of 
" metal, longitudinal bars of steel in such situations as may 
". be required for particular purposes," and rolls or welds 
" these steel bars into combination with the iron." 

Also instead of continuing to pass the masses of metal 
between rolls always revolving in one direction, the rolls may 
be reversed after every operation. 
[Printed, Id. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1838, June 7.— No. 7677. 

THOMAS, Robert. — " Certain improvements in apparatus to 
" be attached to carriages for the purpose of preventing horses 
" from starting, and for stopping or restraining them when 
" running away or descending hills." 

This invention consists " in the adaptation of an apparatus 
" to carriages, whether on two or four wheels, by means of 
" which the horse or horses may be drawn, so as to prevent 
" their proceeding, by means of a cord to be connected to 
" the bit or curb, such cord being wound round a rotary 
" barrel, when the barrel has been thrown into gear with one 
" of the running wheels, which may be done by any person 
" riding on or in the carriage." 

An arrangement is set forth in which a shaft, capable of 
rotation, is supported by brackets fixed to the stationary axle 
of a carriage. A small tube, attached by means of a flange to 
a larger tube, and a spring embraced by the larger tube, form 
a portion of this part of the invention, there being combined 
with these certain worm springs, and there being upon one 
end of the shaft a spur pinion, which, upon the shaft being 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 305 

made to slide endwise in the brackets, is brought into gear 
with a ring of teeth fixed upon the nave of one of the bearing 
wheels of the vehicle, the apparatus being thus made to cause 
the larger tube to coil up a band or cord which is connected 
by a pair of branch cords or reins with the curb or bit of the 
horse's mouth, as also, if required, with the bearing rein and 
the loops passed over his ears. The invention is described at 
some length, the details thereof including a pin and clutch, and 
other apparatus by which the apparatus is in the first place 
brought into action. As a security against the horse rearing 
up on being checked by the apparatus, loops of catgut or cord 
are applied over his ears, which will be brought tight upon 
them when the apparatus is applied, coiled springs afterwards 
releasing the loops ; a spring barrel and a second cord, being 
interposed between the tube and band first-mentioned and 
the horse's curb or bit in order to prevent the action of the 
apparatus from being too sudden. 
[Printed, Is. Drawings.'} 

A.D. 1838, August 31.— No. 7792. 
CURTIS, Joseph. — Propelling carriages and improvements 
in wheels, &c. The patentee describes a carriage propelled 
by animal power. The horse or other animal is supported 
in the framing of the carriage by means of a broad sling or 
band. His fore feet work treadles w r hich by connecting 
rods and cranks turn the driving axle. The fore feet are 
separated by a vertical plank to prevent the wrong foot 
being placed on either treadle and there is also described a 
ratchet apparatus which may be substituted for the crank 
motion for the purpose of making it immaterial whether a 
short or long step is taken. A modification of this carriage 
is also shown, in which the horse is to adopt an ordinary 
progressive action, the boards on w r hich he stands communi- 
cating the movement to the driving axle through a kind of 
parallel motion. The patentee also describes a method of 
slinging a horse in a carriage so that after it is started, the 
animal may be raised so much from the ground that his feet 
can only touch sufficiently to enable him to take long gallop - 
ping strides, like a man on a velocipede. 

Another improvement relates to the construction of a wheel 



306 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

for common roads or railways. This wheel is formed " as if 
" the conical railway wheel were placed outside of the common 
" wheel. If the wheel be formed of wood, the fellies should 
" be broad enough to take both tires. The outside tire may 
* ' be the same as that used for a railway wheel, and the road 
" tire the same as usual. " The patentee states that the best 
mode of fixing the spokes {C will be alternately to cross them " 
and that the nave would be best of cast iron " in the usual 
" way." He also states that the only part of the wheel which 
he claims is " the form of the ring," and that the best mode 
of 'forming the ring is to make the wheel in the usual way, 
and then shrink the railway tire upon it, and then when this 
is turned in the lathe, and the edge likewise, the road tire may 
be shrunk on afterwards ; " or the iron tire may be rolled to 
" the entire shape and the wheel put together upon the usual 
* ' railway system . " 

[Printed, 3s. 8d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1838, September 6.— No. 7795. 

BOURNE, John Frederick, and BARTLEY, John, jun.— 
" Certain improvements in the construction of wheels to be 
" used upon railways and other roads, and which improve- 
" ments are also applicable to the construction of wheels in 
" general." The invention consists, firstly, in a <f peculiar 
" method of preparing and putting together the ordinary 
" parts of such wheels, as the felloe, spokes, or naves; and, 
" secondly, in the application of certain machinery or appa- 
" ratus for the purpose of bending the tyre, hoop or rim of 
" locomotive engine, or other wheels to be employed upon 
" railways, or of any other wheels where loose or separate 
" tyres are used." In forming a railway wheel, a nave is 
first constructed of either two pieces of bar iron bent into a 
circular figure, or " by taking a solid mold from the forge " 
and cutting or working it as requisite, these being then welded 
to such nave pieces of flat bar iron of half the length of the 
intended spokes of the wheel, the edges of these bars standing 
" in the direction of the running course of the wheel." To 
these, again, are then welded other pieces of bar iron, to the 
outer ends of which have been previously welded curved pieces 
of .metal, forming segments of the intended felloe or rim of 



FOE COMMON" ROADS. 307 

the wheel, and then two of the portions of wheels thus 
fabricated are placed together, with the spokes intersecting 
each other, and the whole is welded together, forming a 
complete wheel, the two sets of spokes having been previously 
dished so as to approach each other at the ends, and " V- 
tf pieces" being inserted at the points of junction of the 
segments forming the rim, a tire or outer rim being then 
shrunk thereon, or such rim being turned " to the proper 
" cone and flanch." 

Instead of flat bars being used for the spokes of the wheel, 
round bars or other forms of metal may be employed, and 
other variations in the details of the arrangements made, as 
may seem most suitable. Thus a wheel may be formed by 
first preparing a straight bar (either flat upon its surface or 
made with a flanch, as upon railway tires,) of the full length 
of the periphery or felloe of the intended wheel, " and 
" ' jumping up ' or welding one half of every spoke or arm 
" at equal distances apart from the straight bar or tyre ;" or 
the arms may be ' ' welded upon the tyre bar in their whole 
" length" and such bar bent to form the felloe; a nave 
being afterwards cast upon the inner ends of the arms. Or 
a rim or felloe of wrought-iron may be provided with holes 
into which the outer ends of spokes may be inserted, and 
rivetted while in a heated state, a nave of cart-iron being 
afterwards run upon the inner ends of such spokes ; either 
single or double sets of spokes being provided according to 
the proposed strength of the wheel. 

The mechanism employed for bending the metal intended 
for the tires of wheels consists ' essentially of framing which 
supports upon the ends of shafts two grooved rollers, which ' 
are meant to act upon the flanched portion of the tyre, and a 
third roller, which has a plain surface and forms " the flat 
" under surface " of such tire, and is capable of being placed 
at different distances from the others, according to the thick- 
ness and curvature of the tire under operation, the first named 
rollers being driven by suitable gearing, and the tire iron 
being supported while under treatment by "alight platform 
" of rollers" arranged for the purpose. By an instrument 
enrolled on the 2nd of July 1847, the patentees disclaimed the 
application of this invention to il the bending of any tyre for 
" wheels other than flanched tyre for railway wheels ;" re- 



308 CARRIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

moving also the words " and other roads " and the following 
portion of the title of the invention from the specification. 
[Printed, Is, 3d. Drawings."] 

A.D. 1838, September 13.— No. 7811. 
McLELLArT, Archibald.— " Certain improvements upon the 
" springs and traces of wheel carriages, and upon the mode 
" of hanging such carriages." 

This invention consists essentially "in the use of single 
" plate springs with metal braces, so applied that the weight 
" of the body is partly supported by tension from the said 
" springs." An arrangement is described in which a spring 
applicable to a gig or two wheeled carriage is formed of a 
single plate of steel, thirty-four inches long, two inches broad, 
" and three- eighths of an inch thick for six inches in its 
" centre, but thereafter decreasing uniformly in thickness to 
" one eighth and one sixteenth of an inch at the neck of the 
" eyes or ends of the spring, the eye itself being one quarter 
" of an inch in thickness." The ends of the spring, when 
only supporting the body, "rise gradually, curving upwards 
" to the extent of an inch, or thereabouts, higher than at the 
*' centre, while not more than four inches in the centre of 
" the spring ought to be embraced by its fastenings to the 
" axle." To the ends or eyes of the springs are attached, by 
means of bolts, iron links or shackles "one and a half inches 
" long betwixt the centres of the bolt holes, and a full quarter 
" of an inch thick/' there being attached to these links metal 
braces made of hoop iron, which enclose brass or bell metal 
rollers, the whole of this apparatus being suspended between 
open ended scroll irons. The patentee mentions that the 
principle of the invention " lies not so much in the spring 
itself as in the new and favourable position in which it is 
(t placed by the braces." 

[Printed, 7d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1838, December 1.— No. 7891. 
DARTHEZ, Stanislaus.— (A communication.)— Axles. This 
invention consists in fitting in recesses cut in the part of the 
axle which runs in the box or nave of the wheel, certain 
rollers the peripheries of which rub against the inside of the 
box or nave as the wheel rotates. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 



FOR COMMON BOADS. 309 

A.D. 1838, December 6.— No. 7896. 
CAYAIGNAC, Godefroy. — ' ' Improvements in apparatus for 
" transporting materials for various purposes from one place 
" to another, particularly applicable to road cutting and em- 
" banknlents.' , 

One part of this invention relates to the construction of a 
waggon for the carriage of earth and other materials, and 
consists more particularly in arrangements by which the 
waggon may with facility be unloaded. The body of the 
waggon is mounted upon framework which projects upwards 
above the wheels, and such body is capable of turning upon a 
fulcrum so as to bring it into 'an inclined position, in which 
position the contents will be discharged by the swinging open 
of one of the sides of the waggon, which is suspended upon 
pivots or a fulcrum at its upper part, being retained in position 
when the waggon is loaded and travelling, by hooks which 
are inserted into staples in the ends of the waggon. The 
body of the waggon is moved into the inclined position 
necessary for discharging the contents by means of a" bent 
" serrated piece of iron" or curved rack, with which a toothed 
pinion is in gear, such pinion being turned by a winch or 
handle when it is desired to unload the waggon, and serving 
also to restore the body to its horizontal position in which it 
is retained while necessary by a hook. The other parts of the 
invention do not require notice here. 
[Printed, Is. 7d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1838, December 17.— No. 7906. 
MOAT, Orofton Willi a^i. — Applying horse powers to car- 
riages. The carriage described in this Specification is designed 
for the purpose of relieving the horse of a part of its own 
weight. The horse is accordingly suspended by a broad band 
from the fore axletree bed, the wheels of this carriage being 
very large. The two pairs of wheels are connected by a 
perch passing over the top of the carriage, which is in two 
compartments on the hind wheels. The fore axletree bed 
also supports by suspension the shafts, pole, and a wooden 
shield between the horse and the wheel. There is also placed 
upon it a seat for the driver and the steering gear, used for 
the purpose of assisting the horses. This gear consists of a 
barrel round which a rope is passed, working the axletree. 



310 CABBIAGES AND OTHEB VEHICLES 

A brake is fitted to the hind wheels and it is worked from the 
guard's seat behind the carriage. The hind axletree passes 
between the two compartments and the framing of the carriage 
is strengthened by ties. The pole arid shafts are attached to 
the framing of the carriage. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1838, December 21.— No. 7919. 
STAFFORD, Daniel. — " Certain improvements in carriages." 
Extension for the term of seven years from the 24th De- 
cember 1838 of the Letters Patent granted to the present 
patentee, dated 24th December 1824, No. 5063. 
[No Specification enrolled. - ] 

A.D. 1839, January 3.— No. 7924. 
DU MATJBIER, Louis Mathurin Busson. — (A communication.) 
— "Improvements in the construction of springs for car- 
" riages." 

This invention consists "in a combination of levers and 
" slides in conjunction with peculiar shaped springs," the 
patentee stating that the advantage derived from the invention 
is, " the lessening of the number of springs, and at the same 
" time preventing carriages, coaches, or any other vehicles 
" to which these improved springs may be applied, from 
" overturning, even though one of the wheels on the same 
" axletree were to be twelve inches higher than the other." 

An arrangement is described in which the body of a vehicle 
is supported by springs placed one above the other, the ends 
of the upper and larger spring bearing upon two friction 
plates which are screwed to a bar passing across the framing 
of the vehicle, and the ends of the lower spring bearing upon 
an elastic piece of metal connected to the same bar. Boilers 
may be placed at the ends of the springs " to render their 
*' motion more easy." In connection with the bar passing 
across the framing of the vehicle are two levers, which are 
each connected at one end to the springs by means of links 
or bridle pieces, while at the other end of each is a friction 
roller which is arranged to work within a curvilinear slide 
fixed to the axletree of the carriage, the result of the whole 
arrangement being that the body of the carriage is constantly 
maintained in a horizontal ^position although the wheels may 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 311 

be passing oyer uneven ground. The details of the invention 
are minutely set forth, but may be varied. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1839, January 19.— No. 7944. 

DUG-DALE, Richard. — (A communication from Alexander 
Riend.) — Axles. This invention consists in making such articles 
as are exposed to sudden shocks, or great and irregular strains, 
such as carriage axles, mill shafts, or ships' anchors, " by 
" making the same of two concentric pieces welded together 
" at the end or otherwise secured one within the other, and 
" whether both of the said pieces are hollow, or one of them 
" only, whereby the force of the shock or strain becomes 
{i dispersed throughout the external piece without materially 
" affecting the inner, and any tendency to fracture arising 
" from an accidental flaw or imperfection in the metal is 
" confined to the piece, whether outer or inner, in which it 
" occurs, and does not extend through the whole thickness of 
" the beam, rod, shaft, or other article." 

The specification of the invention is accompanied by a 
drawing illustrating the application of the invention to a 
carriage axle, a mill shaft, and an anchor respectively. 
[Printed, hd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1839, January 29.— No. 7956. 

WILLIAMS, Charles James Blasius. — " Certain improve- 
" ments in two-wheeled carriages." 

This invention relates to a mode of hanging the bodies of 
two wheeled carriages in such manner that " the weight of 
" the carriage shall as much as possible hang on the axle and 
" not press on or under the horse, except when its so pressing 
" may assist his action, or be convenient to the driver, whereby 
" also the body of the carriage is rendered less liable than 
il those of common construction to be affected by roughness 
" or irregularities in the motion of the horse, or from shocks 
" or impediments on the road." The patentee sets forth* the 
il chief principles," on which the invention rests as follows : — 

1 ' First, to suspend the springs from or on the axle or the 
" body of the carriage from the springs by an attachment 
" permitting a limited extent of motion, which to an equal 



312 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" extent renders the carriage independent of the shafts and 
" wholly dependent on the axle ; second, to limit this motion 
" by stays, which, by making the weight to bear on the shafts 
" from under instead of from above the axle, reverses what 
" takes place in common two -wheeled carriages, and throw 
" the weight on the horse's back in going up hill, and take it 
" off the back in going down ; third, to balance the weight 
" of the carriage at the axle, and when front a variable po- 
" sition of the weight which the carriage bears its balancing 
" point is not fixed, to make this point moveable by a sliding 
" attachment of the body to the carriage, which permits it to 
" be shifted a little backwards. 5 ' 

The patentee states that there are " many and various ways 
" of working out these principles," but describes several 
arrangements as suitable for the purpose, one of which he 
distinguishes as the " chain hung under poise ;" another as 
the "double pivot hung underpoise," and a third as "the 
" X-spring underpoise," all of which are set forth in detail." 
[Printed, Is. 4d. Drawings.^ 

A.D. 1839, February 28.— No. 7983. 

POOLE, Moses. — (A communication.) — "Improvements in 
" constructing and applying boxes to wheels." 

This invention relates to a mode of constructing the axle- 
tree boxes of carriage wheels, whereby such boxes will be 
more securely prevented from leaving the wooden naves of 
such wheels than when arranged on the ordinary system, 
according to which the axle boxes are formed with longitudinal 
webs or projections, and affixed in the naves of the wheels by 
means of wedges. According to the present invention the 
boxes are each formed with a screw in its external surface, so 
as to be screwed into the nave of the wheel ; such screw either 
being formed upon the box when cast, or afterwards produced 
by cutting with proper tools. 
[Printed, 3d?. No Drawings.] 

A.D. 1839, March 6.— No. 7993. 
CLARK, John. — Propelling carriages on common roads. 
The principle of this invention is thus described by the 
patentee : — " My improvement and invention consists of a 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 313 

new and improved form and construction of a leg and foot 
for propelling carriages on rail or common roads ; and, 
secondly, in a new combination or arrangement of ma- 
chinery for locomotive carriages, by means whereof the 
weight of the load to be carried is rendered applicable 
as part of the power for moving or propelling the carriage 
on which it is supported or rests. 

" For the purpose of carrying my improvement or invention 
into effect, two frames or carriages must be constructed 
distinct and separate from each other. The first or num- 
ber 1 to consist of a certain framework made of iron or 
wood, with machinery attached, and to which the axle trees 
of the road wheels are attached, and the second or num- 
ber 2, to consist of a strong framework for the support of a 
coach, cart, waggon or any description of carriage, to 
which framework four wheels are made freely to turn on 
axles firmly attached to the said framework. 
* ' To the framework of carriage number 1 are affixed bear- 
ings, in which two shafts, each carrying eight cranks or 
; eccentrics, revolve and to each of these cranks a leg and 
foot is made freely to play and to the extremities of the two 
: shafts are attached four cylindrical wheels, within which 
the four wheels attached to carriage number two are placed ; 
and thus the total machine consists of two carriages num- 
ber 1 being supported on wheels resting on the ground, and 
number 2 having its wheels in cylinders attached to the 
framework of carriage number one, 

"To cause this united machine to advance, the four wheels 
: attached to the framework of carriage No. 2, are, by the aid 
; of a steam engine, made to revolve in the cylinders in a 
; backward direction to the carriage No. 1, to which these 
; cylinders are attached, and thus these wheels belonging to 
1 the carriage No. 2, are by the rotary motion communicated 
; by the steam engine continuously attempting to advance ; 
* but immediately they are propelled or removed from the 
' points on which they rested, their weight with the load they 
' support is brought to press on the inner circumference of 
' the cylinders at points removed from the centre of gravity 
1 of the said cylinders, and consequently as the wheels of the 
' carriage No. 2 have trandlcs and cogs running on rims and 
' cogs forming the inner part of the cylinders, the weight of 



314 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" the carriage number 2 thus applied must give to the cylin- 
" ders a rotatory motion, or the resistance by which they are 
" witheld must be equal to or superior to the powerful revolv- 
11 ing force exerted by the wheels of the said carriages 
" number 2 running therein." By this arrangement of the 
carriages Eos. 1 and 2 " the cylinders become a sort of endless 
" railway constantly descending or turning as the weight 
" revolving therein is more or less removed from their centre 
' ' of gravity in proportion as the resistance to be overcome 
11 may require. 

" The weight thus applied to the cylindrical wheels is also 
" brought to act on the legs which being attached to the 
" cranks or eccentrics on the same shaft, are consequently, 
" as the cylindrical wheels revolve, pressed alternately at 
' ' different angles against the ground in a line to push and 
" cause the road wheels of carriage No. 1 to revolve in a for- 
" ward direction, .and thus the weight of a coach, cart, wag- 
' ' gon, or any description of vehicle with the load it carries, 
' ' by having its wheels placed in cylinders attached to another 
' ' carriage or framework supported on wheels resting on the 
' ' ground, is brought to act as a propelling power to the car- 
' ( riage on which it rests, and from which it endeavours to 
" escape are counteracted by cylinders revolving in equal 
" times through equal spaces that the wheels of carriage 
" No. 2 would have passed through provided they had revolved 
" or rolled on a plain surface." 
[Printed, Is. 9d. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1839, April 9.— No. 8026. 
PARKIN, Thomas. — Carriages, wheels, &c. Part of these 
improvements consist in modifying a carriage so that the 
horse may be entirely raised from the ground while descend- 
ing hills, brakes being added to retard the velocity, ' i whereby 
' ■ the carriage may be safely allowed to run down hill by its 
" own gravity at a speed considerably greater than the safety 
" of the horses "would otherwise permit." 

Another part of the invention relates to wheels meant 
exclusively for travelling on railways. 

Another part of the invention relates to the wheels of car- 
riages which are meant to run alternately upon common roads 
and upon railways; and consists "in combining a felloe or 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 315 

<l tire of iron to run upon the common road with a felloe 
" composed of short blocks of wood, having the grain nearly 
" in the direction of the radius, secured to the side of the iron 
" felloe, the wooden felloe to run upon a railway placed on 
" the common road, the iron felloe being of larger diameter 
(C than the wooden felloe, for the purpose of forming a flanch 
t( to prevent the wheel running off the rail, and of keeping 
" the wooden felloe clear of the ground when running on the 
" common road." Wheels for common roads are constructed 
by making the outer part of the felloe of two rings composed 
of wood bolted side by side through a rib projecting from 
the middle, and constituting a part of an inner felloe of iron. 
The invention is described at considerable length, and includes 
other particulars which do not require notice here. By two 
disclaimers, one of which was enrolled on the 27th of April, 
1841, by the above-named Thomas Parkin, and the other on 
the 24th July, 1843, by Thomas Harper Bennet, to whom the 
patent appears to have been assigned, all the particulars 
mentioned above, as well as a number of others, were dis- 
claimed. 

[Printed, Is. 6d. Dr divings.] 

A.D. 1839, April 13.— No. 8031. 
G-ILLOTT, Joseph, and WALKER, Thomas. — " Improve- 
(( ments in engines and in carriages to be worked by steam or 
" other motive power." 

Part of this invention relates to an improved mode of 
11 combining the mutual action of the wheels and axletrees of 
" carriages, the object of which is to make one wheel of each 
ft pair of wheels fast to their axletrees, so that they shall both 
" revolve together while the other wheel of the same pair 
" shall run loose on the said axletree." By this arrangement 
' ' whenever the two lines of rail or road over which the pair 
" of wheels roll depart from right lines" "each individual 
" which will be at liberty and disposed to take those varied 
* ! velocities which the undulations or curves require." 

The funnels of locomotives are to be so contrived that 
the cinders and dust are caused to be deposited in a water 
tank. 

For converting reciprocatory motion into rotatory driving 
motion, a pin on the piston rod is caused to work in a spiral 



316 CARKIAGES AND OTHER, VEHICLES 

groove cut on the inside of a cylinder, to the axis of which the 
flywheel is fitted. 

[Printed, lOd. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1839, May 13.— No. 8067. 
POOLE, Moses. — (^1 communication.) — "Improvements in re- 
" ducing the friction of axletrees and axletree boxes, and other 
te such moving parts of machinery." 

This invention consists in certain modes of placing around 
the moveable parts of machines, such, for instance, as the 
axletree of a wheel, a series of steel or other metal balls or 
spheres, " which turn with them, and do not offer any resist- 
" ance, care being observed that they are so placed as not to 
" touch each other, as that would give a different motion to 
" that already communicated." The first mode of carrying 
out the invention consists in placing three rows of balls at 
equal distances around the axle of a carriage and inside the 
nave or boss of the wheel. Each row is composed of six balls, 
and each row rests upon two small axles, which are parallel 
with the axle of the carriage, " in such a manner that each 
" ball touches upon three different points situate at equal 
11 distances the one from the other," the small axles resting 
upon plates of metal at the two ends of the box of the wheel, 
and being fixed by screw bolts. Another mode of carrying 
out the invention consists in ' ' having two circular metal 
" recesses placed at each end of the box of the wheel, placed 
" parallel to one another ; the axis of these recesses is the 
" same as the axletree. Within these recesses are four balls 
" of steel, upon which the axle rests ; between these balls are 
1 * four moveable rollers, which prevent the balls from coming 
" into contact with one another." To each of these rollers is 
attached another roller of a larger diameter, both moving on 
an axis which is fixed to an iron ring, the larger rollers work- 
ing in the upper parts of the recesses, steel rings being placed 
around the axle to keep the latter in its place. " In place 
i{ of balls, cylinders without axes may be used, but not so 
" advantageously." 

Another part of the invention relates to a mode " of check- 
" ing and stopping the wheels of carriages when rapidly 
" descending hills." This is effected by means of semi- 
circular pieces, two of which are placed around the nave of 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 317 

each, wheel, and so jointed to each other and connected with bars 
passing across the vehicle between the wheels, that by a very 
slight movement being given to a long lever connected with 
the apparatus the semicircular pieces may either be pressed 
upon the naves of the wheels and so retard or stop their mo- 
tion, or be removed therefrom. The bars mentioned above 
are supported by straps or bands fixed to the axles, and are 
made of sufficient strength to support the vehicle in case of 
the breaking of the axle. 

Another part of the invention relates to a mode of fixing an 

axletree within the nave of the wheel. There is a metal plate 

fixed at the back of the nave of the wheel by four screw bolts 

which pass into holes in the box before the nave. " This 

metal plate is placed at the centre, in order to form a round 

box of the necessary depth to allow for the thickness of the 

end of the axle ; near the back of this plate are two pieces 

which are connected with the other plate and form an 

angle, in order to receive two other metal plates which 

slide towards the centre of the nave and so retain the end 

of the axle. These slides are kept in their proper places by 

means of screws. When it is required to take off the wheel 

it will be seen that it is only necessary to unscrew the small 

screws, and the two pieces which form the slides will open 

without leaving the metal plate." 

[Printed, lOd. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1839, May 20.— IS T o. 8070. 
BODMER, John George. — Machinery for cutting, planing, 
turning, drilling and rolling metals. 

This specification is very lengthy and deals with many 
subjects. Part of the invention relates to a method of rolling 
wheel tires. The tire is first roughly welded out of a thick 
bar, to a diameter considerably less than that which the 
finished wheel is intended to have. It is then placed between 
two short rolls placed at the ends of shafts supported in 
suitable cheeks or frames. The rolling operation is then 
begun and continued until the tire runs on a series of small 
rollers held in a circular frame placed in an excentric position 
around the rolls. This frame is then opened on hinges and 
the tire removed. 

A disclaimer dated the 12th May 1853, was entered by 
Thomas Hornby Birley, assignee of the letters patent. This 



318 CARRIAGES A1STD OTHER YEHICLES 

disclaimer did not affect the part of the invention above 
referred to. 

[Printed, 5s. 2d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1839, June 6.— No. 8092. 
PRIOR, William. — " Certain improvements in the carriages 
" and axletrees of wheel carriages." 

This invention relates in the first place to a mode of con- 
structing the axletrees and fore carriages of four-wheeled 
vehicles so as " more advantageously to obtain the locking 
" motion." Instead of the fore wheels of the carriage being 
fixed to and supported by the bed in the usual manner they 
are mounted on two jointed arms at the two ends of the bed 
with which they are connected, by which means the wheels turn 
or lock nearly on their own centres, and thus ' ' when the car- 
" riage is turned or locked to its greatest extent it will always 
" rest on four points of support, and is thereby rendered less 
" liable to be overturned or upset than carriages in general," 
which, when the wheels are much locked, "maybe said to 
" rest only on three points." By this arrangement the dis- 
tance between the wheels is considerably reduced, which 
allows of the body of the carriage being suspended or hung 
between the fore and hind wheels, " with the doors exactly in 
" the centre, which adds greatly to the elegance and general 
'* appearance of the carriage." 

Each wheel has a separate short axle, composed of steel, 
one end being formed into an arm, and the other into a hinge 
carried by the axle bed. "With each axle is connected a wheel 
iron, these proceeding from and being attached to a horizontal 
bar, which is so constructed that on the movement of the pole 
or shafts towards either side in turning the carriage the axles 
make a corresponding movement, various stays and other 
mechanism forming parts of this portion of the invention. 
The axle box is formed of wrought or cast iron, bored so as to 
fit the arm, but recessed about midway for the reception of oil 
or other lubricating matter ; and also furnished with a groove 
for the reception of a collar formed upon the axle arm, and certain 
caps, screws, and other details completing the arrangement, 
which, however, will not be thoroughly understood without an 
inspection of the drawings annexed to the Specification. 

The invention further includes "a double counter-acting 
" scroll spring," which consists in effect of two springs com- 



FOE COMMON" EOADS. 319 

posed of steel plates and connected at the ends by shackles, the 
patentee mentioning various advantages as arising from the 
use of this spring, one of which is that a carriage furnished 
with these springs may be without a perch. An improved 
blind for carriage windows, which is composed of wire gauze 
strained upon a suitable frame, is also described, and the in- 
vention further includes a mode of constructing hinges for 
carriage doors, each hinge consisting of a flat bolt affixed to 
the door, two plates of metal in the framing of the door form- 
ing between them a recess for the reception of a pin on which 
the plate turns. A " revolving body loop," and a mode of. 
fixing or suspending the body of a carriage upon what the 
patentee terms " accelerating bars," are also set [forth, but 
these as well as the other parts of the invention, will only be 
understood with the aid of the drawings annexed to the 
specification. 

[Printed, Is. hd. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1839, June 18.— No. 8113. 
BENHAM, John Lee. — Counting passengers. Two forms of 
apparatus are described. One consists of an arrangement of 
hinged seats, by the side of which is a vertical rod carrying 
an arm at its top. This arm normally places itself across the 
seat so as to hinder anyone sitting down. To free the seat a 
counter, which the passenger receives on entering the vehicle, 
is dropped down a passage at the back of the seat and this 
forms a filling piece to the apparatus and enables the seat to 
work for the one passenger, after which the counter falls to a 
receptacle for the purpose. 

Another apparatus is described by which a counting and 
sounding instrument is put in motion by the weight of the 
passenger mounting on the step of the carriage. The patentee 
does not claim this apparatus, but he does claim the use of 
a hinged flap to the step for the purpose of preventing anyone 
getting in or out without the consent of the conductor. 
[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1839, June 29.— No. 8136. 
POOLE, Moses.— (A communication.) — "Improvements ap- 
" plicable to wheeled carriages." 
This invention relates in the first place to arrangements for 



320 CAERIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

registering the number of persons who may enter an omnibus 
or other public carriage. This part of the invention is de- 
scribed under various modifications, in some cases the door of 
the vehicle, in conjunction with moveable passengers and 
conductors' steps, certain ratchet wheels, wires, rods, and 
other mechanism, actuates a hand which traverses a dial ; 
this part of the invention including the application of leather 
or other flexible material for covering the crevices between the 
moveable steps, and so preventing wedges or other articles 
from being inserted into such crevices to check the action of 
the parts. In another case the door of the vehicle carries 
a turnstile which is made to work suitable registering 
mechanism, while in other cases some obstacle is placed at 
the entrance to the vehicle, which, being displaced or dis- 
turbed by the entrance of a passenger, gives motion to 
registering apparatus, the latter consisting in some cases of 
mechanism by which a pencil is made to describe marks upon 
a strip of paper. 

Another part of the invention relates to the construction of 
springs for carriages, and consists in the employment of cir- 
cular pieces of metal, hollowed in opposite directions, and 
soldered together at their edges so as to form air-tight boxes, 
which may be used either singly or otherwise, in some cases a 
number of such boxes being placed one upon another, an 
eminence on the top of one entering a depression in the con- 
tiguous part of that next to it, and the several cases being thus 
retained in their relative positions. A piece of thin leather 
is also interposed between each pair of air-boxes, " to prevent 
" undue friction." 

" In order that each air box may in all seasons be well filled 
" with air it should be immersed in a freezing mixture after 
" the two plates are soldered together, and a hole previously 
" made for the purpose in one of the plates near the cir- 
" cumference should be quickly soldered up without entirely 
" withdrawing the air-box from the freezing mixture." 
{Printed, Is. 6d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1839, August 6.— No. 8187. 
JEAERAED, Robert William, the younger. — (t Certain means 
" of retarding wheeled carriages." 
This invention consists essentially " in the application of a 



FOR COMMON" BOADS. 321 

" friction band round a friction plate placed at the back of 
' ' the nave, which band is adjusted by screws to the friction 
" required, and acted upon by a bolt or bar projected from 
" the carriage and withdrawn by the operator at pleasure." 

An arrangement is described in which a circular friction 
plate is attached to the nave of a wheel, this being sur- 
rounded by a ring or friction band, " put on in two parts, and 
" united by screws and nuts." These screws and nuts may 
be so adjusted as to give the amount of friction required, and 
in order to prevent such screws and nuts from being shaken 
loose, pieces of soft wood are interposed between the parts. 
Certain sliding bolts and other apparatus are so arranged as to 
be operated upon by a handle moved by the driver of the 
vehicle, or some other person, the frictional apparatus being 
thus brought into action when required. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D, 1839, August 13.— No. 8192. 
HOLLOW AY, Nelson John. — (A communication.) — "An im- 
" proved head for carriages." 

This invention consists " in constructing a head for a 
" double- seated carriage in such manner that though made 
" all of one piece, or one permanently connected series of 
" pieces, it may nevertheless be at pleasure expanded over 
" the whole of the body part, or thrown wholly or partially 
" back, so that a double-seated carriage provided with such 
" an improved head may combine in itself all the advantages 
" both of a close and an open carriage, that is to say, may be 
" used either as the one or the other, and may be changed 
" from the one to the other with great expedition and 
" facility." 

A head of this improved description may consist of four, 
five, or six bows connected together and covered in the usual 
manner, except in certain cases. A carriage is described 
which is furnished with a head consisting of five bows, the 
arrangement of which is duly set forth. "To fit a carriage 
" body for bearing or carrying a head of this description the 
f< following additions to or alterations in it must be made. 
" First, the hind quarter door pillars must rise or project 
" from two to three inches above the elbows, and should these 
" pillars have been cut off short a block of wood of from two 

G 239. r, 



322 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" to three inches in thickness must be firmly secured to the 
" top of each elbow, and as close as may be to the correspond- 
" ing pillar, taking care that the grain of the block runs 
" obliquely and that it is of width enough to stand out 
" fair with the outside of the elbow, and to receive inside and 
" w hold fast the elbow trimming. Second, to the top of each 
" of the front quarter elbows, and at the extremities thereof, 
" there must be firmly secured a perpendicular iron stud or 
" holdfast " having near its upper end a hole for the reception 
of a pin or bolt which is pendant from one of the bows, cer- 
tain keys, plates, hinges, and other apparatus being used in 
securing the parts together. 

" The open spaces between the bows may be filled in either 
" with curtains or glasses," and the patentee describes dif- 
ferent modes of arranging both, the details of the invention 
being set forth at some length. 
[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1839, August 16.— No. 8197. 
ADAMS, William Bridges, and BUCHANAN", John.— " Cer- 
" tain improvements in the construction of wheel carriages, 
" parts of which improvements are also applicable to ma- 
" chinery for propelling, and also for the purpose of securing 
" ships and other vessels, and for communicating motion 
" between different portions of machinery." 

One part of this invention consists in a new mode of apply- 
ing springs for the suspension of the bodies of carriages. 
According to one arrangement a "longitudinal extension 
" spring " is used, such a spring " being made of a flat bar 
" or blade of steel," or any other suitable material, "the 
' ' form being in all cases a curved or bended line," and " the 
" weight or force which the bearing springs have to sustain 
" being applied solely at the two ends of the curve of each 
" spring, and acting in the direction of an imaginary straight 
" line between the two ends of such spring." 

This part of the invention is described under various modifi- 
cations, and the patentees include in their claims for invention 
not only the application of the extension spring mentioned 
above, but also the combination therewith of certain " pointed 
'•' levers;" "extension and compression springs;" "twisted 
" blade springs ; " " sword blade springs ; " " C-bow springs" f 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 323 

" sugar-tongs springs;" and "shifting fulcrum springs;" 
the latter being applicable not only as bearing but also as 
traction and buffing springs. Further, the invention includes 
the application of springs to " vertebrated carriages," such as 
those described in the specification of the patent granted to 
the first-named patentee on the 20th of October, 1836, the object 
of this part of the invention being partly to counteract the 
flexibility of the carriages ; also a mode of enabling " jointed 
" bodied carriages" " to lock or turnabout;" also a mode 
of constructing wheels for railway and other carriages, the 
flanges of such wheels, when required, being " bolted on 
" laterally;" also a mode of applying extension and com- 
pression springs as brakes or friction clogs for retarding the 
wheels of carriages on common roads ; steering carriages; a 
mode of lubricating axles through the medium of a piece of 
sponge; a mode of constructing the axles and boxes of car- 
riage wheels ; " with sliding collars for the boxes retained in 
" place by springs; " a mode of applying the bodies of car- 
riages upon cranked axles, or axles having cranked arms 
descending from them^ "so that the weight of the body will 
""■■ hang pendulum fashion on the lower part of the crank, on 
" joint pins on the lower ends of the descending crank 
" arms ; " also a mode of" causing a double seated body for 
" a two wheeled carriage to accommodate itself in its position 
" over the axles of the wheels, suitably for balancing the 
* * weight when the front seat alone is occupied, or when both 
" hind and front seats are occupied;" also a mode of con- 
structing the bodies of railway carriages "with boards 
" suitably united and combined, but without framing and 
" panelling ;" and likewise certain modes of "constructing 
' ' such cranked axles for carriages as are made of wood and 
" iron combined, such combined cranked axles " forming part 
of the invention which was secured by the Patent already 
mentioned, this pstrt of the present improvements "being 
" confined to the disposition of the iron plates flatways, 
" upwards, above, and below the wood," and also including 
a mode of applying a wooden bed to give strength to a cranked 
axle. All these particulars are set forth at some length, 
and illustrated by drawings containing a large number of 
figures. 

[Printed, Is. 9d. Drawings.^ 

l 2 



324 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1839, August 17.— No. 8200. 
KOLLMAN, George Augustus.—" Improvements in railways 
" and in locomotive and other carriages." 

One part of the invention relates " to the mode of construct- 
" ing locomotive and other carriages to run on railways and 
" on roads, in order to their being adapted more advan- 
" tageously to run in curved directions," and the inventor 
claims, "constructing frames for carrying the locomotive 
" machinery, and also for carrying the bodies of railway and 
" other carriages, and the mode of applying springs thereto." 
The framing of the carriage, or engine, is composed of two 
separate upper and lower frames connected by uprights ; these 
frames, in fact, forming cages, placed one behind the other, 
within which the boiler and engine or body of the carriage may 
be suspended by means of springs connected with the upper 
frames, and suitable sliding guides descending to the axletrees 
of the wheels on which the carriage or engine is supported, these 
axles, however, being short axles working in bearings in the 
sides of the frames, and not passing across them. The two 
frames are connected by other frames called " perch frames," 
necks or axes on the former entering openings in the latter, 
and the perch frames being themselves united by rods in such 
manner as to admit of the two parts of the apparatus adapting 
themselves to curves, there being in railways a central guide 
rail. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1839, September 16.— No. 8219. 

DODDS, Isaac, and OWEN, iWiLLiAM.-— Wheels and axles. 
This invention relates to various improvements in railway 
rolling stock, the above parts of which are capable of adapta- 
tion to common road purposes. The improved wheels " are 
(< to be made principally, if not entirely of wrought iron." 
A long bar is formed by rolling or otherwise, and is made 
smooth on the upper surface, but has certain indentations and 
recesses on the under surface for the reception of peculiarly 
formed spokes. The bar is to be cut into suitable lengths or 
pieces, and two of the spokes are to be welded to each piece. 
When that has been done, each piece of the bar is to be bent 
into the form of a segment of the felloe, and the spokes set truly 



FOR, COMMON ROADS. 325 

in radial directions ; so many of these portions of the bar and 
spokes as will constitute an entire wheel are then put together 
in a mould, and the nave or box of the wheel cast on to 
the inner ends of the spokes. The wheel having been thuB 
formed, the junctions between the pieces or portions of the 
felloe are then to be welded together, and the wheel is com- 
plete, or the welding or uniting of of the portions of the felloe 
may be done before the nave or box is cast on to it. "If it 
* * should be necessary to put a tire upon this wheel, that may 
" be done by rolling a long bar in the ordinary way, with 
" such a flange, if required, as will suit the particular rail* 
" way on which it is to be used. And when this tire bar 
" has been bended and welded into a correct circular form, 
" the tire hoop so made must be heated and then shrunk on to 
" the felloe of the wheel, and it may be further secured by 
" one or more small studs on the inside of the tire let into 
'* the outer periphery of the felloe. In order to give greater 
" security to the tire so attached, it may be of advan- 
' ' tage to turn the outer periphery of the felloe to a slightly 
" bevilled form, and to roll or turn the tire iron to a corre- 
" sponding bevel with a" shoulder," when "the tire being 
" then shrunk on, it will be impossible for it to be loosened 
" from its place by any vibrating action when in use." This 
wheel is furnished with two sets of spokes, placed parallel 
with each other. 

In another mode of forming a wheel the spokes are first 
tapered at one end and enlarged at the other, the tapered ends 
being then welded to three collars or rings which furnish a 
nave for the wheel, one of these being between the spokes and 
on each side of them. A double set of spokes being thus 
formed, the latter are then bent so as to bring the outer ends 
of each pair together, these being then connected to certain 
" snugs " or projections formed in the interior of a circular 
tyre which has been previously prepared, and between which 
snugs the ends of spokes are secured by keys, and, if desirable, 
by punching the snugs into recesses in the ends of the spokes. 
This arrangement may be varied by forming each pair of 
spokes from one piece of metal, and welding the spokes to the 
tyre, thus dispensing with the use of keys, wedges being 
sometimes used in welding the spokes to the tyre, so as to 
give^greater solidity to the wheel, or the tyre and spokes being 



326 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

bo adapted to each other that wedges will not be needed; A 
nave may also be formed of a grooved bar bent into a cylin- 
drical form, the ends of the spokes being inserted into the 
groove, the latter being wider at the bottom than at the top, 
and the ends of the spokes of corresponding figure, and united 
to the nave by welding. One spoke may be passed further 
into the nave than the rest, to prevent them from slipping 
round in the groove, or such slipping may be prevented by a 
bolt passing through the nave. A multitude of other modifi- 
cations of this part of the invention are described, the nave 
being in some cases of one piece of metal having a single 
flange on one side, against which the spokes are firmly held 
by a ring shrunk on the other, the outer ends of the spokes 
passing through mortice holes in a felloe, and being welded 
thereto, and a tire afterwards shrunk on the felloe. In other 
cases the wheel is composed of segment pieces, formed with 
flanges at the ends to facilitate the attachment of them to 
the nave or felloe, which attachment again may be pro- 
duced in different ways. The nave in some cases may be 
formed of a bent flanged piece of metal, not welded at the 
joint, but a ring or hoop being shrunk upon the flanges of the 
inner ends of the segment pieces after they are placed around 
"it, the felloe being composed of a ring, furnished with notches 
for the reception of the flanges of the outer ends, and a tyre 
being afterwards shrunk on around the whole. Or the nave 
may be grooved for the reception of the flanges of the inner 
edges of the segments, which are secured therein by a hoop, 
the flanges of the outer ends of the segments being also 
grooved for the reception of a rib on the inside of the tyre. 
A nave may also be formed of four segmental blocks " put 
"together but not attached, and expanded by keys after the 
segmental pieces have been placed around it, and the felloe 
around them, rings being afterwards shrunk on the nave, and 
a tyre around the felloe, this tyre being further secured, if 
desirable, by bolts and rivets. A nave of cylindrical form is 
also described as having a rib around it against which the 
segmental plates are secured by rings, the outer ends of the 
plates being inserted into grooves formed in the felloe, which 
is heated and shrunk on to them, bolts and sockets here 
supporting and securing the sides of the plates. A nave may 
also be formed of metal cast upon the inner ends of the 



FOE COMMON' EOADS. 327 

segmental pieces. An improved mode of forming cranks and 
crank axles is described, in which the patentees, in order " to 
(f produce great strength and a more perfect tenacity of the 
'-iron, as well as facility of manufacture," " cut out from 
" plates of iron, by a stamping press or other convenient 
•" means, any number of pieces to the form or figure of the 
'-article wanted, and then, having combined these pieces, 
" weld them altogether into a solid mass." 
[Printed, 3s. Id. Brmvings.~] 

AD. 1839, December 21.— No. 8325. 
EICHAEDSON, Henry Francis. — "Improvements in the 
" construction of omnibusses." 

Before describing this invention the patentee mentions that 
the ordinary arrangement of omnibuses in which the passen- 
gers sit in two lines, face to face is inconvenient, and he then 
states that according to the present invention the passengers 
seats are along the centre of the omnibus, the passengers 
thus being placed back to back, and access from one end of 
the omnibus to the other being facilitated by hand rods or 
rails. Bells are also provided, " one on each side of the 
" omnibus, with suitable tassels, by which any passenger can 
" indicate a desire to communicate with the conductor 
" without the disagreeable inconvenience'of having to call out, 
" with the chance of not being heard in passing along paved 
i( streets." The patentee mentions, in stating the advantages 
attendant upon this invention, "the circumstance of the 
" passengers not having to sit with their backs to the win- 
" dows, which at most times causes one of two incon- 
" veniences/' the passengers being either " too much confined 
" by having all the windows closed, or else persons sitting 
' ' with their backs or sides towards open windows are liable 
" to take colds." 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1840, January 1.— No. 8331. 
NICOLAS, John Leo. — Propelling carriages. By the rota- 
lion of a shaft upon which are arms or discs, the latter come 
into contact with props or levers which press against the 
ground and so propel the vehicle. The propulsion is effected 
by the thrust of these props under the action of the arms or 



328 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

discs. As soon as their influence is removed, certain weighted 
levers act on the props and raise them from the ground. 

In marshy soils theae props thrust against wooden floats 
roughened to afford hold, and laid on the ground for the 
purpose. While the thrust is being made the wheels of the 
vehicle are on the floats and hold them securely. After the 
thrust is completed, the floats are picked up, carried forward 
by an endless band and again deposited. 

The invention also relates to a method of working the 
abutments of rotary engines, and also to a "manner of 
" effecting the reverse motion of the engine by means of an 
" extra set of valve boxes, each box being furnished with a 
" double set of valves." 

[Printed, Is. Drawings, .] 

A.D. 1840, January 3.— No. 8333. 
GREENWAY, Chables. — " Certain improvements in reducing 
" friction in wheels of carriages, which improvements are 
" also applicable to bearings & journals of machinery." 

According to one modification of this invention there are 
interposed between the axle and the interior of the axle box of 
a carriage a number of rollers, which may either be cylindrical, 
spherical, or conoidal in shape, and which, by their rotation 
serve to diminish the friction between the axle and the box. 
These rollers are placed at equal distances apart around the axle, 
and are kept in their relative positions by means of an instru- 
ment which is called "a cradle," and which consists of a 
cylindrical piece of metal which nearly fills the space between 
the axle and the inside of the box, and is provided with 
recesses in which the rollers work, the cradle being of such 
dimensions that the rollers project through it both on the side 
next the axle and also on the side next the box, a suitable cap 
or cover being applied if necessary at each end of the box to 
prevent the rollers from working or falling out of such box. 
In the case of a long axle the cradle may be adapted for the 
reception of several sets of rollers, placed in line with each 
other, and one modification of the invention is described in 
which the cradle consists of two plates or discs having in them 
suitably formed recesses, these recesses, when the plates are 
placed together, forming receptacles and guides for spherical 
rollers, this arrangement being more especially intended for 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 329 

application to a crane. These rollers of whatever form, as well 
as the cradles, axle boxes, and any other parts which it may be 
desired to combine therewith, may be cast in metallic moulds, 
by which great hardness of the surfaces of the articles so cast 
will be obtained, or they may be formed in the ordinary 
manner. This invention may be applied to lessening the 
friction " in the boxes and axles of carriages, gun carriages, 
" turning plates of swing bridges, turning plates of railways, 
" and other mechanism." 
[Printed, Sd, Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1840, February 5.— No. 8372. 
MOAT, Crofton William. — Steam carriages. The carriage 
described in this Specification has four wheels, the machinery 
being carried on one pair, the passengers and baggage on the 
other. The two pairs are united by a perch working on a pin 
on the fore axletree bed and there is also a spring catch 
attached to the framing of the carriage which engages with 
the machinery part forward. The engines are suspended by 
straps from bearing springs and the wheels have also elastic 
spokes. The vehicle is steered by a shaft pullej^, the ropes 
of whioh pass round the pulleys at the front axletree and at 
the perch. 

A modification of this carriage is also shown. This is 
driven by two cylinders to each wheel. They are placed at 
right angles to each other, one horizontal the other vertical, 
and act on one crank. The crank axle is fitted with a toothed 
wheel which drives another on the nave of the wheel. Thus 
the wheels run, independently. In this case also the fore 
and hind carriages are differently connected. To the fore 
carriage there is attached a segment piece, the centre of 
which corresponds with the middle of the fore axle. This 
segment piece is confined between rollers fitted to the hind 
carriage. 

[Printed, 2s. 2d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1840, February 22.— No. 8392. 
COOK, William. — " Improvements in carriages." 

This invention "relates to that description of carriages 
" wherein what are called German shutters are used to close 



330 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" them/' and consists in " a mode of constructing and apply - 
f< ing certain apparatus to such carriages and German 
" shutters to facilitate the working and moving of such 
" shutters." 

An arrangement is set forth in which a German shutter, 
formed as usual of three glazed sashes, has the upper part 
hinged to a frame fixed in the head of the carriage, the middle 
part hinged to the upper part, and the lower part again hinged 
to the middle part, the arrangement being such that when 
the shutter is raised the middle part folds against the upper 
part, while the lower part folds under the middle part. Eixed 
to the upper part of the carriage frame is what the patentee 
calls a spring box this containing three springs coiled up in 
barrels which revolve on axes " in like manner to clock 
" springs." Around each of these barrels is coiled a cord, 
one of which passes down to the lower portion of the shutter 
to which it is connected, the cords from the two other barrels 
being connected to the upper part of the shutter. The springs 
are so arranged that by the application of a key to their axes 
they may be wound up to the requisite extent. Connected with 
the lower part of the shutter are a strap and a tassel, and 
when it is desired to raise the shutter the strap is drawn in- 
wards so as slightly to dislodge the shutter from its vertica 
position, when the springs in the barrel will at once act upon 
the latter, so as to cause thern to revolve and raise the parts 
of the shutter, through the medium of the cords, into the 
requisite position. When it is desired to close the shutter,- a 
person will take hold of the tassel with one hand and draw 
down the shutter for a short distance, completing the closing 
of the shutter by pulling at the strap with the other hand ; 
certain hook-formed projections on the middle part of the 
shutter taking upon studs projecting from the side frame in 
which the shutter works, and acting as hinges upon which the 
lower parts of the shutter turn. 

By a memorandum of alteration, filed on the 31st df March 
1843, the patentee amended the title of this invention by 
adding to it certain words which converted the title into " Im- 
" provements in carriages wherein German shutters are used, 
" as to the mode of moving and working such German 
" shutters." 

[Printed, Is. 3d. Drawings.} .■'■*.- u 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 331 

; A.D. 1840, May 5.— No'.' 8495. 

HILLS, Fbank.— Wheels, axles, and bearings of steam and 
other carriages. The improved wheel is made by welding 
wrought iron spokes to iron rings made slightly conical, while 
the spokes are dished in the opposite direction. Two such 
sets of rings and spokes are fitted in a flask and the nave 
cast on, after which the felloes of wood are inserted in the 
apace between the rings, secured and tired. A second tirel 
iriadG up of segments may also, if required, be attached t& 
the main tire. < 

The improved arrangement of axle consists of a stationary* 
b6ilt iron frame, in the centre of which are the cranks and 
driving shaft. This frame forms at each end the axle round 
which a wheel revolves. The driving shaft passes through 
these ends, and is connected with the wheels., A pair of 
clutches serves to unite the cranks and the driving shaft. 

The patentee further describss a bearing for the purpose of 
providing increased lubrication. A collar is put round the 
shaft, which runs in a groove connected with oil cavities in 
the brass. 

[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] .,..,_. 

A.D. 1840, May 12.— No. 8504. 
DIECKS, Henry. — Locomotives and wheels to be used on rail- 
and other ways. The first part of this invention relates to a 
method of utilising the exhaust steam in the form of smair 
jets, for the purpose of preventing the emission of smoke.* 
The improvements in the construction of railway wheels ° con- 
" sist in forming the tyre of the wheel of cast or wrought' 
"iron, having a channel or groove formed in it to be filled 
" with blocks of wood, having the grain of the wood placed; 
" vertically or endways all round in segments which are 
" afterwards bolted or rivetted or otherwise fastened in the 
" channel of the tyre, and present a wooden rim or running 
" surface to the road or way." The wood preferred for this 
purpose is * ' African oak, British oak, beech, or other hard 
" wood, previously soaked or saturated with coal-gas tar, and- 
" impregnated therewith by means .of hydraulic or other pres*- 
" sure, in order to fill up its pores, and thus prevent the a<|- : 
" mission of moisture,," but other woods, compressed or other-* 



332 CAERIAGE3 AKD OTHER VEHICLES 

" wise suitably prepared, may be used. One mode of securing 
the segments of wood in the channel of the tyre is mentioned, 
in which a groove is formed, " half in the metal and half in 
" the wood," melted metal being then run into this channel. 
[Printed, 9d. Draivmgs.^ 

A.D. 1840, May 28.— ISTo. 8521. 
SMITH, William Henky. — Springs for carriages. The mode 
of applying springs to carriages consists in placing a helical 
spring between the bearing of each axle aud the framing of 
the carriage, so as to stand " obliquely " between such framing 
and axle, this arrangement giving the springs a " double ver- 
" tical action, resisting a shock either from above or below," 
and also causing them to offer some resistance to the shock of 
a collision between two carriages, one of them being then 
somewhat compressed, and the other extended. The details 
of the invention may be varied. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawings.^ 

A.I). 1840, September 10.— ]S T o. 8626. 
HOULDS WORTH, Henry. — " An improvement in carriages 
" used for the conveyance of passengers on railways, and an 
*' improved saat applicable to such carriages, and to other 
*' purposes." 

The invention comprises two objects : "1st, to combine in 
" some degree the pleasure of outside with the comfort of 
" inside travelling ; and 2nd, to economise the space occupied 
" by seats where space is an object and to protect out-door 
" seats from the weather." 

The first of these objects is accomplished by covering the 
carriages (which for this purpose are generally constructed 
without compartments) " either wholly or in part with metallic 
'* wire gauze cloth or net of a texture sufficiently close to 
" break the force of the wind and destroy the violence of the 
" currents of air produced by rapid motion through it, and 
" also to impede the entrance of the coke dust emitted by the 
" locomotive chimney and yet not materially to obstruct the 
" view of external objects. The second by the use of seats 
" constructed to turn or fold up of themselves when not in 
€t use by the action of springs or weights." 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 383 

The details of the invention are described at some length 
and may be greatly varied. These include a complex arrange- 
ment consisting of a slide, curved and other arms, a tumbler, 
a spring, a joint piece, and other adjuncts for the purpose of 
retaining the seat in a horizontal position when turned down ; 
and also a retarder," consisting of a piston working in a small 
cylinder filled with a fluid or with air which is for the purpose 
of preventing the seat from rising upwards with too great 
rapidity when released from the retainer. These details how- 
ever may all be greatly modified. 
[Printed, Is. lOd. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1840, September 24— No. 8639. 
MAUGrHAN, John. — " Certain improvements in the construe* 
" tion of wheeled carriages." 

This invention consists " in the improved construction and 
" mode of applying two pairs of shafts to that description of 
" carriage generally denominated ' curricle,' which are to be 
" employed as a substitution for the pole and cross bar com- 
" monly applied to a carriage of that description, by which 
tf improved mode of attaching two horses to a curricle much 
" lighter construction of the vehicle is practicable, elegance 
" of appearance increased, more freedom of action allowed 
" the horses in their draught, and greater safety insured. 
" The lightness is owing to the removal of all the heavy 
" carriage framework necessary in the old construction ; the 
'• shafts (which are high) connecting immediately by scroll 
" irons to the foot board of the vehicle. Greater elegance 
" of appearancy is consequent upon the absence of the afore- 
" said cumbersome framework, and the usual pendant wooden 
" support horse." Other advantages are set forth as arising 
from the invention, it being mentioned in particular that 
greater safety arises " from the carriage having wide support 
" in front, instead of the single centre bearing afforded by 
" the pole of the old curricle, which wider support renders a 
" vehicle of any construction less liable to upset. The equal 
" division of the support of the front weight between four 
" shafts offers, moreover, less risk of accident from break- 
" age than when the weight is upon one pole only, and the 
'• danger from overbalancing backwards in ascending hills, or 
" from other circumstances, is also effectually obviated." 



tm CARRIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

The mode in which, the horses are to be "put to "the 
vehicle is specially set forth, a certain "loose iron" being em- 
ployed in order to cause both pairs of shafts to rise from the 
ground together xt and preserve their coincident level on lift- 
'*. ing one of the pairs/* such " loose iron " being carried, when- 
not required for use, in the seat of the vehicle, " or stowed 
M away in any other convenient place." 
:: [Printed, lOd. Drawing.^ ' , 

A.D. 1840, October 22.— No. 8667. _ - J 

RIDDLE, Gabeiel, and PIPER, Thomas.— " A certain im- 
" provement or improvements on wheels for carriages." 

This is an* extension t)f privilege for seven years, to be 
Computed from the 11th day of October 1840, being the ex-, 
piration of the first term of 14 years granted to Theodore* 
Jones (A.D. 1826, 'No. 5415) and by him assigned to the above 
named G-abriel Riddle and Thomas Piper. 



A.D. 1840, November 24— No. 8712. 
POPE, Fhancis.— Detaching horses from carriages. Each 
shaft of the vehicle has at the end next thereto a pin, which, 
when the shafts are connected to the carriage, is secured by a 
bent lever or tongue moving on an axis between two " side 
^plates * fixed in some convenient manner to the carriage^ 
and which is rfcuroed over the pin, and retained in pos&ion by 
& ©atch, which consists of a small bar mounted on a fulcrum 
at its lower end, and furnished with a projection which bears 
upon the end of the bent lever or tongue, being pressed 
thereon by a spring. While the parts remain in this position 
the connection between the shafts and the carriage is main- 
tain ed> but should it be desired to disengage the carriage 
from the shafts, as, for instance, in the case of the horse 
running away, the catch of each shaft is drawn into such a 
position as to release the bent lever or tongue, which then 
turns backwards and leaves the pin in the shaft at liberty. 
The catches are acted upon simultaneously by means of a 
vertical rod mounted in a tube in front of the carriage, which 
on being pressed downwards presses downwards also a bent 
bar which acts upon both catches, the bent bar passing 
through a forked part of the vertical rod, provided witii anti* 



FOB COMMON" ROADS. 335 

friction rollers, so that the bar may move freely when the 
carriage is (i on the lock," the vertical rod being also provided 
with springs and a shoulder, by which it is retained in position 
when not in use. 

[Printed, Is. Drawings J\ 

A.D. 1840, November 27.— No. 8727. 

CONDIE, John. — Springs. This invention relates to a mode 
of applying springs, or springs and levers, in such a manner 
as not only to give all the benefit and advantages of the usual 
system, but also to " effect the uniform continuity of the 
" pressure made to bear on the driving or other wheels of 
" locomotive and other carriages/' and promote the constant 
adhesion of the driving or centre wheels to the rails or road. 
Different modes of carrying out the invention are described. 
In one arrangement an engine or carriage is mounted on six 
wheels, those in the middle being larger than the others, and 
the frame of the engine or carriage being provided with four 
points of support or suspension, these consisting of fulcra on 
which are placed levers, and such levers being united by links 
at one end to large bearing springs placed above the axle of 
the larger wheels, while at the other ends of the levers are 
vertical bearing rods, which descend to the bearings of the 
other wheels, the levers being, moreover, jointed together by 
horizontal connecting rods. Ofcher modifications of the in- 
vention are described, in some cases only two bearing springs, 
being used, while in others four are employed, in one arrange- 
ment the levers being dispensed with, and the springs being 
so arranged as to act directly upon the bearings of the axles. 
The invention is only applicable to engines and carriages 
" having six or more wheels." 
[Printed, 6cL Drawing."] 

A.D. 1840, December 28.— No. 8755. 
BUCHANAN, John. — Carriages, springs, &c. This invention 
relates firstly to an improvement in the arrangement of fore 
carriage and perch, whereby the carriage may be made 
shorter from axle to axle, and the front wheels may be of 
larger diameter than usual, without raising the body or 
hindering turning in a small space, while greater freedom of 



336 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

action is given to the splinter bar and futchells. According 
to this arrangement the leverage of the pole or shafts while 
turning the under fore carriage with the front wheels acts 
through the upper fore carriage upon the body in such a 
manner as to cause the body and the fore carriage to move in 
contrary directions sideways then in effect moving the body 
out of the way of the front wheel on the inner side of the 
circle in which the carriage may be turning. Yarious modifi- 
cations of the arrangement are shown. 

The futchells and splinter bar, instead of being fixed 
rigidly to the fore axle, axle bed or spring base, are attached 
by joints so as to allow play with the motion of the horses 
thus diminishing strains and draught. 

The invention also relates to a method of suspending car- 
riages by means of cross springs, without side springs or 
connecting perch, in such a manner that the weight of the 
carriage is suspended below the axle. 

It also includes an improvement in springs. They consist of 
two or more plates kept from contact with each other by a 
block or blocks between them in the middle of their lengths, 
and connected at the ends by links or shackles or rollers, or 
by the plates being differently curved and fastened at the 
ends. 

Further, there is described a mode of applying braces to C 
springs. The brace is attached to the frame of the carriage 
behind the spring at such an angle as to support the spring 
" so as to obtain the necessary degree of what is commonly 
* * called draw, on the brace, without the aid of the heel flap 
" or stay* hitherto used for that purpose." 
[Printed, lid. Drawing. J 

A.D. 1840, December 28.— No. 8756. 

ADAMS, William Bkidges. — " Certain improvements in the 
construction of wheel carriages, and of certain appendages 
" thereto." 

The first part of this invention relates to what the patentee 
terms " the hind wheel lock." It consists in causing the hind 
pair of wheels and their axle to swivel by means of the lever- 
age of the pole or shafts, by which turning is facilitated. 
The invention also includes a mode of constructing spring 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 337 

wheels of the character of those for which a patent was 
granted to the present patentee on the 13th of March, 1835. 
The present improvement consisting " in altering the form of 
" the spring spokes from that of a perfect hoop of steel, or 
" other elastic material, to that of a portion of a hoop with 
" tangential lines, for the better securing them in the nave, 
" and also making all the spokes bear against each other 
" laterally, with or without the intervention of wood or 
" other substance, so as to afford mutual support to each 
" other, and render the wheel stronger, the periphery con- 
" sisting either of a solid iron tire, or of two or more parts, or 
" of a combination of wood and iron." 

Another improvement consists in the application to the 
axles and moving joints of wheel carriages, of elastic collars 
or washers formed of leather, or woollen or similar material, 
" armed with a surface of polished metal, so that the friction 
'* is confined to the metallic surface, thus preserving the elastic 
" packing and preventing the loss of oil." 

Another improvement relates to an arrangement of " spring 
(i breaks," in which brakes are connected to bars and operated 
upon through the medium of springs passing round or con- 
nected with such bars, and certain levers also connected with 
such springs. ' l Self-acting " brakes are also described as being 
composed of brakes connected by wooden bars with the buffer 
bars, and sustained by " radius bars" jointed with the axle 
boxes, or by rods or cords connected to the carriage frame. 

Another improvement consists in the employment of " drag 
" staves," which are formed in two parts, one capable of 
sliding within the other, and a spring or springs being con- 
nected with them, and the lower end of the drag staff being 
furnished with a spike. The patentee mentions that such a 
drag staff would be a security to railway carriages when 
ascending inclines, " enabling the engine to rest and accumu- 
4 ' late power," and aiding it in starting again the train, the 
spiked ends of the drag staves preventing the train from run- 
ning backwards, and the springs becoming compressed by the 
pressure of the carriages against them. 

Another part of the invention relates to the axles of car- 
riages which are moved by " self-contained power," radius 
bars or frames regulating the axles so as to keep the wheels 
parallel with the line of progress, and such bars or frames 



33& CAEEIAGES AJSTD OTHEE VEHICLES 

" sustaining the alternate thrust and pull of the moving 
""power through the agency of bands or toothed wheels to 
l§ multiply the speed without interfering with the free action 
" of the bearing springs/* which the ordinary axle guides are 
found to do, and such radius bars being applicable to railway 
carriages generally as a substitute for such guides. 

The invention further includes the application of shifting 
fulcrum springs, combined with radius bars, as bearing 
springs, and also as buffer springs, also certain modes of sus- 
pending carriage frames on bow springs, in one of which the 
loope or brackets are " within the lengths of the springs," 
space being thus economised, while in another mode the curve 
of the spring is reversed, the effect of which is that on the 
coupling or " robbin " breaking, the point of the spring would 
rest within the hollow of the bracket or loop, and sustain the 
weight of the carriage. Shackle braces are also described as 
being formed of "fibrous yarn or metallic wire in a con- 
" tinuous skein, " "bonded together by adhesive waterproof 
" materials." 

[Prmted, Is. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1841, January 28.— No. 8819. 
GALL, William.—" Certain improvements in the construction 
"of locomotive engines, and of the carriages used on raik 
ways, applicable in part to carriages used on common 
" roads." 
", [No Specification enrolled.'] 

A.D. 1841, February 15.— ISTo. 8846. 
PHILLIPS, Philip William, and PECK, William Bishop.— 
* 4 Improvements in four-wheeled carriages." 

This invention relates to such four-wheeled carriages as 
have two bodies capable of independent motion, and the im- 
provements have for their object " better means of connecting 

two separate bodies, in constructing a four-wheeled carriage, 
" by which the locking action and general character of such 
u " description of four-wheeled carriages will be improved." 

Different modes of carrying out the invention are described, 
in one arrangement a vehicle consisting of a fore and hind 
body, each having its own pair of wheels, the two being 



FOR COMMON KOADS. 339 

connected by a locking apparatus composed of a circular hoop 
or plate affixed to the hind body of the carriage, and embraced 
by a hoop or strap, these parts being combined wi;fch certain 
rings and plates, a short pole, and other minor details, the 
parts being capable of separation, however, in such manner 
that the fore part of the vehicle may\be usedf as n, gig. In 
another arrangement a certain grooved plate and bar are 
substituted for the circular hoop or plate mentioned above. 
In another arrangement berit or curved bars work in curved 
grooves " connected with both the fdre and hirid parts of the 
vehicle, in all these cases the details of the arrangements 
being capable of variation, so as to adapt the vehicle fbr being 
drawn by either one horse/ or more than one, as may be 
desired. 

[Printed, 10(7. Drmving.'] 

A.D. 1841, March a— No. 8867. 

PARLEY, Joira. — ' * An improvement in carriages." 
-. This invention " may be described generally as consisting 
'*- in the application of an additional pair of wheels to ordi> 
" nary two-wheeled vehicles as at present constructed ; of an 
tf additional pair of hind wheels to ordinary four-wheeled 
" vehicles, either with or without an additional pair of front 
" wheels; the additional wheels, both hind and front, of all 
*' vehicles, and the pair of front wheels of the ordinary four- 
" wheeled vehicles, being in all cases arranged and placed in a 
" peculiar manner/' " These additional wheels furnish addi- 
" tional supports for the weight or load, and by reason of the 
" subdivision and distribution which may thus be made of the 
"weight or load the individual or separate springs of the 
" carriages may be made much lighter than they could other- 
" wise be." The patentee mentions that carriages thus con- 
structed " will travel across the obstacles or inequalities of 
" the road more easily and with less jolting than is usually 
" experienced." 

The invention is set forth at some length, and as applied to 
vehicles of various kinds. The "essential part " of the inven- 
tion, however, is mentioned as consisting in " the application 
* ' to carriages of wheels placed parallel and contiguous to 
" each other, whereof one is in advance of or overlapping the 



340 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" wheel contiguous to it." The details of the invention em- 
brace certain arrangements of the springs, axles, locking 
apparatus, and other parts of the vehicles, which will only be 
understood with the aid of the drawing annexed to the 
specification. 

[Printed, Is. 2d. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1841, March 22.— No. i 

WRIGHT, Joseph. — " Improvements in apparatus used for 
" dragging or skidding wheels of wheeled carriages." 

This invention relates to " a mode of applying apparatus to 
" the skid pans of wheeled carriages, whereby a skid pan can 
" be placed under a wheel in order to skid or drag it, and 
" when desired the skid pan is removed by allowing the 
" wheel to pass over it by releasing the drag chain." 

An arrangement is described in which a skid pan is connected 
by means of a link to a rod or lever, the axis of which is 
carried by apparatus attached to the hind axle of the vehicle. 
In combination with this apparatus (which consists essentially 
of what the patentee terms a ' ' quadrant frame ") are certain 
levers, springs, guides, bars, chains, cords, and other 
mechanism, the operation of which will only be understood 
with the aid of the drawings annexed to the Specification, a 
rod with a handle thereto enabling the driver of the vehicle 
to bring the skid into action and again cause its action to 
cease as may be requisite. 

The details of the invention may be varied, the patentee 
stating that he claims as of his invention the mode of applying 
skidding or dragging apparatus to wheels of wheeled carriages, 
" whereby in unskidding the same the skid pans are allowed 
" to pass under the wheels by releasing the drag chain." 
[Printed, Is. 4d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1841, March 22.— No. 8900. 
WRIGHT, Thomas.-— Skids, wheels, shafts, &c. This inven- 
tion relates firstly to a method of skidding the wheels of 
railway and other carriages. For common road purposes, the 
skid is shown attached to the end of a curved bar or rod 
sliding in a groove formed at the hinder part of the splash 
board, or it may be fixed to a moveable splash board. It is 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 341 

lowered under the wheel by means of a hand lever cranked 
to a rod which is jointed to the curved rod. This lever is 
under the control of the driver or other person in the 
carriage. 

It also relates to a method of securing wheels on the axles, 
by means of sliding pieces passing through slots in the wheel 
nave and held therein by screws. A spiral groove is cut 
round the axle for the purpose of facilitating distribution of 
the lubricants which it extracts from an oil box. 

Springs are made by the patentee of plates each of which 
is curved differently from its neighbour. Consequently the 
strain in the spring is gradually diffused over the whole, each 
plate taking it up in turn. 

Shafts and spokes are to be made of tubular steel, and the 
latter may be filled with cotton, sawdust, or like substance. 
[Printed, lOch Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1841, March 31, No. 8911. 
GAURY, Joseph. — (A communication.) — "A parachute to 
" preserve all sorts of carriages from falling, or injury upon 
" the breaking of their axletrees." 

This invention consists in "fixing an apparatus, which is 
" denominated a parachute, to the nave of all sorts of carriage 
" wheels, so that the carriage may be preserved from falling 
*' and injury, and continue to run in the event of the axletree 
" or axletrees breaking," the essence of the invention being 
" to provide a secondary or temporary support to the nave of 
" the wheel." 

One arrangement is set forth in which a collar is formed or 
placed on the axletree, a grooved ferrule fitting into the 
inside of such collar, certain jointed semicircular caps, which 
fall into the groove of the ferrule, and certain ' ' separating 
" bars " forming parts of this portion of the invention. In 
another arrangement a ferrule made in two parts is placed 
upon the axle, collars or separating bars entering between 
the parts of this ferrule. And in another arrangement a 
washer carried by a forked arm is placed within a groove in 
the axle box. 

[Printed, Sd. Drawing.'] 



342 CAKEIAGffiS AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

A.D. 1841, June 28.— No. 9011. 
KNTGrHT, William. — " An indicator for registering the 
" number of passengers using an omnibus or other passenger 
" vehicle." 

« This invention consists " in the combination of a counting 
" apparatus with an apparatus having two pairs of arms or 
" levers sliding at right angles to each other through a 
*' shaft placed across the upper part of the doorway of an 
" omnibus or other the like passenger vehicle; one pair of 
" arms when at rest lying horizontally under the roof, and 
" the other pair of arms hanging down against the doorway 
" to form an obstruction, which must be removed out of 
" the way by the passenger on entering and on leaving the 
° vehicle." 

The invention is set forth at some length, and includes the 
employment of certain clicks, ratchet and other wheels, 
springs, detents, and other mechanism, through the medium 
of which rotation is given to certain cylinders, marked with 
figures on their circumferences, such figures indicating the 
number of passengers who have entered or left the vehicle, 
the apparatus however being so contrived, as to act "either, 
"'on the passengers entering or on leaving the vehicle, but 
'Vnot both on entering and on leaving." , u 

tTbe details of the invention will only be understood with 
the aid of the drawings annexed to the specification. 

By a disclaimer and memorandum of alteration enrolled 
on the 27th of May, 1842, the patentee made various changes 
in the [wording of the specification of this invention, stating 
in particular that he did not intend "to register the outside 
"passengers who may be said to use an omnibus," and also 
that there were several kinds of "passenger" vehicles to 
which he did not intend to apply his invention. 
[Printed, Is. Drawings^ 

A.D. 1841 , July 2.— No. 9015. 
PHIPPS, Geoege Henby. — Wheels. The object of this 
invention "is to do away with the necessity for * shrinking 
" 'on' hot the tires of such wheels, whereby the strength 
" of the iron is often so much diminished - by the force of 
" contraction, as to cause it to fly or give way when sub- 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 343 

" jected to very slight strains or concussions." The tyre 
is formed by rolling or forging in the usual manner, and is 
furnished with an inner rife. The spokes are of wrought iron, 
and a double set of spokes being placed in position a nave or 
boss is cast upon their inner ends, and the outer ends, which 
are enlarged and furnished with bolt or rivet holes, are then 
ri vetted or bolted to the inner rib of the tyre, One set of 
spokes being on each side thereof. The particular positions 
of the spokes in relation to each other may be varied. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1841, July 7.— ]STo. 9020. 
FULLER, Thomas.—'* Certain improvements in retarding the 
"progress of carriages under certain circumstances.'' 

In the first part of this invention a drag is applied to a 
carriage, but not in such a manner as to be, applied to either, 
of the wheels, having no connection whatever with them. 
The drag, shoe, or skid, is connectesd by joints to pendant 
levers, the latter being also jointed to bars which are attached 
by means of clips to the hind axletree of the vehicle,* 
various other levers, rods, and other mechanism being com^ 
bined therewith, the result of the arrangement feeing that on 
the driver of the vehicle releasing a ring or hook attache^ 
to a certain cord or strap from a stud or pin on which it rest& 
when the drag is not required to act the latter falls to the 
ground, the levers then assuming a position which causes 
the skid to act "as a crutch to the axletree," raising one end 
of it until the wheel at that end is lifted off the ground, a 
portion of the weight of the carriage now resting upon the 
skid, the friction of which upon the ground retards, the 
movement of the vehicle, the action of the skid being caused 
to cease when desired by slaekening the ordinary drag chain, 
the skid then passing backwards, and, by a circular move- 
ment of some of the parts in connection therewith, being 
brought back into its original position. These arrangements 
may be modified, and the skid made, if desirable, to act upon 
one of the wheels of the vehicle, instead of operating a$ 
mentioned above. 

[Printed, Id. Drawing I\ 



344 CAEBIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

A.D. 1841, August 21.— No. 9052. 
DE EEEGTJE, Ohables. — (A communication.) — " An improve- 
" ment in axletrees and axletree boxes." 

According to this invention there are placed on the inner 
part of the arm of an axtetree two shoulders or collars, 
between which a c * divided nut " formed of any suitable metal, 
is placed, the exterior of this nut being furnished with a 
screw thread for the reception of a corresponding thread 
formed in the inside of the inner end of the axletree box, so 
that when the two parts of the divided nut are placed together 
on the axle between the shoulders or collars thereon, and the 
box " screwed home," the parts are held in their proper 
positions, " and the nut and box or bush," forming as it were 
a single body, revolve freely on the axle, this arrangement 
effectually preventing the wheel from leaving the axle when 
working. The screw of the divided nut " is cut in the opposite 
" direction to that in which the box is designed to turn, so 
" that the subsequent rotation has a tendency to tighten the 
" screwed part and keep the nut firm in its place when 
" moving," the escape of the oil or other lubricating material 
applied to the axle being prevented by a small collar of 
sponge or other material which is let into a groove formed 
in one of the shoulders or collars mentioned above. A small 
case or chamber is screwed to the end of the axletree box for 
the purpose of holding a supply of lubricating material, a 
recess being made in the axle itself for the reception of oil, 
as well as a corresponding recess in the box. These arrange- 
ments admit of the ready removal and replacing of the wheels 
from the axles, for the purpose of cleansing the boxes or 
otherwise. 

[Printed, 5d. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1841, September 20.— No. 9086. 
SHILLIBEEB, G-eokge. — " Improvements in the construction 
te of hearses, mourning, and other carriages." 

This invention consists in the first place in * ' the combination 
" of a vehicle or hearse for conveying dead bodies to the 
" place of interment with a vehicle or carriage for conveying 
" the mourners attending a funeral and so as to form one 
" vehicle or carriage," the inventor stating that by means of 



FOR COMMON EOADS. 345 

his arrangement "a dead body, together with the mourners, 
" may all be conveyed to the place of interment in one 
€i vehicle or carriage, and therefore at a mnch smaller cost 
' * than is usually paid for a hearse and mourning coach when 
* ' used (as hitherto) as separate carriages." 

An arrangement is set forth in which a vehicle is so con- 
structed that the back portion forms a carriage for mourners, 
furnished with a suitable door, seats, and windows. The 
front portion of the vehicle forms the hearse, and is con- 
structed in parts so arranged that by the turning of a screw 
it can ,be lengthened or shortened and thereby adapted for 
the reception of coffins of different lengths, this part of the 
vehicle being provided with suitable seats on the exterior, 
and doors by which access is obtained to the interior, other 
minor conveniences being provided for facilitating the working 
of the apparatus. 

Another part of the invention relates to a brake or drag 
which is applicable to carriages in general, the pole of the 
vehicle being so arranged in combination with certain levers 
and other apparatus that the ' ' bearing back " of the horses 
in descending a hill or otherwise causes certain iron curbs 
lined with wood to be pressed against the front wheels of such 
vehicle, thereby controlling its motion. 
{Printed, 10c?. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1841, October 7.— Eb. 9113. 
DAYIS, Makcus. — Distance meter. — The invention is thus 
described by the patentee : — 

It " consists in the construction and adaptation of a certain 
" apparatus which may with facility be applied to and re- 
" moved from the wheels of different carriages without re- 
" ference to the size of the wheels." The apparatus " consists 
" of a small roller placed on the top of one of the running 
' * wheels, and maintained in contact therewith by springs or 
" other convenient means, whereby the rotary motion of the 
" running wheel is communicated to the small roller revolving 
" in contact with it, and by means of the shaft or axle on 
' e which this small roller is mounted, motion is given to cer- 
" tain wheel- work placed inside the carriage, or in any other 
" convenient situation, whereby the number of times the 
' s small roller revolves, and consequently the distance travelled, 



346 CAKRIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

f is accurately marked and indicated by an index on a plate 
" or dial connected to the apparatus for, that purpose." 

For carriages let on hire it is advisable to have an index 
"that cannot be readily altered, and that answers only to 
" the movements of the vehicle. To effect this I construct 
" the apparatus in ! the following manner :~~ " Instead of the 
?* -index I mount a circular dial plate on the same centre, and 
*' cause it to revolve, instead of the index ; then I cover the 
" revolving dial plate with another circular plate, but fixed, 
" and having a small opening made in one part of it for the 
*'■ purpose of showing the figures on the dial plate as it 
" rotates ; or the dial plate may be fixed and divided into any 
" required number of equal divisions, and a circular plate 
'-" with a slot or opening made on it to correspond with the 
'.'■' figures on the dial plate, is connected to the internal 
" mechanism, and caused to revolve thereby showing through 
" the slot or opening the distance travelled. This plate may 
*' be covered with a piece of strong plate glass. . . . If re- 
" quired, the striking and repeating movements of a clock 
" may b£ adapted to the apparatus. . . . By this means the 
" apparatus may be made to strike at the end of every mile, 
" half mile, or quarter, and also by applying a repeating 
" movement, it may, upon pulling a cord, be made to strike 
" the number of miles travelled." 
[Prmted, Is. Id. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1841, November 9.— 3STo. 9143. 

DAYIES, Henry. — Propelling carriages, &c. The first part 
of this invention relates to a method of towing boats on canals. 
For this purpose a carriage runs on the towing path and is 
connected with the boat by an endless rope. This rope is 
worked by power in the boat and passing round a pulley on 
the carriage communicates motion by bevel gearing to its 
wheels. Thus the carriage is propelled and in progressing 
tows after it the boat. The front of the carriage is fitted with 
a steering wheel. 

Another part of the invention consists in supporting car- 
riages upon legs or supports instead of upon wheels. These 
legs are moved, either by the animal drawing the carriage or 
by machinery borne by it, through the medium of cranks joined 



FOE OOMMOK BOADS. 347 

to levers. For steering purposes the legs are made to vibrate 
at an angle to the length of the carriage frame. The legs are 
connected by ball and socket joints with the carriage. 

[Printed, 2s. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1841, December 21.— No. 9205. 
BOUVEIKON, Henbi Alphonse Bounevialle. — (A communi- 
cation.) — ' 'Improvements in axletrees." 

This invention relates to the axletrees of carriages suitable 
for ordinary roads, and also to carriages for railways. 

Each wheel of the vehicle has a separate axletree^ the inner 
portion of each axle, however, extending almost across the 
framing. The inner end of each axle is in the form of a 
pulley with flat bottom, and has two rings which are placed 
between the two grooves of a cross piece attached to the 
framing, the axle gradually increasing in thickness from this 
part until it arrives within a short distance of the wheel, 
when it is cylindrical for a short length, then conical for a 
certain distance, and then square in section, although taper- 
ing towards the end, which is formed into a screw for the 
reception of a nut by which the wheel is held in its place, the 
wheel being fitted upon this square part of the axle, and a linch 
pin preventing the nut from becoming unscrewed. The conical 
part of the axle passes beneath a small wheel which is mounted 
upon an axle carried by a " wheel bearer," this small wheel 
serving in fact as an antifriction wheel beneath which the 
axle turns, and the wheel bearer being furnished with a 
reservoir for oil, which by means of a tube and a wick of 
cotton, is made to pass to the axis of the small wheel for the 
purpose of lubrication. The upper part of the wheel bearer is 
of hardened steel, and adjusted on slides in upright supports. 
A certain " forked piece " is connected with a frame on which 
one of the springs of the vehicle is placed, this forked piece 
partially embracing the cylindrical part of the axle and 
keeping it constantly under the centre of the small wheel, the 
frame which carries the forked piece being connected with the 
wheel bearer, and suitable apparatus being arranged for 
lubricating that part of the axle which works in contact with 
the small wheel. The frame itself is of hard wood, covered 
on its two surfaces by a sheet of iron, and the carriage spring 
is fixed upon a cross piece at the end of the frame. The axles 



348 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

of the carriage wheels are not placed horizontally , being higher 
at the inner ends than at the parts on which the wheels are 
fixed, thus causing the latter to assume a position somewhat 
out of the perpendicular. 

Although this invention is mentioned as being applicable 
to railway carriages, no adaptation of it thereto is set 
forth. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1842, March 4.— No. 9274. 
SLAUGHTER, Edwakd.— Wheels.— This invention consists in 
forming a wheel, suitable for use either on railways or common 
roads, " with an outer ring having a dovetailed groove or 
" recess, and spokes having a corresponding projection ; " or 
" vice versa, with spokes having a dovetail groove or recess, 
" and an outer tyre having a projecting corresponding dove- 
" tail, so that the wheel shall be held together by means of 
" dovetails to the spokes and rings." The spokes may be of 
various forms, but an arrangement is described in which they 
are each bent into a figure somewhat resembling that of a 
heart, the broader ends being, however, made to correspond 
with the inner curve of the tyre, and the smaller and inner 
ends being united by a nave of metal cast upon them. The 
dovetail grooves or projections may be formed by any suitable 
means. 

[Printed, hd. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1842, March 21.— No. 9298. 
JESSOP, Sydney. — " An improved mode of preparing wrought 
" iron intended for wheel tires," &c. 

This invention consists in the preparing of such wrought 
iron as is intended for wheel rims, wheel tires, rails, tram 
plates, switches, and such other like articles, having a wear- 
ing surface or wearing surfaces exposed to more friction than 
their other surfaces, by placing them in a carbonizing furnace 
in such manner as to expose what are intended to be their 
wearing surfaces only, to the process of carbonization, and 
protecting their other surfaces therefrom by suitable arrange- 
ments of position and fuel, and afterwards rolling, hammer- 
ing, swaging, or otherwise consolidating the metal on such 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 349 

surfaces, so as to make it hard, compact, and even all over* 
An arrangement is shown in which flanged bars suitable for 
the rims of railway wheels are laid in pairs, in such manner 
that the parts intended for the wearing surfaces only are 
exposed to the action of charcoal or some other carbonizing 
fuel ; while in another arrangement, rims already brought into 
a circular form are laid one upon another, the fuel only acting 
upon the outsides of such rims. 
[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1842, April 26.— No. 9332. 
PALMER, Henry Robinson. — " An improvement or improve* 
' ' ments in the construction of roofs and other parts of build- 
11 ings, and also for the application of corrugated plates or 
" sheets of metal to certain purposes for which such sheets or 
" plates have not heretofore been used." One part of this 
invention consists in the application of corrugated plates or 
sheets of metal * ' to railway and other wheels in place of the 
" spokes or arms." The rims and naves may be cast upon 
plates which have been previously prepared, and tires may be 
added thereto in the usual way. 

The other parts of the invention contain nothing which 
requires notice here. 

[Printed, Is. lid. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1842, April 28.— No. 9334. 
PAPE, John Henry. — Carriages and wheels. These improve- 
ments are applicable both to railway carriages and to carriages 
for common roads. According.to the first part of the invention 
wheels are placed upon an axle which revolves within a tube, 
the latter containing inside each end brasses by which the 
axle is supported, and such brasses being kept in their places 
by means of boxes ; one part of each box being fixed to the 
tube by means of screws, and being lined with a piece of 
leather to keep it grease-tight, while the other part of the box 
fits loosely upon the nave of the wheel next to it, " thus 
" serving to keep the wheel in its place in case of the fracture 
" of the axis," certain screws passing through the box 
and projecting into a groove in the nave, and certain hooks 
connected with the spokes of the wheel passing behind a 



350 CARRIAGES AKD OTHER VEHICLES 

projecting portion of the box. The tube is also furnished 
with internal rings, which aid in sustaining the axle, and a 
shoulder near each end of the latter is provided with a scoop 
which at each revolution of the axle takes up a portion of 
grease (which is run into the tube), and conveys it to the 
brasses. This contrivance is meant for use chiefly in cases in 
which the bearings of the axles are inside the wheels, when 
such bearings are outside such wheels, the hooks and the 
screws which pass into the nave of the wheel may be dispensed 
with. A modification is described as being applicable to 
carriages for common roads in which the axle inside the 
tuhe is in two parts instead of being all in one piece. 
, Another part of the invention consists in a mode of stopping 
carriages by means of a screw which is placed in a vertical 
position above the axle,' and so arranged that upon being 
slightly turned it will force certain brasses against the axle. 
This screw is j according to one arrangement, furnished with 
an arm or lever which is attached to one end of a flat spring, 
this spring, when at liberty, keeping the screw in such a 
position that the brasses are kept in contact with the axle, 
but the spring being also connected with the draw-hook of the 
carriage, so that the brasses are removed from the axle when 
that hook is acted upon in pulling the carriage forward, but 
are pressed into contact with the axle " the moment the 
" moving power ceases/' Instead of a flat spring, a spiral 
spring, coiled round the axis of the screw, may be used. In 
the case of a carriage for common roads, arrangements must 
be made for releasing the spring and allowing it to act upon 
the axle by means of a pedal at the command of the driver. 

Another part of the invention consists of a wheel, the spokes 
of which are composed of tubes, within which are inserted 
spiral springs or coiled' springs, fixed to iron branches, which 
are connected to the rim of the wheel, and terminate in 
iron rods, being so arranged that the ends of such rods rest 
upon the spiral springs, the wheel thus being rendered elastic. 
Outside the rim of the wheel is a layer of felt, ' ' or other 
" yielding substance," and outside that again a tyre of iron, 
or other suitable substance. This part of the invention is 
minutely set forth, and a mode of bending wood when wood is 
used for the rim or felloe of the wheel, is described as con- 
sisting in driving " taper oval piers " of hard wood dipped in 



FOR COMMON EOADS. 351 

asphaltum, into " circular holes " bored in the wood ; steam 
or dry heat, however, being used if desirable. Another part 
of the invention relates to springs for carriages. A semi* 
circular spring is attached at the lower end to the axle box or 
some other suitable part, and terminates at the other and 
upper end in a coil with the centre of which is connected a link, 
which is also connected with the body of the carriage by a 
certain " centre/' Around this centre a strap passes, which 
strap is also passed around the semicircular spring, and the 
result of this arrangement is that as the load borne by the 
carriage increases, the strap causes the spring to bear in 
succession, through the medium of rods, upon spiral springs 
placed in tubes, these being connected with the inner parts of 
the spring. Different modifications of this part of the inven- 
tion are described, in some cases the spring consisting of 
several thicknesses of steel, and the strap being variously 
arranged according to circumstances, and in other cases these 
coiled springs and straps being combined with the ordinary 
flat springs. Another part of the invention relates to the 
construction of a carriage, of which the body is placed very 
low, and rests only on two large wheels, there being behind 
or underneath, the carriage a small wheel " after the fashion 
" of a castor for the purpose of maintaining the equilibrium." 
The axle is cranked, the springs placed under the body of 
the carriage, crossing each other diagonally, being of con- 
siderable length and flexibility. Framework for a carriage is 
also described as being composed of metal tubes, combined 
with spiral springs, /'which may be used in a variety of 
" ways." The details of the invention are set forth at some 
length, and under various modifications. The door of the 
carriage mentioned above is placed at the back, and the small 
wheel is mounted in bearings connected with a vertical rod 
working in a tube in which is a spiral spring, the diagonal 
springs being, if desirable, combined with coiled springs. 
[Printed, 10^. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1842, May 23.— No. 9352. 
GIBSON, Joseph.—" Certain improvements in axletrees and 
" axletree boxes." 

This invention relates to an improved construction of axle- 
tree and axletree box, si whereby the lateral or end motion of 



352 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" tlie latter on the former may bo prevented ; " the invention 
including a mode of lubricating the parts and of fastening the 
axletree box on the axletree. In the first place a collar is 
screwed upon the coned part of the axletree, by altering the 
position of which a second collar, upon which the axletree box 
is screwed, is pressed more or less forcibly against a shoulder 
formed upon the axletree. The end of the box is closed by a 
cap, screwed thereto, and there is a recess formed in the arm 
of the axle and also a longitudinal groove in the upper side of 
the arm, an opening in the collar communicating with this 
groove and serving for the admission of oil, which passes 
thence for the lubrication of the different parts. The first 
collar is prevented from coming unscrewed by means of a pin 
which is inserted into one or other of certain holes made 
therein, the inner end of such pin entering the groove in the 
axle arm, and leather washers are placed between the first 
and second collars and between the second collar and the 
shoulder on the axle, a bolt passing through the flange of the 
second collar and entering a recess in the end of the axletree 
box preventing the latter from becoming unscrewed from that 
collar. These arrangements are set forth at some length. 
The bolt last mentioned is of inclined form at the end, and the 
bottom of the recess is inclined also, this arrangement allow- 
ing the bolt to be pushed backwards at each rotation of the 
box when being screwed up, the bolt being constantly pressed 
in one direction by springs. An instrument is contrived for 
holding the bolt out of the recess when it is necessary to un- 
screw the parts. 

[Printed, 7d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1842, July 23.— No. 9427. 
JOHNSTON, Alexandee. — " Certain improvements in car- 
" riages, which may also be applied to ships, boats and other 
" purposes where locomotion is required." 

This invention consists " in the application of guide wheels 
" or rollers to railway and other carriages, attached to the 
" sides of each carriage and placed so as to act against the 
u side or edge of the rails, in order to prevent or diminish 
" the friction and consequent loss of the moving power, 
" stripping or injuring the rails, and other disadvantages 
i( arising from the flanges rubbing on the rails. ,, The rollers 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 353 

may be inserted and held in forks " formed in the ends of 
" stays arranged to receive them " and " be made to turn on 
" a pin or axle." " These rollers being intended to supersede 
" or form a substitute for flanges, may also be placed some- 
" what nearer to the rails than the medium distance of the 
" ordinary flanges as at present in use, but so as to allow 
*' sufficient play to the carriage," such rollers being placed in 
an inclined position, "similar to the base of a cone," thus 
presenting ' ' a vertical surface to the rail." Different modi- 
fications of the invention are described, and the invention may 
be "applied to carts and other vehicles, to adapt them for 
" being used also on railways wholly or partially laid on 
*' common roads," the details of the invention being capable 
of many variations. By a disclaimer and memorandum of 
alteration which was enrolled on the 23rd of January, 1843, 
the patentee renounced all claim to this invention as " applied 
" to ships, boats, and other purposes where locomotion is 
" required." 

[Printed, 4d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1842, August 3.— No. 9437. 

LEE, John. — " Certain improvements in wheels and axletrees 
" to be used on railways, and in machinery for stopping on 
" or preventing such carriages from running off railways, 
" which improvements may be also applied to other carriages 
' l and machinery." 

This invention is described at considerable length, and 
embraces a variety of details, which will only be understood 
with the aid of the drawings annexed to the Specification. 
The first part of the invention relates to improved axles, 
" which are distinguished into three parts; first, the ordinary 
" axle divided into two parts," which are joined together by 
coupling collars ; secondly, " auxiliary axles " composed of 
bars of metal connected with curved plates placed on the nave 
of the wheel, these " auxiliary .axles " being for the purpose 
of serving as supports in case of the other axles breaking ; 
and thirdly, certain bearing collars, which in combination 
with the curved plates and certain other appendages, secure 
the auxiliary axles to the naves of the wheels. The next part 
of the invention relates to improved naves for wheels, " which 
G 239. M 



3S4 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" are distinguished in three particulars from ordinary naves ; 
" first, by increased length; second, by being grooved for 
*' collars for the axles; and, third, by being grooved for 
" collars for the brakes; "the latter being supported by the 
naves, and connected with arrangements of levers which may 
be operated by various different means, and the brakes being so 
formed that when brought into action they press not only 
against the carriage wheels, but upon the rails also. These 
levers are either operated upon by the buffers of a carriage, in 
case of collision, through the medium of a spring, a " brake 
" bar," and other adjuncts; or by means of a windlass or 
wheel, having handles on its periphery, and a female screw in 
its centre, through which a screwed shaft passes, the windlass 
being turned by the guard, or by means of a pipe passing 
from the engine, and supplying steam to a plug or piston when 
requisite. 

The invention includes a mode of limbering up gun car- 
riages, including the application of the above axles to such 
carriages and a method of lubricating and constructing the 
naves of the wheels. The patentee states that he claims his 
improved axles and naves not only as applied to carriages, but 
to " wheel work in machinery." 
[Printed, 2s. lOd. Drawings.^ 

A.D. 1842, August 31.— No. 9456. 
THATCHER, Charles, and THATCHER, Thomas.— " Im- 
" provements in drags or breaks to be applied to the wheels 
" of carriages generally." 

This invention relates to arrangements so contrived i i that 
" the horse may, by its own natural effort in the act of hold- 
" ing back, bring the break into action ; and the attendant 
" may either assist in producing the same effect or produce 
" it independently of the action of the horse." The inven- 
tion consists ' * in having certain levers and parts connected 
1 ' therewith so arranged that one end of the system of the 
' ' levers shall be in connection with parts of the harness, and 
" with an arm convenient of access for the hand or foot of the 
" attendant, and the other end caused to bear against the 
" periphery of the stock of the wheel." 

An arrangement is described in which an ordinary chaise 
axle has affixed to it, inside the wheels, castings carrying pins 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 355 

Which each form the fulcrum of a lever, these levers extend- 
ing across the axle, and crossing each other, each lever beirig 
of T-shape at the end next the wheel, and being curved or 
hollowed on the face of that part for the purpose of causing 
friction when brought into contact with a hoop on the stock of 
the wheel. With the other end of each lever a pulley is con- 
nected, and round these pulleys a chain or rope is passed 
which is connected with the shafts of the chaise and arlso with 
that part of the harness called the breeching, the result of the 
arrangement being that when descending a hill the pressure 
of the vehicle against the horse, by causing him instinctively 
toresist such pressure by acting against the breeching, brings 
the brake levers into action. In order that the driver may 
have the control of the brakes, and also relieve the pressure 
from the horse, a certain hooked piece is passed over the brake 
levers and connected with a lever which may be acted upon by 
the foot of the driver. A handle and lever, the latter -Carry- 
ing a hook over which the rope or chain is passed is also 
arranged so as to relieve the horse when necessary from the 
pressure of the breeching. An arrangement is also described 
in which an ordinary coach pole has at the outer end a casting 
furnished with pulleys over which chains or ropes are passed, 
which are attached to the horses' collars and also to a chain 
extending along the under side of the pole, and connected with 
the chain or Cord passing round the pulleys on the brake 
levers as before, the result produced being the same. In this 
case the coachman has the control of the brakes given to him 
by means of a bell- crank lever attached to the boot, and 
having connected thereto a cord or chain which is also attached 
to a ring so arranged as to act upon the chain or cord which 
brings the brakes into action when the bell-crank lever is 
acted upon by pressure of the coachman's foot. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1842, September 3.— No. 9457. 
HAZAED, Eobert.— " Improvements in ventilating carriages, 
" and cabins of steamboats." 

The object of this invention is to remove the vitiated air 
from within a carriage by means of a " fanner " or ventilator 
which is put in motion by the revolution of one of the wheels 
of the carriage, or by some other motive power; "thus the 

m 2 



356 CARRIAGES AJ5TD OTHER VEHICLES 

" inmates, however numerous, may ride any length of time 
" with the windows closed, excluding damp or dust, and yet 
" enjoy perfect ventilation." 

An arrangement is described in which a chamber is formed 
in the top of a carriage which communicates with a passage 
proceeding down the back of the carriage, this leading to a 
fan or ventilator working in a suitable case, and driven by a 
strap passing from a small pulley on the axis of the fan to a 
larger pulley connected to one of the hind wheels. A flexible 
tube is placed between the case of the fan and the lower end 
of the passage formed at the back of the carriage, this being 
apparently for the purpose of allowing the apparatus to ac- 
commodate itself to the movement of the carriage on its 
springs. An opening is formed in the front part of the car- 
riage for the admission of fresh air, and this opening may be 
provided with a sliding plate having openings therein, by 
which the quantity of air to be admitted may be regulated, a 
similar plate with openings being placed across the aperture 
by which the vitiated air enters the chamber in the top of the 
carriage. The form of the fan may be varied. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 



A.D. 1842, September 8.— No. 9459. 

WARBURTOlsF, William.—" Improvements in the construc- 
" tion of carriages, and apparatus for retarding the progress 
" of the same." 

This invention consists in the first place in so arranging the 
parts of an omnibus that certain parts or compartments of the 
vehicle may be shut off from the rest and rendered private 
when requisite. An arrangement is described in which the 
body of an omnibus is divided into three main compartments. 
The hinder compartment differs little from the interior of an 
ordinary omnibus, having a door at the back, four seats on 
each side, and one seat at the front end. The middle com- 
partment is meant to hold four persons, and is divided into- 
two parts by a fixed transverse partition, and these may be 
again divided by sliding longitudinal partitions, to be locked 
or fastened by the conductor, when desired, thereby forming 
four distinct private boxes, each capable of holding one 
person, and having a separate door at the outside. The front 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 357 

compartment, which is partially open, is formed like the body 
of a cabriolet, and with inclined flap doors, if required, the 
driver sitting upon a seat above contiguous with the roof. 
The fittings and furniture of the vehicle may be arranged 
according to taste, and flexible pipes, connected with a main 
pipe, are arranged so as to enable the passengers to commu- 
nicate with the conductor. The middle and hind compart- 
ments are ventilated by means of narrow longitudinal openings, 
covered with wire gauze, perforated zinc, horse-hair cloth, or 
other suitable material. Another arrangement is described 
in which there is no private compartment, the cabriolet part 
being retained, and a saloon or hinder part being arranged in 
which the seats are divided from each other by wicker or cane 
work. The doors to the saloon are just behind the fore 
wheels. In both these arrangements the fore wheels are made 
larger than usual, the framing of the fore part of the vehicle 
being so arranged as to allow of such wheels locking, and 
being strengthened by iron plates. 

Another part of the invention relates to retarding the pro- 
gress of carriages when going down hi] Is, and consists in 
attaching a block of wood to the back of one of the splash 
boards or wings of a carriage, the iron framing of this splash 
board being jointed, and its upper end connected to a hori- 
zontal rod which may be operated upon by a hand lever so as 
to cause the wooden block to be pressed against one of the 
hind wheels of the carriage when necessary. 
[Printed, Is. 4<d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1842, September 16.— No. 9473. 
JAMES, William Henry. — " Certain improvements in rail- 
" ways and carriage ways, railway and other carriages, and in 
" the modes of propelling the said carriages, parts of which 
" improvements are applicable to the reduction of friction in 
" other machines." 

One part of this invention relates to the construction of 
carriages suitable for travelling upon certain elevated lines of 
railway. The framework of these carriages is so formed as to 
hang down below the surface of the railway on each side of the 
latter (the body of the carriage, however, being above the 
rails) and the carriages being mounted upon either wheels or 
rollers, in some cases such rollers extending nearly the whole 
breadth of the carriage, while in others three broad rollers are 



358 CARRIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

mounted on one axle. The carriages are also provided with 
flanged rollers placed upon vertical spindles, these rollers 
bearing against side rails or projections formed on each side of 
the railway, and so preventing the carriages from leaving the 
rails, the projecting framing also tending to prevent such an 
accident. 

Another part of the invention consists in adapting to the 
axles of the carriages certain wheels which the patentee calls 
" relief wheels," as they tend to lessen the friction of the 
axles. This part of the invention consists in reality in mount- 
ing the body of the carriage upon the axles through the medium 
of wheels suitably arranged upon short axes carried by the 
framing, and furnished with internal rings which rest upon 
"small double-flanged wheels fixed on the ends of the axles, the 
belief wheels thus revolving by contact with the small wheels 
on the axles. These relief wheels may be applied not only to 
carriages such as mentioned above, but also to other carriages. 
This part of the invention may be applied not only to car- 
riages such as mentioned above, but also to other carriages. 
This part of the invention may be varied by mounting relief 
wheels in framing of the carriage below the ends of the axles, 
and passing bands or straps round the relief wheels and the 
small wheels fixed on the axles, which bands or straps may 
be made elastic so as to serve as springs to the body of the 
carriage ; or a further variation may be made by placing loose 
wheels or pulleys on the axles to receive such straps or bands, 
and other modifications made according to circumstances. 

Another improvement in carriages consists in causing the 
carriage to travel upon a series of rollers, the axles of which 
are connected with endless chains passed round wheels mounted 
r near each end of the carriage frame, the endless chains bring- 
ing the rollers in succession beneath such carriage frame. 

Another part of the invention consists in forming the springs 
upon which the body of a carriage rests of a series of air beds 
or cushions which are placed upon platforms resting upon the 
axles of the wheels, the lower portions of the carriage body 
resting upon the cushions, and being provided with guide 
rods ; these portions of the carriage being, moreover, made in 
the shape of " inverted open boxes," which prevent the access 
of dust to the cushions, and this being further guarded against 
by the boxes and platforms being connected by folds of caout- 
chouc cloth or other suitable material. 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 359 

The invention also relates to a method of mounting omni- 
buses and similar vehicles upon their wheels. An omnibus is 
shown carried upon eight wheels, there being two wheels 
carried upon a short axle in the place of every one of the Jour 
commonly used. These axles may respectively be pivotted on 
centres, and connected by cross levers with one another, so 
that the movement to right or left of the pole swivels all the : 
wheels; or the axles may be fixed- The seats of the omnibus 
may be placed over these wheels. 

[Printed, Is. 8$. , Drawings f] ■ ,. :. ... 

AD. 1842, September 29.— No. $483. 

WILKEY, John Fry.-— " Improvements in carriages." 

This invention relates to " a mode of applying a hind or . 
" third wheel to carriages." 

The invention is of course described with reference to a , 
vehicle having two main wheels only. These wheels work 
upon an axle as usual, and to the axle is affixed a certain hind 
framing, which projects backwards from the axle, and carries 
at its hinder part a bearing in which an upright axis is 
mounted, a second frame, projecting downwards from the 
first, having at its lower part a horizontal axis on which the 
third wheel turns, the upright axis having upon it a circular 
locking plate which is capable of turning in a hollow locking 
plate carried by the hind frame, the result of this arrangement 
being that the hind wheel is capable of locking or turning oub 
of the direct course when requisite. 

The patentee mentions, as an important feature of the 
invention, the placing of the body of the carriage upon the 
axle and hind framing connected therewith " in such manner 
" that there is the elasticity of springs between it and the 
" three wheels, consequently any shock to either of the wheels 
" will be conveyed to the body through springs," this not 
having been the case in former arrangements in which a third 
wheel was used. 

The details of the invention may be varied, in some cases 
the hollow locking plate being dispensed with. Suitable 
arrangements are made for lubricating the parts. 
[Printed, Is. 3d. Drawings.'] 



360 CABRJAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1842, October 20.— No. 9497. 

STATHAM, James. — " Improvements in the construction of 
" locks for Venetian blinds used in carriages." 

Before describing the details of this invention the patentee 
mentions that according to the ordinary arrangement of locks 
for Venetian blinds in carriages two operations are required 
to open and two to close such blinds, the movement of a bolt 
or latch being in the first place required to unlock the blind, 
and the opening of the blind being then performed by a slide, 
while to close the blind the bolt or latch has again to be moved, 
and a tape or strap used to complete the operation, these 
arrangements not only causing trouble in the working of the 
blinds, but frequently leading to the blinds being damaged 
by persons who are not in the habit of using them. He then 
states that the object of this invention is so to arrange locks for 
such blinds " that by the simple act of unlocking a blind the 
" same shall be opened by a spring, and that in the act of 
" again closing the blind the spring shall be brought into a 
" condition to re-open the blind when the same is released or 
« unlocked." 

The details of the invention may be variously modified. 
Arrangements, however, are described in which a tape or band 
is connected with the inner edge of each part or bar of the blind, 
this band or tape passing over a pulley at the upper part of 
the window and thence downwards to the lower part of the 
window, being there attached to a thin strip of metal which is 
in connection with a cord passing into the lock. This cord is 
coiled round a barrel in which a spring is enclosed, there 
being combined with this part of the apparatus a certain 
presser plate, a lever, a sliding bolt, a click or stop acting 
upon ratchet teeth formed outside the spring barrel, and other 
small mechanism the arrangement of which will only be 
understood with the aid of the drawing annexed to the speci- 
fication, the result of the whole arrangement being that the 
presser plate being pushed in one direction sets free the spring 
barrel, which then winds a portion of cord upon it, thus open- 
ing the blind, a certain tape or strap being employed to close 
it again when requisite, and the action of this tape or strap 
restoring the spring barrel and other parts into their first 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 361 

positions, so as to be again ready for opening the blind when 
requisite, 

[Printed, Is. Drawings.'} 

A.D. 1842, October 27.— No. 9499. 
HAZELDINE, George. — "Certain improvements in omni- 
" buses." 

This invention " consists of so constructing omnibuses that 
" single seats are fixed on hither side, and in such manner 
" that passengers enter up the centre and take seats one 
" behind the other, in place of the passengers, sitting side by 
" side with each other on the same seat, and face to face and 
** opposite the passengers on the seat on the other side of the 
" omnibus," the patentee stating that by this arrangement 
*' each passenger will have the comfort of a separate seat, and 
" at the same time the passage into and out of an omnibus so 
" constructed will be more free, as the central portion of the 
" omnibus will not be occupied by the legs and feet of the 
t{ passengers." 

An arrangement is described in which the vehicle is con- 
structed to carry twelve passengers, the arrangement being 
such that the two nearest the front of the carriage will sit 
face to face, but sideways in respect to the horses or other- 
wise, a back and elbow being provided for each seat. These 
arrangements may be varied, "and, if desired, all the seats 
" may be so arranged that the passengers might sit with 
" their faces or backs towards the horses, in which case the 
" length of the omnibus, would require to be in some degree 
" increased." 

[Printed, 6d. Br awing.] 

A.D. 1842, November 8.— No. 9515. 
SPINKS, John, the younger. — (.4 communication.) — " An im- 
" proved apparatus for giving elasticity to certain parts of 
" railway and other carriages requiring the same." 

" This invention consists in substituting for the ordinary 
" coach springs a metallic cylinder and a metallic piston 
" made to fit air-tight into the cylinder. Between the top of 
" the cylinder and the piston such a quantity of atmospheric 
" air or other permanently elastic gas is forced as to enable 



362 OAEEIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" that compressed air by means of the apparatus in which it 
" is confined to give elastic support to carriages in Kcu of the 
" ordinary springs now in general use, and to give elastic 
" resistance between carriage and carriage on railways, in 
" lieu of the buffers now in general use." 

In applying this apparatus as a bearing spring, the cylinder 
which is inverted is bolted to the frame of the carriage, and 
has a cover fitted thereto, the rod of the piston passing down- 
wards through a cover bolted to the bottom of the cylinder, 
and its lower end being of convex form and resting in a cup or 
concavity on the upper side of the axle box, the lower cover 
being furnished with a stuffing box, and the upper cover with 
a passage for the condensed air or gas which is forced into the 
cylinder by a pump, the passage being furnished with a suit- 
able valve inside the cylinder and a screw plug, by which it 
may be closed from the outside. 

. Between the lower side of the piston and the lower cover is 
an opening in the cylinder through which air can pass to and 
fro as the cylinder rises and falls, and the upper side of the 
piston is furnished with a cup of leather which serves as a 
packing, oil floating upon this packing and both lubricating 
the cylinder and preventing the compressed air or gas from 
passing to the lower side of the piston. As applied to buffers, 
the arrangements are very similar, the cylinders, however, 
being placed horizontally, and being longer than in the other 
case, the convex ends of the piston rods entering into congave 
recesses in the ends of the buffer rods. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing. ~\ * 

A.D. 1842, November 25.— No. 9526. 

RALLI, Pandia Theodoke. — (A communication.) — " Improve- 
" ments in the construction of the framing and wheel work of 
-'-railway- and other carriages, waggdm, and carts, and of 
" locomotives and tenders." .. 

This invention relates firstly, " to a method of using and 
■• ' applying loose wheels to railway and other carriages , waggons 
" and carts." Each wheel is upon a separate axlef such axles 
being sustained in suitable framework, upon which the body 
of the carriage or waggon rests ; the framework of one carriage 
being connected with that of another by projecting parts 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 363 

furnished with joints, such joints being opposite the middle 
parts of such framing, this arrangement enabling a train of 
such carriages or waggons to pass with facility round the 
curves in the rails. 

This invention also includes the use of a roller, mounted in 
a moveable frame, for the purpose of rolling or transferring 
the body of a waggon on to the framing on which it is to 
travel. 

[Printed, lOd. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1842, December 8.— No. 9547. ,, :J 

BODMER, John Geoege. — " Certain improvements in the 
" manufacture of metallic hoops and tyres for wheels, and in 
" the method of fixing the same for use, and also improve- 
" ments in the machinery or apparatus to be employed 
" therein." 

This invention relates principally to rolling hoops and tyres 
for wheels, " so as to give them at one operation their true 
" shape." The necessity for afterwards turning them in a 
lathe being thus dispensed with, and it consists partly in an 
improvement upon a former invention, No. 8070, A.D. 1839. In 
the present invention, a bar of iron is first rolled or hammered 
into a shape " most convenient for the finishing process," and 
is then bent into the form of a ring, and has its ends welded 
together. It is then placed in a machine in which it rests 
upon a horizontal bed plate (which may be provided with 
rollers to support the ring if desirable), and is then acted upon 
between rollers working on vertical axes, one of these rollers 
being of such form as to give the proper finished figure to the 
outside of the ring, while the other roller finishes the inside 
of such tyre. The machine is described as operating upon a 
flanged ring suitable for the tyre of a railway wheel, and for 
the purpose of clearing the tire of its " scale," and hardening 
it as much as possible, a stream of water is discharged upon 
it when the operation is nearly completed, " and it is left just 
" warm enough to contract sufficiently when put upon the 
" wheel." The roller which finishes the outside and flange 
of the tire is mounted upon a shaft or axis, so arranged in its 
bearings that the roller may be moved from or towards the 
tire by means of a screw. The inner roller is upon another 
shaft, which can be raised or lowered in order to facilitate the 



364 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

placing of the tire upon the bed plate, and removing it there- 
from, and in addition to these rollers certain guide rollers are 
employed, which are also adjustable by means of screws, these 
keeping the tire steady as it travels round on the bed plate, 
and a small roller is also so mounted as to bear constantly 
against the interior of the tire, the apparatus with which it is 
connected constantly indicating the different diameters assumed 
by the tire as the process of rolling proceeds. 

Tires for common carriage wheels may be formed in a 
similar manner, one form of tire being described, which is 
convex on the exterior surface and concave in the interior, 
this tire, when shrunk upon a wheel, retaining its position 
without the aid of nails or screws. The invention also includes 
a machine, by means of which a " lump " of metal brought 
from a puddling furnace may be gradually reduced into the 
form of a bar, the patentee stating that the "sudden reduc- 
" tion " of a lump into the form of a bar is liable to derange 
the fibres of the iron. This machine consists mainly of a 
trough, in which the lump to be operated upon is placed, 
being passed thence between rollers, which are three in 
number, the metal resting upon two of these which work in 
stationary bearings, and the third roller being mounted in bear- 
ings which are moveable, this roller being gradually forced down 
upon the metal by means of a screw while the work proceeds. 
This invention is described at some length, and under various 
modifications. 

[Printed, Is. lid. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1842, December 8.— No. 9548. 
NEWTON, William Edwaed.— (A communication.)— Axles, 
axleboxes, and axletrees. In these improvements, two metal 
rollers of the same or different diameters, and the wrought iron 
axles of which are placed horizontally or slightly inclined, 
rest (at the lower opening that is made between them) upon the 
turned part of the axle tree. The turned part is a little longer 
than or at least equal to the width of the rollers. These 
rollers are made of such a length or breadth that they will 
not oscillate or rock, and therefore they will not create any 
injurious shocks. The axles of the rollers are supported 
against brass or bronze bearings, formed in a cast iron box, fixed 
by means of four bolts to the under part of the shaft. Another 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 365 

bearing partially surrounds at its under side (but without any 
sensible friction) the turned part of the axletree, and is supported 
by a bridle piece, which is bolted to the under part of the cast- 
iron box. This arrangement is adopted in order to keep 
the axletree in its proper place under the rollers, and prevent 
it from being disturbed by shocks or other causes, which 
might tend to disarrange it. The bearing piece may be made 
hollow, so as to answer the purpose of a grease box (in the 
manner they are employed upon railways), by means of a 
small cylinder of cork or deal floating upon some oil, which 
is poured into the said hollow. The bearing is, however, 
maintained in contact with the axletree, which, as well as 
the two rollers, are by this means kept properly lubricated, 
the object of the invention being to reduce the friction of 
axles, and so cause carriages to travel more easily than usual. 
The whole apparatus is surrounded by a case of thin sheet 
iron, which not only protects it from mud and dust, but also 
serves as a reservoir for an oil bath in case the hollow bearing 
piece mentioned above is not employed as a grease box, 
another sheet iron covering protecting the rim of the wheel. 
[Printed, lOti Drawing.'} 

A.D. 1843, January 31.— No. 9619. 
BODDY, William Barnahd.— Windows. This invention con- 
sists in applying rack catches to window sashes and frames, 
which are used with a spring bolt opened by a key or by a 
finger knob or otherwise, for the purpose of fastening or 
sustaining such windows. Various modifications of the inyen* 
tion are shown, and it is claimed as useful for carriage 
purposes. 

[Printed, lOd. Drawing.'} 

A.D. 1843, February 11.— No. 9632. 
WOLFERSTAN, Thomas.— Axles and axle boxes. The axle 
arm is made hollow to serve as a receptacle for the lubricating 
oil, which is introduced through an aperture closed by a screw 
plug. It runs in a box in which it is secured by an iron collar 
and bolts, and leather washers make the joint tight. The oil 
escapes from the receptacle through a small perforation and is 
distributed round the axle by means of a groove cut thereon.j 
[Printed, hd. Drawing^} 



366 CABKIAGES AND GTHEE VEHICLES 

A.D. 1843, February 17.— No. 9635. 
BOYDELL, James* junior.—** Improvements in apparatus for 
** retaining the wheels of carriages in ijhe event of an axis 
** breaking or otherwise." , , sl 

This invention ** relates to certain apparatus combined with 
" the use of such description of axles as run from side to 
" side of the carriages to which they are applied, each axle 
" having two wheels affixed or turning thereon," the apparatus 
being ** so arranged as to prevent the wheels getting away 
** when any of the axes break, and also prevent the wheels 
" coming off the axes in the event of linch-pms or other 
" fastenings coming out." 

An arrangement is described in which certain bars affixed 
t?o tb.e framing of a vehicle are provided with forked ends 
which partially embrace, without touching, the rims of the 
wheels, the result of the arrangement being that should an axle 
break, or a linch pin become disengaged, or the wheel become 
otherwise disconnected from the axle the bars, by resting u]3on 
the wheel, will sustain the vehicle, and prevent it from over- 
turning. The invention is described as being applied to rail- 
way carriages, as well as to carriages for common roads. 
[Printed, 5d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1843, March 2.— No. 9653. 
WALKER, William.—** Certain improvements in the mauu- 
" facture of springs and axles for carriages." 

This invention consists in the first place in a mode- of- con- 
structing an elliptic spring in which three plates of steel are 
used in forming each portion or side of the spring, such plates 
being of uniform thickness, but having the edges tapered off 
towards each extremity, similar but larger plates of steel 
forming the internal parts of the spring, and having their 
ends formed into eyes for the reception of the shackle or con- 
necting bolts. The plates may be held together by bolts or 
clamps, and the arrangement may be varied by using plates 
of Bteel, the thickness of which diminishes from the middle 
towards each end, in addition to such plates being tapered off 
towards the ends, as mentioned above. 

* That part of the invention which relates to axles consists 
in forming the outer portion of the axle hollow, such axle 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 367 

having a " screwed end" for the reception of a cap, the peri- 
phery of which is divided into eight or more sides, in each of 
which there is an oblong hole for the admission of a screw. 
The hollow portion of the axle forms an oil chamber, and 
small holes are made in this portion of the axle through which 
the oil circulates when the wheel is in motion. A cap fur- 
nished with a shoulder is screwed upon the end of the axle 
when the wheel has been placed thereon, there being a shoulder 
forged on the axle, against which the box of the wheel works, 
and certain collars at the ends of the box, certain " leathers " 
and metal cones, completing the arrangement, the result of 
which is to not only keep the wheel securely in its place upon 
the axle, but also to prevent the escape of the oil used for 
lubricating the axle. 

[Printed, hcl. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1843, March 30.— No. 9684. 
HILLS, Fkank. — Steam carriages. This invention relates, .. 
among other things, to a method of driving the propelling 
wheels. They are fixed to tubes or hollow axles which are, 
placed loosely on the driving axle, and which are carried round 
by means of two bevel wheels placed loose upon a pin or 
cross head fixed to the driving axle and at right angles to 
it. These two bevel wheels gear into two others fixed on the 
hollow axles. The cranks on the driving shaft are outside the 
framing, and are worked from vertical cylinders by means of 
bell cranks. By this arrangement either wheel is free from, 
the other. The invention also relates to an improved, eon- 
denser placed between the driving wheels and between the 
boiler and the carriage. . . . . 

The steering is performed from the front by means of a 
vertical rod which works by bevel gearing a horizontal shaft 
below. This latter carries a worm which gears with a wheel 
secured to the turning plate. 

The driving wheels are of iron. The spokes have T-shaped 
pieces welded to their outer ends, their inner ends are cast 
into the nave of the wheel in two rows. From the nave they 
cross each other and between their outer ends or J" pieces are 
fitted the felloes. The tire is put on in strakes. 
[Printed, 2s. Id. Drawings.] 



368 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1843, April 13.— ISTo. 9697. 

RANWELL, William. — "Improvements in machinery or ap- 
" paratus for registering or indicating the number of persons 
" which enter any description of carriage, house, room, 
" chamber, or place, and also the number of passengers and 
" carriages that pass along a bridge, road, or way." 

The mode of carrying out the invention may be varied, but 
the patentee sets forth three modes of applying the improve- 
ments to an ordinary omnibus. In one case the vehicle is 
furnished with additional steps or treads placed above those 
ordinarily employed, these additional steps or treads, when 
acted upon by the feet of passengers, bringing into action 
certain levers and rods, which, through the medium .of a bent 
arm, a ratchet rack, and other minor apparatus connected 
therewith, give motion to certain toothed wheels which carry 
indices on their front sides. Suitable protection is afforded to 
the apparatus by the application thereto of a metallic shield 
and a leather or other flexible band, the door of the vehicle, 
moreover being so arranged as to prevent the apparatus from 
acting except in the opening of such door. 

This arrangement may be varied by substituting pulleys for 
the levers mentioned above, and one modification of the inven- 
tion is described, in which the additional steps are furnished 
on their under sides with plungers, which, on the depression 
of the steps, act upon balls, or upon quicksilver, water, oil, or 
other liquid, hy means of which apparatus connected with 
proper indices may be put in motion. One arrangement is 
described, in which a number of balls are enclosed in a vessel 
or chamber furnished with a slide valve, the latter being acted 
upon by the moveable steps, and allowing a ball to fall from 
the vehicle or chamber at each movement of the steps into a 
box or chamber placed to receive it, the number of balls 
dropped into the latter showing, at the end of each journey, 
the number of passengers who have entered the conveyance. 

These arrangements may be variously modified, and so 
adapted not only to omnibuses and other public vehicles, but 
also "to bridges, roads, or ways, to indicate the number of 

persons or vehicles passing over or along such ways/' 
[Printed, 10c?. Drawing. 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 369 

A.D. 1843, April 22,— No. 9709. 
YIOLETTE, Fra^ois Constant Magloire. — (A commimica- 
tit .) — Warming carriages. A case is fitted in the bottom of 
the carriage, running parallel with the seats, npon which 
case the passengers are to put their feet. It is made shallow 
in those parts which would otherwise interfere with the 
springs or framing, and is fitted at the ends with oil lamps. 
The heat from the lamps fills the case and escapes through a 
number of small holes along the upper parts of the sides of the 
case into the carriage. The lamps are supplied with air 
through holes which are protected by a guard, and chimneys 
may be added to make combustion more complete. The lamps 
are either put in through doors at the ends, Or suspended in 
tubes or collars in the case bottom by pins. 
[Printed, IQcl. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1843, May 15.— No. 9724. 

NEWTON, William Edwabd. — (A communication.)— Axle- 
boxes. The first part of this invention consists in forming 
axle boxes with ' ' rims or fillets along their edges and at their 
il ends, or at their ends only," according to circumstances, 
and then lining such boxes with a metallic composition or 
alloy, " of which tin is the basis," the patentee stating that 
boxes thus prepared are less liable to "heating and abra- 
" sion" than theboxes ordinarily used. The " rims or fillets" 
are meant to retain the lining in position, but a portion of 
sucb lining covers the edges of such rims or fillets, and so 
prevents contact between them and the surface of the axle or 
other mechanism moving within the box. Instead of " rims 
* ' or fillets," knobs, projections, or " holes " may be so arranged 
as to retain the lining of the box, the lining being run into 
the latter in a melted state. 

Another part of the ivention consists in a mode of con- 
structing oil boxes, applicable among other purposes to the 
axle boxes of carriages. In the lower part of the axle box a 
chamber is formed, having a passage leading therefrom to the 
outside of the box, through which oil can be introduced, a 
kind of " double tube" being placed in this passage, which, 
while permitting the entrance of the oil, prevents it from being 
thrown out in case of concussion, the passage, moreover, being 



370 CARRIAGES AJNTD OTHER VEHICLES 

furnished with a suitable cover. In the chamber is mounted 
a weighted lever, the heavier end of which constantly keeps 
the other end raised within an opening in the upper side of the 
oil box or chamber, this end of the lever being provided with 
a flat cotton wick, or some other substance which serves, by 
means of capillery attraction, to couvey a constant supply of 
oil to the axle, with which one part of it is in contact, while 
the lower ends thereof dip into the oil in the chamber. 
[Printed, 7d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1843, May 16.— No. 9727. 
KETTLE, John Lucena Ross, and PROSSER, William, junior. 
" Improvements in the construction of roads, and in carriages 
" to run thereon." 

One part of this invention relates to constructing engines 
and carriages for use on railways with wheels having plain 
tires, and adapting them to run upon plain rails or trams of 
wood, such engines and carriages being prevented from leaving 
such rails or trams by the use of a central guide rail and a 
flanged guide wheel mounted below the carriage or engine so 
as to travel immediately above such guide rail. And another 
part of the invention consists in mounting below engines and 
carriages, guide wheels having V-shaped grooves, which are 
placed in an inclined position so as to be close to the inner 
corners of the rails or trams, the central guide rail being thus 
dispensed with, and these guide wheels supporting the car- 
riage or engine in case of accident to the ordinary wheels or 
axles. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawing. ,] '■ 

A.D. 1843, June 27.— No. 9804. 
WALLER,Richa:rd. — "Improvements in locomotive carriages, 
" and in steam boilers and engines." 
[No Specification enrolled."] 

A.D. 1843, July 20.— Ho. 9848. 
HARYEY, Joseph.—" Improvements in the construction of 
" two-wheeled carriages." 

This invention consists "in so constructing two- wheeled 
66 close carriages that the driver, though within a compart- 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 371 

" ment of a carriage, may be separated from the three pas- 
" sengers" which a carriage constructed according to the 
invention is arranged to carry. 

A vehicle is described in which the seats are so arranged 
that two passengers sit with their faces towards the horse, 
while a third sits behind them and on one side of the vehicle. 
On the opposite side of the vehicle is a compartment arranged 
for the driver, this being so contrived that his head and the 
upper part of his person may come above the top of the car- 
riage, " thus giving the driver a safe seat where he can have 
*'* full power over his horse." The door for the entry and exit 
of passengers to and from the vehicle is at the back of the 
vehicle, the driver entering by a door at the side which may, 
however, be at the back if preferred. Suitable steps are 
placed for convenience of access^ to the vehicle, and the latter 
is provided with windows both at the front and sides, but the 
shape of the body of the vehicle may be varied, the wheels, 
axle, shafts, and springs being arranged in the ordinary 
manner. A small door is provided, by means of which the 
passengers may communicate with the driver when requisite. 
[Printed, Sd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1843, October 5.— No. 9887. 
BEIGGrS, John Geokge. — Axles. This invention consists " in 
" forming axles of two pieces or shafts, one solid and the 
" other hollow, the former fitting within the latter, by which 
" combination much greater strength and less risk of breakage 
" are obtained with the same quantity of metal than when 
" the axle consists wholly of a solid or a hollow shaft." 

One arrangement is described as suitable for railway axles, 
in which the two wheels are keyed upon an outer hollow 
shaft, through which a solid shaft is passed and keyed firmly 
therein, the ends of the latter projecting beyond the hollow 
shaft, and forming the bearings or journals of the axle. In 
another arrangement the solid and hollow shafts are of the 
same length, the bearings being formed of the outer ends of 
the latter. The shafts may be cylindrical, or of any other 
suitable form, and the invention is mentioned as being appli- 
cable to the axles of both railway and other carriages, and 
also to rotating shafts and axles of every description. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 



372 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

A.D. 1843, October 5.— No. 9894. 
SAUNDERS, Jonathan. — " Improvements in the manufacture 
" of tyres of railway and other wheels, and in the manufacture 
" of railway and other axles." 

This invention relates to " a mode of manufacturing the 
" tyre of railway and other wheels by so piling steel with 
' ' iron that the steel may be at those parts of the surfaces 
' ' most liable to wear when the piles of steel and iron are 
" rolled out into bars suitable for the tyre of railway and 
" other wheels." The pieces of steel used are piled with the 
iron, and the pile heated to a welding heat, and passed under 
the hammer and formed into a bloom, and then passed between 
suitable grooved rollers and formed into a bar suitable for a 
railway or other wheel, in like manner to what is ordinarily 
practised when making tire bars for railway or other wheels 
when only piles of pieces of iron are used. The patentee does 
not confine himself to any particular arrangement of the 
parts of the pile, but remarks that he has in some cases 
covered the steel in the pile with a thin surface of iron, which 
is removed in turning the wheel. By a disclaimer which was 
enrolled on the 4th of April 1844, the patentee disclaimed 
that part of the title of this invention which is contained in 
the words relating to the manufacture of railway and other 
axles, stating that he had found the invention which he had 
intended to describe under those words to be wanting in 
utility. 

[Printed, Id. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1843, November 7.— No. 9928. 
EOWAN, William.— Axles and axlebox. This invention is 
described as being applied to the axle of a railway carriage, 
the patentee stating, however, that it may be applied to other 
purposes. The wheel is constructed as usual, and the axle, 
so far as regards the parts between the wheels and their 
bearings, may be of any convenient form. Each end of the 
axle, is, however, somewhat prolonged, and slightly diminished 
in diameter, and mounted upon each end of the axle is a 
" friction cylinder or wheel carrier," this consisting of two 
rings placed some distance apart, and connected by four 
longitudinal bars, each of which serves as an axis to one of 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 373 

four cylinders or wheels, these latter, in fact, working between 
the axle and the interior of a socket secured to the framework, 
and serving as anti-friction rollers. The ends of the friction 
cylinders are bevilled or rounded off, and abut at such ends 
against correspondingly- shaped portions of the axle and bush, 
by which they are prevented from swaying to either side in 
working. A screw cap and nut further secure the whole in 
their places, and an external plate guards the socket from 
the entrance of dust. Conical instead of cylindrical friction 
wheels may be used if desirable. 
[Printed, Bd. Drawing.} 

A.D. 1843, December 8.— No. 9984. 
VINGOE, Henry, and VINGOE, William Henry. — " Im- 
" provements in apparatus for planting or setting, drilling, 
" or dibbling corn, grain, seed, pulse, or manure; parts of 
" which improvements are also applicable to the construction 
{t of wheels and carriages." 

One part of this invention relates to an arrangement of 
wheels and axles in which the axles work between beams 
composed of either iron or wood, these beams having recesses 
or boxes formed in them, with suitable atrangements for the 
reception of friction rollers, the arrangement being such that 
the main body of the vehicle is sustained by large friction 
rollers placed directly over the axles, while other and smaller 
rollers, placed one on each side of each axle, preserve the 
parts in their proper positions. The rims and spokes of the 
wheels are of the ordinary character, certain cross and other 
bars in the arrangement set forth being used to bind the parts 
of the framing of the vehicle together. 
[Printed, 10c?. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1843, December 18.— No. 9990. 
PARLBY, Samuel. — Wheels. This invention is described 
at great length, and consists in the first place in forming the 
spokes out of flat pieces of wood, one edge of each being 
bevilled or chamfered at the part which is to enter the nave 
of the wheel, while the other edge is not so bevilled, the nave 
of the wheel being formed by placing these parts of the spokes 
between two circular plates or discs of iron " secured together 
' by at least one cross pin for each spoke," such pins pass- 



374 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

ing entirely through both of the plates or discs as well as 
through the spokes. The central parts of the wheel are thus 
firmly united, independently of any box or axle which may 
afterwards be connected thereto. 

As regards the rim of the wheel the invention consists in 
placing on each side of the outer parts of the spokes a flat 
ring of iron, and then uniting the spokes and rings by means 
of pins which pass through both rings and spokes, the spaces 
between the spokes being then filled up by segments of hard 
wood or any other suitable substance, these segments being 
" shaped like the keystones of an arch," the grain of the 
wood, when they are composed of wood, pointing towards the 
centre of the wheel, and the segments, like the .spokes, being 
secured between the iron rings by pins. Both the outer ends 
of the spokes 'and the outer edges of, the segments project 
beyond the rings in some cases, and are in such cases sur- 
rounded by an iron tire, which may either be plain and 
adapted to run on a common road, or flanged so as to be 
suitable for working upon a railway. In other cases the rings 
extend to the ends of the spokes and the outer edges of the 
segments, and will thus bear upon the road equally with them, 
one of the rings being, for railway purposes, however, made 
to project beyond the segments and spokes, and so serve as 
a flange to the wheel. These arrangements may all be 
variously modified, the outer ends of the spokes being in 
some cases shod with iron, and furnished with shoulders 
against which the rings may rest, and when the segments and 
spokes are surrounded by an iron tire the wood of the segments 
may have the grain lengthwise, instead of the grain pointing 
towards the centre of the wheel, as mentioned above. The 
segments may be composed of leather, felt, or other elastic 
substance, " cemented and compressed together with great 
" force," in moulds of suitable form. 

An improved axle box is described, which, however is not 
claimed by the patentee, this box being tubular in the part 
meant to contain the arm of the axle, but having at its outer 
end a "hemispherical oil cavity," the end of the axle being 
convex, so as to fit against the interior side of the oil cavity, 
and there being a groove in the arm of the axle to facilitate 
the distribution of oil around the a»r.m. "No linch pin is 
required for the axle, as a collar fixed „ or formed upon the 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 375 

axle w.orks within a hollow piece of metal fixed Upon the inner 
end of the box by screwing or otherwise. The oil is intro- 
duced into the oil cavity through a hole which is afterwards 
closed by a screw plug, and within the cavity are projections, 
which as the box revolves, will carry up a continuous supply 
of oil to the axle. 

[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1844, February 24.— No. 10,072. 

ROUSE, William. — " Certain improvements in carriages and 
" parts of carriages, applicable to various purposes." 

This invention consists in the first place " in a mode of 
." constructing carts and waggons and similar carriages, so 
" as to avoid the cutting of mortices in the cills or frame of 
" the waggon or other carriage to receive the standards or 
" ribs by which the sides are fixed and sustained, and so as 
" that such sides may be readily and separately removed an& 
" refixed, as occasion may require.'* The patentee mentions 
that in the ordinary mode of constructing these vehicles a 
number of upright ribs or staves are driven tightly into mor- 
tices cut in the cills or frame of the carriage, the side planks 
being attached to these ribs or staves, but that ■' the cills or 
" frame are weakened by the mortices being cut therein, and 
" the sides cannot be removed," whereas according to the 
present invention "the planks which compose each side are 
" framed together so as to constitute one piece, which is 
" attached to the carriage in a mode which admits- of its 
" being readily removed or replaced as occasion may require." 
An arrangement is described in which certain horizontal bars of 
iron are connected with a central beam by being turned down 
and bolted thereto at one end, while the other end is formed 
into a screw, the screwed end of these bars passing through 
holes in certain standards to which the planks which compose 
the sides of the vehicle are attached, the whole being secured 
together by nuts. 

Another part of the invention relates '" to the wooden axles 
"'* employed in some classes of carriages used in agriculture, 
" and consists in a method of increasing the strength of such 
" axles by combining them with iron," this part of the 
invention being carried into effect " by cutting a vertical 



376 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

" groove through the line of the axis, and inserting therein 
" an iron plate, secured by bolts or rivets, or by other equi- 
" valent means ;" the arm or portions of the arm on which 
the wheel works being surrounded by "a cone, or conical 
" rings or hoops of iron," an arrangement being set forth in 
which two rings or hoops, or shoulders, are placed upon an 
axle, the inner being of greater diameter than the outer ring 
or shoulder. 

[Printed, 6d. Dr awing. ~] 

A.D. 1844, February 24.— No. 10,073. 
JACKSON, Peter Rothwell. — " Improvements in the con- 
" struction and manufacture of wheels, cylinders, hoops and 
" rollers, and in the machinery or apparatus connected 
" therewith ; and also improvements in steam valves." 

The only improvement appertaining to this series com- 
prised by this specification "consists in the application of 
" guano, as a substitute or material to be employed in the 
" hardening of hoops, cylinders, rollers and wheels ... in 
" the place of bone dust and other matters now commonly 
" employed." This improvement was, however, subsequently 
disclaimed by an instrument dated 4th Feb. 1858, No. 10,073*. 
[Printed, 6d. Wrtli Disclaimer. No Drawings^] 

A.D. 1844, March 4.— No. 10,090. 
ATKINSON, Samuel. — " Improvements in the construction 
" of wheels for carriages." 

This invention relates to a mode of constructing wheels for 
carriages " whereby iron or ether metal spokes are combined 
" with naves and felloes of wood." 

A mode of carrying out the invention is described in which 
a nave and also a ring or felloe is formed of wood, these being 
connected by spokes of iron, which may be of the ordinary 
form adopted in spokes, or otherwise. The inner ends of the 
spokes, which enter the nave, are either jagged to fix them 
in the nave, or secured therein by screws, nuts and screws 
being in some cases used to G.x the outer ends of the spokes 
in the felloe. In other cases the spokes are formed of tubes 
filled with wood, and in these cases the spokes are fixed both 
in the nave and felloe by means of wedges, which, being 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 3?7 

forced into the wood, expand the ends of the spokes, this 
expansion of the ends of the spokes being facilitated by split- 
ting the ends of the tubes. The details of the invention may 
be varied. 

[Printed, Is. 2d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1844, March 30.— No. 10,131. 
CROSSKILL, William. — ' ' Improvements in machinery for 
" making wheels for carriages." 

This invention is set forth at considerable length, and illus- 
trated by a number of elaborate drawings. The main features 
of the invention, however, will be sufficiently understood from 
the following abstract of the claims made by the patentee, 
which include, firstly : — 

The combination of a mandril and revolving cutters whereby 
the spokes fixed in a nave are in succession presented to the 
action of the cutters, and their ends are formed into tenons, 
all equidistant from the centre of the wheel. 

Secondly, the combination of revolving cutters and rotatory 
or reciprocating saws, with a sliding plate or other equivalent 
contrivance, whereby the upper surface of the felloe3 is 
brought under the action of the revolving cutters, and the 
ends of such felloes are presented to the saws at the proper 
angle. 

Thirdly, the combination of boring bits and a sliding plate 
or other equivalent contrivance, whereby the felloes are pre- 
sented to the bits and bored with holes to receive the spokes 
and dowels. 

Fourthly, the construction of a certain face plate, and a 
mode of fixing unfinished felloes thereto, while such felloes 
are brought into a finished condition by the use of certain 
properly arranged tools. 

Fifthly, an arrangement of mechanism for bending the 
tires of wheels, in which certain fluted and plain rollers are 
used, the action of which may be varied so as to give to th3 
tires a conical or dished form, or otherwise, as may be 
required ; this part of the invention including particularly 
the employment of certain adjusting screws by which the 
position of certain of the rollers may be regulated. 
[Printed, 2s. lid. Drawings.] 



378 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1844, April 18.— No. 10,145. 

HEALE, Edgae.— " Certain improvements in the construction 
" of carriages for the conveyance of passengers on roads and 
" railways." 

This invention consists, firstly, in constructing the framing 
of the bodies of carriages in general of wrou^ht-iron bars, 
welded together and covered with plates of metal, the metal 
plates forming the sides and ends may be embossed or stamped* < 
and thus produce a novel and elegant appearance. A carriage 
is described as adapted for twelve inside and eleven outside 
passengers, being divided into three compartments, each 
capable of holding four persons, and such compartments being 
arranged at different heights from the ground in order to 
afford accommodation for outside passengers on the roof, but 
this carriage is meant for use on common roads only. The 
seats are of sheet steel bent into the shape of a loop. The 
hind axle is cranked. 

Another method of mounting the hind wheels is described. 
They are placed on short axles or studs attached to pieces 
sliding vertically in grooves or frames in the carriage body. 
A guide rod is provided surrounded by a spiral spring. 

The glass of a window is fitted into a metal frame which 
works in metal grooves. A ring fitted to the upper part 
serves as a handle. The bottom of the space into which the 
window drops is fitted with, an india rubber or leather 
cushion. 

{Printed, Is. 7d. Drawings.^ 

A.D. 1844, April 27.— No. 10,161. 
DAVIES, Isaiah. — Propelling carriages. This invention 
relates chiefly to an improved form of rotary engine, the des- 
cription of which does not come within the scope of this series. 
It also relates to a method of applying the power to be 
derived from this engine to the propulsion of carriages. 

This is effected by fitting the rotating axis or shaft with a 
worm wheel or endless screw to gear with a pinion on the 
wheel axle. Or there may be two sets of toothed gearing 
capable of variable adjustment to effect varying speeds. Again 
the axis may be prolonged longitudinally and be fitted with 
further and similar gearing to work another pair of wheels. 



•■'■ FOR COMMON ROADS. 379 

The worm wheel or endless screw is to be cast in a chill. This 
chill is shown made up of segmental pieces held together by a 
hoop. 

[Printed, 2s. 2d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1844, April 30.~-No. 10,169. 
HAYMAN, James. — " An improved construction andarrange- 
" ment of certain parts of omnibusses and other vehicles." 

This invention consists in the first place in ' ' having two 
" doors or half doors to the entrances at the backs of omni- 
" busses or other carriages." An arrangement is set forth in 
which two half doors are used. The edges of these half doors 
are rabitted, the edge of one lapping over that of the other 
when closed, and that with the outer edge being constantly- 
pressed open by a spring when not otherwise acted upon, this 
allowing the other half of the door to be opened also for the 
admission of passengers. When the half doors are closed, 
however, they are kept in that position by means of a spring 
bolt, which is mounted so as to slide up and down in that 
half of the door which overlaps the other and is capable 
of descending into a socket placed in the sill or lower frame of 
the door. The board on which the conductor usually stands 
is moveable, and is connected with one half of the door by a 
chain the links of which are so formed that when that part 
of the door is opened the board is pressed out of the way, 
beneath one of the seats of the carriage, being again drawn 
out for use when the door is opened. The platform behind 
the vehicle has attached to it a step on each side, by which 
means passengers may ascend to the platform without first 
descending into the road, and a guard or rail is affixed at the 
back of the platform, as well as handles on each side the 
half doors to assist passengers in entering and leaving the 
vehicle. 

[Printed, 8c?. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1844, May 7.— No. 10,173. 
WRIGHT, Joseph. — * * Improvements in railway and other 
" carriages." 

The greater part of this invention relates to improvements 
for railway purposes, which are treated in another series of 
abridgments. 



380 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

Part, however, consists in suspending carriages on springs, 
" which bear the load a certain distance from the ends, which 
' ' are only brought into gradual action by an increase in the 
" load." Several modifications are described, such springs 
being applicable also'as buffer springs. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1844, May 14.— No. 10,181. 

HILL, Edward. — "Improvements in the manufacture of 
" railway and other axles, shafts, and bars." 

This invention consists in constructing railway and other 
axles, shafts, and bars of iron " rolled into such form that the 
" section thereof is a cross," the spaces between the parts of 
the cross being partially or wholly filled up with pieces of 
suitable form, and the whole welded into one bar by suitable 
means. If desirable, steel may be used in combination with 
iron ' ' either in forming the cross or centre bar or for the 
" filling pieces." 

[Printed, bd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1844, May 23.— No. 10,197. 
MOOR, John Henry. — " Certain improvements in the eon- 
" struction of carriages generally." 

This invention is described in the first place as being applied 
to an omnibus, the vehicle being constructed to carry twelve 
inside passengers, such passengers being seated in two 
lines, a division or partition extending along the middle of 
the omnibus and separating the two lines of seats, suitable 
padding and cushions being placed for the accommodation of 
the passengers, who sit with their backs next the partition. 
In addition to this division of the seats there are other minor 
divisions by which each line of seats is sub-divided into three 
compartments, each of these accommodating two passengers, 
and being provided with a door placed in the side of the ve- 
hicle by which the passengers may enter and leave the com- 
partment. The entrance to and departure from these divisions 
of the vehicle are facilitated by the application of step irons 
and foot boards, the latter extending the entire length of the 
carriage on each side, and these irons and foot boards being 
capable of being raised and lowered by means of certain rods 



FOR COMMON EOADS. 381 

and bent levers connected therewith. The axles of the vehicle 
may either be straight, or cranked, the latter arrangement 
admitting of greater space being allowed for passengers' lug- 
gage than the former. 

[Printed, IQd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1844, June 12.— No. 10,226. 
POOLE, Moses. — (A communication.) — Wheels and axles. 
According to one modification of this invention, a wheel is 
constructed which has at the ends of the spokes a grooved rim, 
there being inserted into this groove blocks which compose 
the outer portions of the wheel. The grooved rim is formed 
by a flange projecting upwards at one side of the wheel, the 
other side of the groove being formed by curved plates, bolts 
securing the whole together. The "grain" of the wood 
radiates, and the blocks are rounded on the outside to prevent 
them from splitting, " beads," projecting from the inner sides 
of the groove, aiding in keeping the blocks in their places. 
The invention may be applied to wheels of the ordinary con- 
struction by using plates to form both sides of the groove, 
and bolting them to the rim of the wheel as well as to the 
blocks. These wheels appear to be meant only for use on 
common roads. 

That part of the invention relating to axles consists in so 
arranging such axles that the wheels run loosely thereon, the 
axles being stationary, and is described more especially with 
reference to railway axles, the wheels being thus enabled to 
turn independently of each other in passing round curves in 
the rails. According to one modification of the invention 
pieces of steel are let into the lower side of the axle, these 
pieces " receiving the friction produced by the revolution of 
" the wheel," rings being secured in the box of the wheel, 
which turn upon the said pieces. The nave of the wheel is 
recessed between the rings, such recess serving as a reservoir 
for lubricating material, which is introduced into such recess 
through an opening provided with a pipe and a stopper. A 
collar on the axle against which one side of the nave bears, 
and a washer which is placed on the other side, keep the 
wheel in its place. The mode of keeping the wheel in its place 
may, however, be varied, and instead of the axle being sta- 
tionary it may revolve, and be furnished with rings of steel 



m CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

instead of having pieces on one side only, the nave in this 
case being furnished with either rings or separate pieces. 
[Printing, Is. 6d. Draivings.'] 

A.D. 1844, October 31.— No. 10,372. 
BEADON, George.— Raising carriage hoods. The ordinary 
hood is raised by means of a lever which has at its lower end 
a toothed sector. ' A pinion works in this sector and when 
turned by a wincTi, moves the lever and by it raises or depresses 
thehbod. 

[Printed, lOd. Drawing. .] 

/ - r * AD. 1844, JTovember 9.— No. 10,387. 
PitOSSER, William, jun.^*' Improvements in the construe - 
" tion of roads, and in carriages to run thereon." 

The first part of this invention consists in " a mode of con - 
" strueting roads ^witji tramways of wood, and also combined 
" with gujde rails for .the guiding carriages thereon." The 
rails for the reception of carriage wheels have each a flat 
surface, and the i( guide rail" passes between them, each 
carriage being furnished with a wheel having a flange on both 
sides, which runs over the guide rail with its flanges at each 
side thereof, the carriage being thus prevented from leaving 
the proper track. 

Another part of the invention consists in furnishing the 
carriages with grooved wheels (in addition to those which 
support the body of the carriage), so placed that the grooved 
portions, run against or near the inner edge of each outer rail, 
the guide rail being diepensed with, and these grooved wheels 
serving, to keep the carriage in its proper course. These 
grooved wheels may also be applied to a locomotive engine. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1844, November 25.— No. 10,405. 
MILLIOHAP, George. — "Improvements in the construction 
" of axletrees." 

This invention has for for its object " the obtaining greater 
■ "- security in preventing wheels coming off axletrees in case 
" of the ordinary means failing, and consists in so applying 
"screws to axletrees that, in the event of the ordinary 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 383 

" securities failing the wheels cannot come off so long as the 
" carriage is moving onwards, the screws being so applied 
" and arranged in respect to corresponding ones in the axle - 
" tree boxes that the wheels can only be removed from their 
" axletrees by turning the wheels back." 

A mode of carrying out the invention is described in which 
the axletree "is for the most part of an ordinary construe- 
"■ tion," but is furnished at the inner part of the arm with a 
screw thread, the box of the wheel being so arranged in cor- 
respondence therewith that " in the event of there being no 
*' other means of retaining the axletree box, and consequently 
" the wheel, on the axletree, so long as the wheel moves 
'• forward the axletree box would not come off the axle- 
" tree." 

The invention includes a novel construction of collet, on 
the interior of which are formed two projecting ridges, and 
in place of one side of the screw at the end of the axletree 
being made fiat, to correspond with the flat portion of the 
interior of the collet, the screw has a groove on each side, so 
that the collet can pass over the screw, the projections of the 
collet entering grooves formed in the bearing of the collet on 
the axletree. 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'} 

A.D. 1845, January 11.— No. 10,456. 

GOLLOP, John.— Springs for carriages. This invention relates 
to various matters, including a method of applying springs to 
carriages. 

Four spiral springs are placed in a barrel attached along the 
axle tree. At one end these springs abut against projections 
in the barrel, at the other against projections in a moveable 
cap placed at each end of the barrel. The carriage is sus- 
pended from arms fixed to these caps, consequently the com- 
pression of the springs by the partial rotation of the caps gives 
the required elasticity. 

[Printed, Is. 3d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1845, February 10.— No. 10,514. 

MABERLY, Frederick Herbert. — Brakes. The greater part 
of this specification, which is of great length, is devoted to 



384 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

the description of certain brakes and other improvements in 
railway rolling stock. Part of the invention, however, relates 
to brakes for common road carriages, and of these several 
varieties are shown. These brakes embody the following prin- 
ciples : — Firstly, locking the wheel by means of a clutch which 
engages with stops on the nave ; secondly, drawing up the 
brake block by means of a rack and a pinion on the nave ; 
thirdly, tightening a band round the nave ; and, fourthly, 
depressing a lever having a roller at its end, so that the latter 
comes on the ground against the wheel. 
[Printed, 2s. 2d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1845, March 18.— No. 10,571. 

RAYNER, Henry Samuel. — " Certain improved means of 
" preventing accidents to carriages on railways and common 
" roads." 

This invention consists " in protecting carriages on railways 
" and common roads from such accidents as arise from colli- 
" sions with other carriages or solid bodies, and this by means 
" of a buffing apparatus attached to one or more or to each of 
" such carriages, or placed in suitable situations in relation to 
" them, w r hich apparatus depends for its action on the elastic 
" properties of air and water, and opposes a resisting power 
" proportional to the weight and velocity of any body acting 
" upon or striking against it." 

An arrangement is described in which an outer cylinder is 
attached to the framing of a railway carriage, and has within 
it a cylinder composed of two longitudinal portions separated 
by a diaphragm, the inner cylinder, however, projecting to 
some extent from, and being capable of sliding to and fro 
within the first. The outer portion of the inner cylinder is 
filled up with wood, the next portion behind the diaphragm is 
filled with water, and this portion also encloses a piston, the 
rod of which passes through and is secured behind the outer 
cylinder. This piston is thus fixed, and is provided with a 
number of holes, and the result of the arrangement is that on 
the buffer head, which is fixed upon the outer end of the inner 
cylinder, being forced inwards, the water in the inner portion 
of the inner cylinder is driven through the holes in the piston, 
the resistance offered to the passage of the water through 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 385 

such, holes, together with the compression of the air in the 
outer cylinder by the entry of water therein, affording an 
elastic medium of resistance to the action of the buffer. 

This arrangement may be variously modified, and the inven* 
tion adapted for stationary buffers as well as for those of mov- 
ing vehicles. The piston in some cases may be moveable, and 
the water and air chamber stationary, and the whole apparatus 
may be mounted if desirable upon an " independent buffer 
" carriage." 

[Printed, Is. Id. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1845, April 7.— No. 10,595. 
METCALFE, Thomas. — Velocipedes. This velocipede is 
mounted on three wheels, the single wheel in front being also 
used for steering. This wheel is carried in a fork and is pro- 
vided with springs. It is worked by a hand lever in the ordinary 
way. The propulsion is effected by means of a tread wheel, 
the foot boards of which may be made to slide radially so as 
to increase or decrease leverage. The propelling power is com- 
municated to the wheels by means of pitch chains and pulleys 
or by toothed gearing. Speed may be varied by changing the 
gearing and a brake is fitted to one of the pulleys, which may 
be made to act by hand or by the foot. The velocipede may 
be made to carry two persons. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1845, April 7.— No. 10,601. 
BURY, Edward. — " Certain improvements in locomotive 
" engines, carriages, or waggons running upon railways or 
" common roads for the prevention of accidents." 

{No Specification enrolled.] 

A.D. 1845, April 29.— No. 10,640. 
WILSON, William GtILMoub. — ' 'Improvements in the con- 
" struction of wheels for carriages." 

According to this invention the nave or centre of a carriage 
wheel is formed of plates fastened together by ordinary means, 
" or it may be cast in one or more pieces." ' ' The outside is 
" kept close, so that neither the bush nor the end of the axle 
'*'. comes through to the outside." On the inner side of the 
G239. K" 



386 CAKEIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

nave or centre is a snugg or flange, by means of which a plate 
is fastened to the nave, and presses against a collar on the 
axle, so as to keep the latter within the nave and hush. The 
details of the invention are very fully set forth, the patentee 
claiming particularly, as of his invention, a mode which is 
described of ' ' forming the hollow rim or felloe of a wheel by 
" means of wrought iron or other rolled metal," a mode of 
fixing the spokes to the nave and to the rim or felloe by means 
of sockets; and the mode of forming the nave or centre 
already alluded to. 

[Printed, lid. Draiving.~] 

A.D. 1845, May 8.— No. 10,660. 
BEAUMONT, George Duckett Barber. — Propelling car- 
riages. For this purpose there is substituted for tbe wheel a 
series of radial arms or spokes each having at its end a.shoe or 
block, which is capable of some lateral play as well as some 
movement longitudinally on the spoke. Various methods of 
socketting these shoes are shown. Friction wheels supported 
by an independent frame run on these blocks or shoes, and 
the series of blocks is driven by means of a toothed wheel 
running on them and worked by a pinion on the driving shaft. 
"When the roads are good a series of blocks, chained together 
and running over a fixed frame may be used. Where depres- 
sions occur in a road the blocks are guided over them by 
means of a shelf on the frame to take projections or pins on 
the shoes. 

[Printed, 6d. Di'awing.'] 

A.D. 1845, June 10.— No. 10,717. 

SMITH, Thomas. — " Improvements in suspending carriages, 
" and in the construction of wheels for carriages." 

This invention relates in the first place to certain modes of 
arranging the parts of two- wheeled carriages, so that when 
the horse falls, or otherwise the points of the shafts are 
brought to the ground, "the bodies of such carriages may 
" preserve their horizontal position." 

An arrangement is described in which the shafts of a two- 
wheeled vehicle are supported by springs reeting upon the 
axle, as usual, but the shafts have affixed to them upright 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 387 

arms, curved at the upper parts, and the body of the vehicle 
is suspended from the curved parts of these arms by means of 
links, the result being that on the ends of the shafts coming 
to the ground in case of accident the links preserve the body 
of the vehicle in a horizontal position. Instead of links, straps 
or chains may be used, and to one of the shafts a prop is 
jointed, which prop, when the body of the vehicle is thrown 
forward, assumes a perpendicular position, and prevents the 
vehicle from falling forward. According to another arrange- 
ment the body of the vehicle is supported on springs, each 
spring having a collar by which it is connected with an axis, in 
such manner that it may turn thereon. To the front part of 
the body are affixed arms which project downwards, these 
arms, when the shafts are lowered from the horizontal position, 
coming to the ground and supporting the body still in a 
horizontal position. These arms may also serve to protect 
persons getting into the vehicle from the dirt on the wheels. 
When the shafts are again raised into the horizontal position 
a certain cord, chain, or spring, returns the body of the 
vehicle to its first position. 

Another part of the invention relates to the wheels of 
carriages. In one arrangement the spokes are of metal, 
formed with a screw at each end. The felloe is of metal, 
bent into a trough-like form, the open part being outwards, 
and being filled with pieces of wood and surrounded by 
a tire, the arrangement being such that the spokes are 
screwed both into the felloe and tire and also into the boss or 
nave of the wheel ; such boss or nave being either of wood or 
metal, according to circumstances. In another case each 
spoke, which may here be of wood, has an enlarged end next 
the boss of the wheel, over which is placed a socket w r hich is 
secured to the boss by screws, the felloe bing also secured to 
the spokes by screws; collars or ferrules preventing the 
spokes when of wood from being split by the screws. Several 
other arrangements of wheels are set forth, flanged felloes, 
pins, rings of metal, and other details being employed in 
securing the parts of such wheels together. 

[Printed, lid. Dr divings. ~} 



v 2 



388 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE YEHIOLES 

A.D. 1845, July 3.— No. 10,760. 

WALKEE, Thomas, and MILLS, Geokge. — " Certain im- 
" provements in springs and elastic power, as applicable to 
" railway carriages and other vehicles, or to any other 
" articles or purposes for which springs or elastic power is 
" now used." 

According to one modification of this invention air-tight 
bags, filled with air or gas, are enclosed in cylinders, and 
pistons are arranged in such cylinders so as to act upon and 
compress such bags and the air or gas within them, the 
buffer heads being attached to the rods of such pistons. In 
other modifications of the invention springs are substituted 
for bags of air or gas, one " important part" of this invention 
being mentioned as the combination of atmospheric air with 
confined spiral springs. Various combinations of the me- 
chanism mentioned are described, the mode of applying 
ammoniacal gas as well as atmospheric air being fully set 
forth. 

[Printed, 7d. Drmving.~] 

A.D. 1845, July 29.— No. 10,789. 

BEADON, Geoege. — Propelling carriages. — This invention 
relates to propelling ships and to other matters. It com- 
prises also a method of creating adhesion in belt pulleys and 
in land and other propulsion. The main pulley has a hollow 
periphery with a rim pierced with small holes. The periphery 
is divided into compartments, each communicating with a 
hollow spoke through which the air is exhausted when the 
belt comes upon that section of the periphery. Thus pressure 
of the atmosphere increases the adhesion. 

It also relates to a method of propulsion by means of certain 
substitutes for the ordinary wheels. These are spirals mounted 
on cranked axles and having small wheels or rollers inserted 
at intervals along their bearing edges. A drum may be used 
instead of the spiral provided the wheels or rollers be fitted to 
it in a spiral line. The axis of the spiral or drum is in the 
line of progression. 

[Printed, 2s. Drawings.^ 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 389 

A.D. 1845, August 7.— No. 10,808. 
SMITH, Henby. — "Improvements in the manufacture of 
' ' wheels for railways, and in springs for railway and other 
" carriages, and in axle guards for railway carriages." 

With the exception of the following parts, the improvements 
comprised by this invention are specifically claimed for appli- 
cation to railway purposes. These parts are : — 

Firstly. A mode of shrinking tyres "on to wheels with 
" greater truth/' which consists in first forcing the wheels 
into certain "cones" before receiving the tyres, and again 
forcing them into a similar but larger cone after the tires have 
been shrunk thereon. 

Secondly. Another mode of effecting the same object by the 
use of moveable segments actuated by excentries or by other 
similar means. 

Thirdly. Certain modes of bending the plates of metal 
intended for the springs of railway and other carriages, one of 
which consists in the use of a plate carrying moveable stops in 
concert with a second plate carrying moveable bars, such stop 
and bars being arranged in any desired curve, and the plates 
being pressed between them ; while another mode consists in the 
use of grooved rollers regulated by means of screws and stops. 

By disclaimer and memorandum of alteration dated 22 
Jan. 1855, No. 10808*, the patentee struck out from the title 
the words " and in springs for railway and other carriages, and 
" in axle guards for railway carriages," and disclaimed so much 
of the invention as related to such part so struck out. 
[Printed, Is. hd. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1845, October 6.— No. 10,852. 
MOREAU,GtjjbrielHippolyte. — "An improved steam carriage." 

[No Specification enrolled.'] 

A.D. 1845, November 18.— No. 10,948. 
POOLE, MosES.-^Carts for transporting earth. The cart de- 
scribed in this specification is intended to be used with the 
inventor's apparatus for excavating and raising the excavated 
earth to the tipping bank. The cart has two wheels of about 
three feet five inches in diameter. The back part of the 
framing is higher and wider than the front in order to allow 
of a large opening through which the contents may be dis- 



390 CABEIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

4 charged. It is intended to be moved by two men and when 
it is to be emptied, the workman pulls a cord which raises the 
backboard and so allows the contents to be tipped out. There 
is consequently no necessity for removing the tail board. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing."] 

A.D. 1845, November 18.— No. 10,957. 
POWELL, Henry Buckworth. — " Certain improvements in 
" carriages to be used on rail and other roads." 

This invention has for its objects the facilitation of trans- 
port by means of a wagon body which can be transferred from 
one carriage to another without unloading. This body is slid 
by means of friction wheels and guide rails on to the carriage 
upon which it is to be moved from place to place, and it 
may be transferred from this carriage to another, either for 
railway or road travelling, as may be desired. A drum and 
tackle fitted to the carriage assists the placing in position of 
the body and a jack is provided for use in those cases where 
two carriages may be of different levels to raise one or the other 
to such a position as to permit the transfer of the load. 
[Printed, Is. M. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1845, November 20. -No. 10,959. 
HUNNYBUN, Thomas, and VENDEN, Edward. — " Im- 
provements in that description of passenger carriages called 
" omnibuses." 

The object of this invention is, " the so constructing omni- 
" buses that the bodies thereof may be brought so near the 
' ' ground that no step is required for passengers " when 
entering such omnibuses. 

The first part of this invention consists in forming recesses 
in the body of the vehicle, on each side, for the reception of 
the axle of the hind wheels, and also rounding off or narrow- 
ing the body at the fore part thereof, the patentees stating 
that by these means, aided by the placing of the perch bolt con- 
siderably behind the fore axletree, they are enabled to have 
comparatively large fore wheels. Both the fore and hind axle- 
trees are deeply cranked, and on the axletrees are forged lugs, 
on which certain blocks are placed, the springs of the vehicle 
resting upon these blocks, and being secured in position by 
means of certain plates, clips, and screws. The hinder parts 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 391 

of the back springs are connected with scroll irons, fixed to the 
body of the omnibus, while the fore parts of such springs are 
connected with eyes affixed to such body, the patentees stating 
that by this arrangement the shocks from the wheels and the 
weight of the body will be received on the springs, compara- 
tively little strain being thrown upon the vertical parts of the 
axles, which might otherwise cause them to bend towards each 
other. 

[Printed, 9d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1845, December 10.— No. 10,990. 
THOMSON, Robert William.— Elastic tires. This inven- 
tion consists in fitting wheels with tires made of some elastic 
material and inflated with air. The tire and felloe ' l are made 
much broader than usual and project considerably at both 
sides beyond the supporting spokes." " The elastic belt is 
made as follows : — A number of folds of canvas saturated 
and covered on both sides with india rubber or gutta percha 
in a state of solution, are laid one upon the other, and each 
fold connected to the one immediately below it by a solu- 
tion of india or gutta percha, or other suitable cement. 
The belt thus formed is then sulphurised by immersion in 
melted sulphur or exposure to the fumes of burning sulphur 
which renders it more pliable and prevents it getting stiff 
on exposure to cold ; or the belt may be made of a single 
thickness of india-rubber or gutta-percha, in a sheet state 
and sulphurised, as aforesaid, and then enclosed in a canvas 
cover. A strong outer casing in which to hold the elastic 
belt, is then built up (so to speak) around the tire by rivet- 
ting together a series of circular segments of leather and 
bolting them to the tire. The segments at two of their 
edges are made to overlap each other, as shewn, and then 
secured in their place by passing bolts through the tire and 
felly and making them fast by nuts. The elastic belt is 
then laid upon the portion, of the segments thus made fast 
to the tire and secured in its place by bringing the two 
remaining and as yet unjoined edges of the segments 
together over the casing, and connecting them together by 
rivets. A pipe through which to inflate the elastic belt 
with air, is passed at one place through the ^tire of the 
wheel, and fitted with an air-tight screw cap." "If the 



392 CAEEIAGES AND OTHEE YEHICLES 

" elastic belt were first stuffed with, horse hair or sponge, or 
" other elastic materials, and then inflated by blowing in air 
" to a high degree of tension, the belt wonld be less liable to 
li be cut by concussion between the tire of the wheel and the 
" roadway. Instead also of the elastic belt being made in 
" either of the modes aforesaid, it might be formed of a 
" number of separate tubes, of smaller dimensions, clustered 
" together and enclosed within a leather cover." "Anyun- 
" due displacement of the air at the bearing points of the 
" wheel may be prevented by tying the tubes across at dis- 
" tances of two or three feet apart, so that each tube shall be 
" divided into a number of separate air-tight compartments. 
" Or, instead of any of the preceding modes of construction, 
" the belt maybe formed of separate and distinct sections, 
" each section having its own air-pipe." 
[Printed, Is. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1845, December 10. —No. 10,998. 
ALLIEE, Thomas Yictor. — Brakes for " railway and other 
" carriages." 

According to one mode of carrying out this invention a lever 
is provided, by means of which the engine driver may bring 
the retarding apparatus into action at pleasure, this lever 
being connected, by means of a link, with a chain and a slid- 
ing bar and other apparatus in combination therewith, and by 
which certain other levers having holes in them are brought 
into contact with toothed wheels fixed on the axles of the car- 
riage ; these wheels then not only restraining the axles and 
bearing wheels from revolving but being brought down into 
such a position that their lower ends, which are serrated, are 
forced into contact with the ground. The boss of the lever 
mentioned above is furnished with ratchet teeth and a click 
acts upon these teeth when the apparatus is brought into 
operation and retains the parts in the position into which they 
have been brought, until released therefrom by turning a 
winch, which is connected with mechanism for removing the 
click from the ratchet teeth and otherwise restoring the parts 
into their first situations. 

According to other modifications of the invention, mechan- 
ism of somewhat similar character to that mentioned above is 
used, in conjunction with apparatus by which "pressers" or 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 393 

brakes may be applied to the running wheels certain projec- 
tions on the axles of the carriages (for example) being made 
to act upon certain hooks, rings, and chains, and so not only 
press the brake blocks against the wheel but act upon certain 
springs by which the resistance to the progress of the car- 
riage is increased. The details of the invention are very fully 
set forth. 

[Printed, Bd. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1846, January 12.— No. 11,031. 

CHINNOCK, Charles. — Windows. A box or tube is fitted 
in the framework of the door, in which is placed a spiral 
spring. To the window sash is fitted a piston, by which, when 
the window is lowered, the spring is compressed. ' A catch 
engaging with a rack, holds the window in its place and when* 
released the window can be adjusted at any height by the 
upward action of the spring, A strip of india rubber may be 
substituted for the spring. In that case the strip is secured 
by one end to the top of the box or tube and by the other to 
the bottom of the piston. 

The Specification relates to many other subjects. 
[Printed, 3s. Bra/wings.'] 

A.D. 1846, January 20.— No. 11,048. 
BROOMAN, Rich ard Archibald. — (A communication.) — " Cer- 
" tain improvements in railway and common road carriages." 

[No Specification enrolled.'] 

A.D. 1846, March 18.— No. 11,135. 
HANCOCK, Thomas— Treatment of caoutchouc. This in- 
vention relates to the manufacture, by moulding or embossing 
processes, of various articles of vulcanised india rubber; and 
the patentee refers to his previous patents of No. 9952, A.D. 
1843, and No. 7344, A.D. 1837. Among other matters included 
the following have reference to the present series : — 

Obtaining the greatest amount of elasticity from india 
rubber for carriage springs, by forming the material in cylin- 
ders or corrugated sheets, and before vulcanising, building 
them up and cementing them together at angles so as to leave 



394 CARRIAGES A2STD OTHEE YEHICLES 

as much space between each as to admit of the free action of 
the surfaces when compressed. 

The use of hollow chambers, made by casting india rubber 
in moulds and then vulcanising, for springs and for stuffing 
seats and cushions. In some cases, to provide 'against acci- 
dental rupture, several are enclosed one within another. 

For carriage linings and cushions, &c. cylindrical air cham- 
bers are enclosed in cloth or leather cases divided into com- 
partments to receive them. 

Combining with caoutchouc, pitch, resin, wood, or cork 
dust or fibrous substances and making therefrom imitation 
lace and fringe for coach linings, &c. 
[Printed, 4d. No Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1846, March 25.— No. 11,151. 
TAYLER, Joseph Needham. — Framing for carriages. This 
invention relates chiefly to a method of propelling vessels, 
but it includes also the construction of carriage or truck 
bodies with two frames, one over the other, with an elastic 
bed between them to prevent vibration. This principle is 
said to be particularly applicable to carriages for public con- 
veyance which have to carry heavy loads, such as omnibuses. 

A method of stopping and disengaging carriages is also 
described, but it is claimed as applicable " for railways only " 
and it does not, therefore, come within the scope of this 
series. 

[Printed, Is. Sd. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1846, May 5.— Fo. 11,191. 

PALLISER, George. — " Improvements in the construction of 

" outside seats of carriages." 

This invention, to which the patentee gives the name of the 

Protean Rumble," consists "in so constructing the back 

seat or the driving seat of any carriage that it may be 

" folded up into a compact form and used otherwise than 

ts as a seat." This, box, w T hich is made by preference chiefly 

of wood, may, when required, be easily removed altogether 

from the carriage, or it may be placed at the back of the 

carriage in a vertical position, for the protection of the baok 

of the carriage, in place of what is commonly called un opera 



FOE COMMON ROADS. 395 

board, or it may be let down into a horizontal position, forming 
a footman's or luggage board. 

The invention is set forth at some length, and illustrated 
by a drawing containing between thirty and forty figures, 
which it will be necessary to examine in order to understand 
the details of the invention. These details include various 
hooks, spring bolts, sliding straps, bell cranks, elbow levers, 
and other mechanism. One arrangement is described in 
which, when the improved seat is used as a driving seat, a 
part of the dashing board is capable of removal so as to admit 
of the seat, and then forms a dashing board to such seat, 
being secured in position either by sockets or screws, or 
otherwise. 

[Printed, lOd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1846, June 2.— JSTo. 11,232. 
YON USTEE, Henry Lawrence Tobias Tschudy.— " Im- 
" provements in apparatus or machinery for measuring and 
" indicating the distance travelled by wheel carriages. , ' 

In this invention there is affixed to the inner part of the 
nave or boss of one of the corriage wheels a snail, which, by 
its rotation with the carriage wheel causes rotation also of 
a toothed wheel with which it is in gear, the latter communi- 
cating motion, through the medium of bevel wheels, universal 
joints, and a revolving shaft supported by bearings connected 
to the carriage axle to a small axis on which is a screw wheel 
or worm, the latter, again, giving motion to a wheel and 
a vertical axis on which it is fixed, and thereby to some 
suitable arrangement of wheel work for registering the dis- 
tance travelled. The registering apparatus may be variously 
arranged, and may be placed either inside or outside of the 
vehicle, the patentee stating, however, that he prefers an 
index with two faces, one of which should be placed so as to 
be readily examined from the interior of the vehicle, and the 
other be placed outside for the convenience of the driver. 
The shaft supported by the carriage axle, as mentioned above, 
is in two parts, one capable of sliding within the other, this 
arrangement, along with the universal joints, preventing the 
working of the apparatus from being affected by the move- 
ment of the body of the carriage on the springs. If desired 
the screw wheel may be attached to the framing of the 



396 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

vehicle, and a stop or clutch movement be arranged in con- 
nection with the boss or nave of the carriage wheel, instead 
of the arrangement mentioned above. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing."] 



A.D. 1846, June 29.— No. 11,273. 
ANDERSON, Sir James Caleb.— Propelling carriages, &c. 
The first part of this invention relates to what the patentee 
calls a "power wheel." It consists of a wheel having inside 
its periphery a number of water cylinders, the piston rods of 
opposite cylinders being connected and each pair of opposite 
cylinders having also connecting pipes. Cams and friction 
rollers act on the cross heads of the piston rods in such a 
manner that the water is transferred from one cylinder to 
another so that the cylinders on the descending side of the 
wheel are kept constantly full and the preponderance is 
therefore maintained on that side. This wheel has therefore 
a better " bite " on the road. Another form of wheel is 
described, in which the power of a vacuum is used to effect 
the transfer of water. 

Another part relates to a method of propelling a steam 
carriage. A pair of oscillating engines acts on a crank shaft 
carrying one of these power wheels, which being enclosed in a 
casing, is also made to act as a blower to the furnace. On 
the end of the crank shaft is another crank from which a 
connecting rod passes to a crank on the driving wheel axle. 
" As the power wheel is equal in diameter to the propelling 
"wheels of the carriage, it will in equal times go through 
the same space as the propelling wheel, and the power being 
'^transmitted to the propelling wheels by the connecting 
" rods, it will be clear that any weight applied to the 
"periphery of the power" wheel "will produce the same 
"tractive effect as if applied to the periphery of the pro- 
" polling wheels." 

Another improvement consists in attaching the carriages 
of a series to each other and to the locomotive. They are 
connected "by poles having at the hinder end a pin which. 
" works in a slotted frame attached to the succeeding 
carriage." By this arrangement each carriage is started 
in its turn. On the hind axle of each carriage a power wheel 



FOB, COMMON KOADS. 397 

is fitted and a steering apparatus is placed on the second of 
two carriages. 

[Printed, Is. 4id. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1846, July 27.— No. 11,314. 
HEATH, Robebt.— Wheels. The invention is described in 
its application to railway purposes, but its application to 
common roads is expressly claimed. 

This invention consists in a peculiar formation of wheels 
" in connection with the particular relative proportions of 
" the different parts of the same, whereby the contraction 
" consequent upon the cooling of the metal in casting is 
" caused (instead of weakening the wheel) to bind the whole 
" together in one solid mass." The arms may be either flat, 
round, or of any other shape, "but of the same sectional 
" thickness at the rim as at the boss, without any flanges or 
" ribs, so that the arms shall not contract more or sooner at 
is one place than another," the wheels being formed by 
preference, " with an uneven number of arms, so as to 
" assist the contraction of the rim, that is having each arm 
" opposite to the space between the two opposing arms," and 
the rim and the boss being each "three times the strength of 
<f the arms or thereabouts." 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1846, July 30— No. 11,318. 
MALLET, Eobert, and DAWSON, John Someks.— {Partly a 
communication.) — Axle boxes, &c. This invention relates 
partly to certain improvements connected with railway rolling 
stock and also to a method of transferring common road 
carriages from trucks to the ground and vice versa, by means 
of a kind of travelling overhead winch. 

Another part of the invention consists in the employment, 
for the purpose of lubricating the journals of the axles of 
locomotive engines and railway carriages, and all other sorts 
of revolving and rubbing cylindrical surfaces, "of a vessel of 
" oil or other fluid unguent, having floating on the surface 
" thereof a ball or sphere or balls or spheres, or other suitably 
" shaped body or bodies " for the purpose of applying the 
said unguents. 



398 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

Another part of the invention consists in using for the 
journals of locomotive and other revolving axles and shafts, 
compound bearings, " formed partly of agate or flint, or other 
" natural stone or mineral, or of glass, porcelain, stoneware, 
" or other like artificial composition, and partly of metal or 
" metals." 

The other parts of the invention do not require notice 
here. 

[Printed, 2s. 3dL Drawings.'] 



A.D. 1846, August 15.— No. 11,336. 

AITKEJST, William. — " Certain improvements in two & four 
" wheeled carriages." 

This invention consists, firstly of certain improved com- 
binations of materials to be employed in the formation of the 
body parts of two and four-wheeled carriages, the object being 
to increase the strength of such parts while rendering them 
lighter than those usually constructed. The framework is 
composed of outer parts of iron combined with inner parts 
or linings of wood. The iron is of three different forms, the 
first being angle iron, the second of the U-form, and the 
third of the flanged U-form ; and these may be used in 
various ways and combined with panels composed of iron 
plates. If desired the flanged U-form of iron may be used 
without the wood filling and the panels may be connected with 
the flanges. The ironwork is japanned either before or after 
the parts are put together, the customary process of painting 
being thus avoided. 

Another part of the invention consists of certain improved 
spring bearings for carriages. Each of these bearings is com- 
posed essentially of a bar or plate which is placed under the 
carriage body or frame, and has projecting downwards from 
it two tubes these passing through eyes in a shackle bar, in 
which they are free to move up and down, there being placed 
around each tube two helical springs, one above the other, 
the upper being lighter and more compressible than the 
lower spring and each spring being surrounded by an outer 
tube, one of which slides within the other as the springs are 
acted upon. 

Another part of the invention relates to the construction of 



FOE COMMON EOADS. 399 

the wheels of carriages. In one case a nave is provided with 
a bush which is either cast upon a mandril for the purpose of 
hardening the rubbing parts, or cast soft and then bored out 
and case-hardened. This nave is furnished with recesses for 
oil for the lubrication of the axle such oil being admitted 
through a suitable orifice, and flange plates of a "saucer 
" form " are shrunk upon the nave, a tube of malleable iron 
being also shrunk upon the inner end of the bush, and pro- 
jecting beyond it, the projecting portion being screwed inside 
for the purpose of receiving the screwed end of a brass nut 
which is made in two halves, an elastic washer having been 
previously inserted into the buph for the purpose of rendering 
the latter oil-tight ; another nut and washer serving the same 
office at the outer ender of the axle. The felloe is formed of 
a combination of y-iron and wood and is then connected with 
the nave by means of spokes, each of which is formed of 
two rods of iron, the lower ends of which are passed through 
the flanges of the saucer-shaped pieces on the nave, and 
secured by nuts, while at the upper ends the rods are welded 
together, forming a single piece which is passed through both 
the iron and wood of the felloe, and secured by nuts which 
are sunk into the wood. An iron tire is then placed upon 
the felloe in the usual manner. 

In another modification of this part of the invention the 
iron tire and wooden part of the felloe are dispensed with, 
and a tire of sea-horse leather, gutta percha, or sulphurized 
caoutchouc placed round the wheel, the latter being thus 
rendered "noiseless." 

Another part of the invention relates to the construction of 
a compound axle for carriages, which is composed in the first 
place of an oblong plate of iron so bent and welded at one 
end as to form a tube, this being turned up and serving 
as one arm of the axle, and furnished with a screw by which 
it is ultimately secured to the wheel, the other part of the 
plate being bent into the U-form. A second plate is then 
treated in a similar manner and the two placed together, 
pieces of wood being first inserted between them, the outer 
ends of which fit into the " arm parts" of the axle, while the 
other parts are scarfed on one side so that the two fit together 
inside the U-shaped parts of the metal a flat plate being also 



400 CARBIAGES AND OTHER YEHICLES 

inserted between the edges of the U-shaped metal, and the 
whole being united together by rivets. 
[Printed, lOd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1846, August 25.— No. 11,348. 
BISHOP, James, and WOOD, Thomas. — "Improvements in 
" passenger carriages." 

This invention relates to omnibuses, and consists in the first 
place in arrangements which enable persons riding therein 
more able to see external objects, and at the same time be 
more conveniently seated than by the present arrangement of 
such vehicles. And the invention also relates to a novel 
arrangement of the external seats, and of the means of 
obtaining access to such seats. 

An omnibus is described, the front of which is almost en- 
tirely open, but furnished with sliding frames containing 
glass, the driver's seat and footboard being raised higher than 
usual, so as not to obstruct the view of the passengers through 
the front of the vehicle, the seats for the passengers being 
placed across the vehicle, but not extending quite from one 
side to the other, a passage being left at each side, and access 
being obtained to the seats by means of these passages, and 
doors in the sides of the omnibuses. The external seats are 
also placed across the vehicle, access to the first of these being 
obtained by ascending the steps which lead to the driver's 
seat, and then passing over that seat, but access to the others 
being obtained by means of a series of steps at the back of the 
vehicle, a hand rail being so arranged as to assist persons in 
ascending and descending. 
[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1846, August 29.—No. 11,357. 
BOYDELL, James. — Facilitating draught of carriages. The 
patentee says "my invention consists of a mode of applying 
" moveable detached parts of a railway to the wheels of car- 
" riages, whereby each part is successively placed by its wheel 
in the road or land over which the carriage is to pass, each 
piece of the railway, when down, allowing its wheel to roll 
" over it, and the wheel lifts the pieces of railway succes- 



FOB, COMMON ROADS. 401 

sively and holds each, piece in such position as to deposit it 
" correctly when that part of the wheel which carries a part 
" of the railway again comes near the earth, by which means 
" a railway will continuously be formed and broken up as the 
" carriage is drawn along a road or over land, by which the 
" power required to draw a given load will be reduced." 

The rails are attached to the wheels by means of pins work- 
ing in curved slots on the wheels. The latter may be of iron 
if preferred. 

[Printed, 6cl. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1846, September 17.— No. 11,371. 
DAVIES, David. — (A communication.) — "Certain improve- 
" ments in steps for carriages and other purposes." 

This invention consists in supporting the step or steps of a 
carriage upon a framework, " or geometrical system of levers, 
" so arranged and disposed that on giving motion to a cen- 
(< tral shaft the step or steps may be raised or lowered at 
iC pleasure." 

An arrangement is described in which the body of a carriage 
is provided underneath, at each side, with a quadrangular box 
or frame for the reception of the step and its supporting levers 
when closed up. Two bars or levers are jointed to the frame 
of the carriage, below the framing of the door, two other 
similar bars or levers being placed upon a square shaft 
mounted in bearings below the carriage frame, at some dis- 
tance behind the first bars, these four bars supporting at their 
lower ends two horizontal bars on the front portions of which 
is mounted the carriage step. On one end of the square shaft 
is a lever, which stands at right angles to the four bars or 
levers already mentioned, and at the outer end of the lever 
there is a short connecting piece which is jointed to the forked 
end of a link bar, and on the carriage door is a metal step 
piece, which is jointed by a right-angled connecting link to 
the outer end of the link bar'. The result of these arrange- 
ments is that when the carriage door is shut the four bars or 
levers are so turned backwards and upwards as to place the 
step within the quadrangular box or frame under the carriage, 
while on the door being opened the bars or levers are turned 
downwards and brought forward so as to bring the step of the 
carriage into a proper position for use, In order to keep the 



402 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

step firm in its position when either up or down a strong steel 
spring is so arranged as to press upon one or other of the 
sides of the square shaft, according to the position of the 
parts; or instead of one spring two may be used, one above 
and one below the shaft. By an extension of the arrangement 
of levers more than one step may be actuated. In carriages 
which have no doors the apparatus may be worked by hand, 
and the invention may be used where it is desirable to form a 
communication from the door of a house to a yard or garden 
on a lower level, and in many other cases. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.] 



A.D. 1846, September 17.— No. 11,373. 
WRIGG, Henry. — {Partly a communication.) — Diminishing 
draught and friction. The carriage described in this specifica- 
tion has, attached to its framing, a set of rails which rest or 
move on a series of friction wheels or rollers, each mounted and 
capable of revolution on a block or foot, the whole being linked 
together into an endless chain. As the carriage is progressed 
by steam or other power this endless chain of blocks and friction 
wheels passes round the frame to which the rails are secured and 
the latter slide over the friction wheels. The blocks are of wood 
shod with iron and furnished with felt packing to deaden 
concussion. The bearings of the friction wheels are provided 
with closed lubricating cups, from which oil is taken by a 
cotton wick. The carriage is steered by means of a single set 
of the above apparatus used as a steering wheel and placed in 
front of the vehicle. 

[Printed, Is. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1846, November 3.— No. 11,433. 
EDDY, George TV. — Wheels. " This invention consists in a 
new and improved mode of constructing or forming a cast 
metal wheel (for railway cars "or other purposes) by which 
the said wheel may be founded or cast with a cold chilled 
tread or rim, and with little or no danger of breaking or 
cracking, or being liable to afterwards break or crack, by 
reason of strains such as usually generated within it while 
being made or founded according to any of the forms or 
modes heretofore usually adopted in the manufacture of 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 403 

" such wheels." The wheel is composed of a cast metal rim 
and hub, united together by two cast metal plates, " the union 
" of the same being effected by casting or founding the whole 
" in one piece at one and the same time, and in a mould pre- 
" pared with or having an iron or metal chill or ring properly 
" adapted to it, so as to suddenly cold chill or harden the 
" periphery or tread of the wheel during the operation of 
" casting or founding it." 

One of the plates thus used is of " undulating " form, the 
other being concave or convex ; but two undulating plates 
may be used, the patentee stating that such plates will readily 
yield to the contraction of the rim, and that he claims the use 
of such plates even when combined with a rim and a hub 
which may be separated or divided transversly into two parts, 
the separation taking place between the two plates. 
[Printed, Id. Drawing^ 

A.D. 1846, November 3.— No. 11,435. 

EXALL, William. — Wheels. This invention relates to the 
following improvements : — A lathe for shaping spokes, the 
work being done by means of fly cutters regulated by a model 
spoke. 

An arrangement of two pairs of circular saws acting at right 
angles to each other, between which the ends of the spokes 
are brought regularly in succession for the purpose of having 
the tenons cut. 

An endless band saw for cutting the felloes which are 
guided by a frame or by hand, a guide frame being also 
used for the purpose of cutting the ends radially. For turning 
and facing the felloes they are secured by set screws in a ring 
which is put into a lathe. The felloes may be morticed for 
the spokes while held in this ring by means of a drill advanced 
from the centre. 

A method of morticing the nave. Two kinds of tool for 
this purpose are described. Where the mortices are to have 
circular ends revolving cutters combined with plane cutters 
are used. Where square-ended mortices are required, two 
morticing chisels are to be used which are caused to separate 
from each other as they progress. 

Making cast metal naves. Each nave is cast in two parts, 



404 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

that which receives the spokes constituting the outer part 
which is held upon the axle by being connected with a back 
plate within which works a collar formed on the axle. The 
apertures in that part which receives the spokes are wedge- 
shaped, the ends of the spokes being of a corresponding form 
and the outer part of the nave has a central box or hollow neck 
projecting from it, within which the axle works, this project- 
ing portion forming an oil box. 

A method of fixing the spokes and dowels of wheels by com- 
pressing the dowels and spoke ends in dies and presses previous 
to their insertion in place, so that by expansion after insertion 
they may be retained. 

A tyre having lateral flanges to embrace the felloes. One 
flange may be any required depth ; the other must be of such 
depth as to allow it to be put over the wheel when expanded 
by heat and that when contracted by becoming cold it will 
clip the felloes. 

Rolling tyres. A coil of thin metal is first formed by wind- 
ing (for example) a length of iron hoop, coil by coil, one close 
over the other, securing the ends and welding the mass. The 
ring thus formed is then placed hot between rolls, having 
upon them such flanges, grooves or mouldings as may be 
necessary to bring the whole into the form of tyre desired. 
Previous to this operation the ring is of less diameter than 
the proposed tyre, and is increased in diameter by the rolling 
process, and before this process is complete certain guide 
rollers are introduced within the ring, these being mounted 
in bearings carried by screws, and radiating from a central 
axle, certain bevel wheels being so arranged that the screws 
may be turned simultaneously and so press the rollers against 
the interior of the tyre. "In this manner tyres for wheels 
M for railway and other carriages may be finished sufficiently 
" true at once." 

[Printed, Is. 2d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1846, November 5.— No. 11,442. 
MABERLY, Frederick Herbert, BRANWHITE^ Thomas, 
and LUSHER, Dennis. — Wheels, brakes and propelling. The 
first part of this invention relates to an improved form of 
wheel designed for safety and for less resistance to the air. 
The inner part of the tire is furnished with a flange through 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 405 

which pass the bolts used for securing the plates of iron or 
wood which form the body of the wheel. The nave is made 
in halves which are bolted together. 

The brakes in some cases are actuated through the medium 
of levers and connecting rods ; in others by means of a rod 
carrying ' ' irregular pieces " which act as cams ; in others by 
inclined planes ; and in some cases such brakes are so arranged 
as to act as " shoe brakes." Other brakes, applicable to the 
wheels of carriages, are also described, as likewise modes of 
bringing them into action through the medium of wedges, 
springs, bars, chains, and other suitable apparatus. There is 
also described a system of continuous train brakes. 

The invention also comprises a system of spring propulsion. 
Several springs are arranged in a box in such manner that 
" the eyes of the springs nearest the middle are less than 
" those nearest the outside, so that each may easily be wound 
" up separately." The method of application to rail and 
tramways is described. 

[Printed, Is. 4d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1846, November 12.— No. 11,445. 

ADAMS, William Bridges. — Carriages. This invention com- 
prises many improvements relating to both railway and 
common road carriages. Such as relate to the latter areas 
follows : — 

Improvements in omnibuses, such as placing the perch 
bolt behind the front axle to admit of large front wheels 
being used ; raising the central part of the roof to afford bead 
room and to furnish seats for outside passengers ; the applica- 
tion of a brake, worked by the foot of the driver or conductor 
or a hand lever, to the hind wheels and the use of a buffer or 
shield at the end of the pole. 

Improvements in plate springs, including an arrangement in 
which the several plates are pressed with a bend about the 
mid-length where the fastening clips are applied, having the 
rest of the plate straight. Two springs of this kind may be 
combined. Plates of steel thickest in the middle are also used 
for such springs convex on one side and concave on the other. 
This arrangement dispenses with slots and studs for keeping 
the plates together. Bow springs are described as being 



406 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

formed of two plates instead of one as usual. Disc springs 
are described as concave and having a hole in the centre and 
radial slots, being then passed upon a rod in any suitable 
number. 

Wheels with the greatest breadth of the wood of the spokes 
in the direction from back to front of the wheel in order to 
give elasticity. 

Using corrugated metal panels for carriage bodies. Apply- 
ing disc springs within carriage cushions " in order to give 
" ease of motion." 

[Printed, 2s. Drawings*"] 

A.D. 1816, November 19.— No. 11,455. 
BROCKEDON, William, and HANCOCK, Thomas.— " Im- 
" provements in the manufacture of articles where india- 
" rubber or gutta percha is used." 

This invention consists in " peculiar means of applying these 
" substances to a variety of purposes to which they have not 
" heretofore been so applied, by means of the processes 
" described in the Specification of a patent granted to Mr. 
" Alexander Parkes, No. 11,147, A.D. 1846, entitled * Im- 
" ' provements in the preparation of certain vegetable 
'* ' and animal substances and in certain combinations of 
" ' the same substances alone or with other matters.' The 
" processes enumerated in this patent produce certain changes 
" in the qualities of caoutchouc and gutta percha, some of 
' ' them similar to those produced by sulphur and heat in the 
" process now termed ' vulcanising ' in others purifying & 
" colouring those substances, and by these means rendering 
" them suitable to a great variety of purposses." 

The specification of this invention is of great length, and 
is extremely vague and diffuse, the patents of Thomas Hancock, 
No. 7344, A.D. 1837, No. 7549, A.D. 1838, No. 9952, A.D. 
1843, and No. 11,135, A.D. 1846, being referred to as well 
as the patent of Alexander Parkes already mentioned. The 
particulars which constitute the present invention are not 
specially pointed out but one part of the invention would 
seem to consist in rendering cloth, silk and other " manufac- 
" factured " fabrics waterproof in place of operating upon the 
Taw materials of such fabrics before manufacture, as practised 
under Parkes's and Hancock's inventions, such fabrics being 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 407 

rendered waterproof by immersion in the " changing solvents," 
but being protected from injury during the process by being 
coated with glue, size, or an aqueous solution of lac, which is 
afterwards removed by the use of an alkaline solution. Printed 
or dyed fabrics which require to be coated on one side only 
have the selvages joined together the seam being rendered 
waterproof, and are then immersed in " this bag-like form," and 
the effect of the changing solvent upon any particular part of 
the fabric immersed may be prevented by the application 
thereto of size or the solution of lac. Manufactured fabrics 
may thus be coated or united together in two or more thick- 
nesses and this part of the invention may be applied to a 
variety of purposes, such as the formation of cloaks and other 
articless of dress, " carriage roofs, seats, and linings," 
cushions, pads and other objects. Where the fabrics require 
to be seamed or sewed together the junction may be rendered 
waterproof by the application thereto of the solvent with a 
brush. Articles requiring to be inflated, such as air cushions, 
may have their linings rendered waterproof by pouring into 
them a quantity of the solvent. Articles intended to contain 
air, water, or other fluids may be formed of caoutchouc, gutta 
percha or a mixture of the two and then immersed in the 
" changing solvent," and any of the articles mentioned above 
may likewise be thus formed, gritty or colouring matters and 
fibrous substances being united with the other materials if 
requisite, the compound being first made into sheets, and the 
article required then shaped or otherwise produced therefrom ; 
washers for water, steam and other joints, hose pipes and 
tubing, railway valves, and other articles being among the 
articles thus obtained, as also * ' springs for carriages & rail- 
" way buffers." Such sheets may also be cut up into threads 
and otherwise treated for a variety of purposes. 

In one part of the specification the patentees mention that 
when an article is to be made entirely of gutta percha without 
the use of solvents they operate in the manner prescribed by 
Doctor Montgomery when he introduced the subject to the 
Society of Arts in the year 1843, the gutta percha being '* dipt , 
" in water near boiling," when it may readily be formed 
before it cools to 130° or 140° in any required shape, which, 
it will retain at any temperature below 110°. The greater 
part of the specification however his reference to matters 



408 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

which have no connection with the subject of the present 
series of abridgments. 

[Printed , &d. No Drmvings.~] 

A.D. 1846, November 21.— No. 11,460. 

PIDDINGr, William. : — Wheels, supporting carriages &c. 
The first part of this invention relates to a method of con- 
structing the leading wheels of a carriage so that the latter 
can turn to the right or left without requiring any change of 
position in the axle. The felloes of these wheels do not " as 
" in ordinary wheels, constitute an entire continuous circle of 
" wood bound together by an iron ring or tyre, but are com- 
" posed of detached portions of a circle corresponding to the 
" number of spokes and not quite in contact with each other. 
" The spokes are not fixed immovably in the nave, but are 
" capable of a slight lateral deflection having on each side of 
" them springs contained in recesses in the nave, which, 
" yielding to lateral pressure, allows the spokes to be bent of 
" the perpendicular, so as to form an acute or any obtuse angle 
"■ with the axis. The spokes & the springs are retained in the 
" nave by a hoop or ring having notches in it to receive the 
<l spokes. This ring is slided over the springs, and over 
il shoulders formed on the spokes & is secured by another 
11 ring which, is slided over the projecting ends of the first 
" ring. Whilst the carriage is proceeding in a right line the 
" spokes are retained in a vertical plane or at right angles to 
" the axis by the springs ; but when the power of the horses 
" is exerted to cause it to turn, each spoke, as it comes to the 
" ground is bent to the right or left, so that they may be 
" considered as making a succession of diagonal steps and the 
<( front of the carriage is thereby moved in the required 
" direction." 

The invention also relates to a means of supporting the car- 
riage upon an endless train of small wheels, supported in 
links and placed transversely to the line of motion. These 
. links carry also friction wheels to guide the whole series round 
a fixed frame. As the carriage is drawn forward by the horses 
it travels on the chain of small wheels which also revolve and 
allow it to move to the right or left when a force is exerted 
obliquely on the framing. 



FOR COMMON' ROADS. 409 

A carriage is also shown fitted with an endless chain of 
shoes upon which the wheels revolve. These shoes are 
fitted with springs to provide for lateral motion. 

The invention further relates to a method of susper) ding two- 
wheeled carriages so that the weight of the hind part is 
carried before and that of the fore part behind, the axle. 
This is effected by cross bars or slings attached to the spring. 

Finally there is shown a method of relieving the horse of the 
weight of the postillion in the case of a four wheel carriage by 
fitting the saddle on a frame carried by the shafts which are to 
be rigidly secured to the carriage. 
[Printed, lid. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1846, December 14— No. 11,487. 
CARTER, James. — " An improved lubricator." 

This invention is applicable in the lubrication of " bearing 
" axles," as well as shafts and other working surfaces of 
machinery. 

An arrangement is described in which the axle or shaft to 
be lubricated has fixed upon it a worm which actuates a worm 
wheel fixed upon a small shaft on which is another worm 
which acts upon a worm wheel fixed upon a second small 
shaft, there being upon this another worm driving a worm 
wheel which turns a plug mounted in a suitable bearing 
carried by a box placed on the top of the cap of the axle 
bearing. The plug is hollow, and on the top of it is fixed an 
oil vessel of almost globular form, the plug, however, being 
provided with a midfeather, and having on each side a hole, 
these holes, as the plug gradually rotates, successively coming 
opposite certain screws, the oil then filling the spaces between 
the plug and the screws, and the oil in such spaces descending 
on the continued rotation of the plug, to the journal of the 
axle or shaft. The quantity of oil supplied to the journal- is 
regulated by the position of the screws, and the speed at which 
the plug is caused to rotate. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1847, February 24.— ISTo. 11,594. 
LOWE, John, and SIMPSON, James.— Springs. This inven- 
tion relates to certain improvements in railway rolling stock, 
but another part of the ^invention relates to the springs of 



410 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

carriages, such springs being suspended between " scroll 
" irons " by means of links connected with rods " which 
" vibrate upon a pin fixed in the axle box." Different modifi- 
cations of this part of the invention are described. 
[Printed, Is. 3d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1847, March 3.— No. 11,606. 
DUNCAN, Charles Stewart. — "Improvements in public 
" vehicles." 

The invention consists, firstly, in constructing the roofs of 
public vehicles of glags, combined with either wood or metal 
framing, "and so arranging such framing that the squares 
" of glass may be taken in and out at pleasure, and to be so 
" arranged as to receive either one or two thicknesses of 
" glass." 

The patentee states that if one thickness of glass is used he 
proposes staining and burning in permanent coloured advertise- 
ments in the inner surface of the glass, or cementing a painted 
or printed advertisement on a transparent medium ; or when 
two thicknesses are used, placing a printed or painted adver- 
tisement on any transparent medium between the said two 
thicknesses of glass. 

Secondly, in illuminating the afore-mentioned transparent 
roof by means of lamps, thereby rendering the advertisements 
readable by night. 

Thirdly, in exhibiting coloured advertisements upon the side, 
front, or back lights of public vehicles ; or placing printed or 
painted advertisements between two thicknesses of glass, to 
be used as side, back, or front lights to public vehicles. 

Fourthly, in a method of covering the glass roof by night 
with a casing formed of metal or any other material, and 
lining such casing with reflectors, so as to equalise the dis- 
tribution of light over the entire surface of the roof. 

Fifthly, in the use of stained or painted opaque glass adver- 
tisements, to be placed in a frame suspended by the interior 
of the existing roofs of public vehicles. 
[Printed, 9d. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1847, March 23.— No. 11,638. 
SMITH, Henry. — " Certain improvements in machinery for 
" cutting and separating vegetable substances ; also improve- 



FOR COMMON EOADS. 411 

" merits in the construction of machines for dibbling and 
" sowing seed and distributing vegetable substances and 
" manure over land, part of which improvements is appli- 
" cable to wheel carriages in general." 

One part only of this invention requires notice here, this 
relating to the construction of wheels adapted not only for 
agricultural machines but also for carriages in general. 
" These wheels are composed partly of wrought iron, and 
" partly of cast iron, and, if required, with wooden felloes." 

According to one mode of forming these wheels the spokes 
are composed of wrought iron elliptical tubes, that end of each 
tube which is to enter the nave of the wheel being slightly 
" spread out," and a plug being inserted into the outer end 
of each spoke, which plug is welded into the tube. A hoop of 
iron of semi- elliptical or angular sectional form is then rivetted 
to the outer ends of a series of these spokes, the latter being 
arranged "so as to converge to a centre." The portions of 
the wheel thus arranged are then laid upon a circular plate, 
and solid blocks of metal placed between the spokes so as to 
keep them in their places, an outer plate being then laid upon 
the whole, and a mould being thus formed " with a central 
" recess, in which the nave of the wheel is to be cast. Suitable 
' ' cores are then to be placed in this recess for the purpose of 
" forming the box or socket for the axle, and also for 
" lightening the nave by making parts of it hollow." "By 
" pouring fluid metal into this central mould, the nave of the 
' * wheel is then cast, and the central extremities of the spokes 
" are all confined and firmly secured." The inner ends of the 
blocks of metal already mentioned cause the outer surfaces of 
the nave to be chilled in casting, and thereby rendered hard. 
After removing the wheel from the mould a wooden felloe is 
attached to the hoop mentioned above, and a wrought iron 
tyre being shrunk upon that completes the wheel. 

According to- another modification of the invention straight 
bars of iron have in the first place a tenon formed at one end, 
and a fork or split at the other, these bars being then bent at 
a certain point, and the upper or bent parts being curved into 
segments of the intended wheel. A circular hoop is then 
rivetted to the curved parts of these bars, the tenon at the end 
of one bent portion fitting into a mortice hole in the next. 
The skeleton of a wheel having been thus formed is laid upon 



412 CAEBIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

a flat plate, with blocks between the spokes, an outer plate 
being used, as in the first arrangement, the naye of the wheel 
being then cast upon the spokes as before. In this case a 
wooden felloe and outer tyre may be applied if necessary, 
t( but for light wheels these additions may be dispensed 
" with." 

{Printed, 2s. 3d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1847, April 6.— No. 11,648. 
STRATTOISF, Benjamin Tucker. — Carriages, wheels, &c. This 
invention consists, firstly, in constructing wheels for common 
road carriages with spokes of corrugated or hollow iron, of 
any form in section, or of flat, round or oval rods of iron, or 
of angle or T-iron, Ci bent into the form of sectoral loops, the 
" straight sides of each pair of loops lying in contact, and 
" (preferably) rivetted or otherwise fastened together." 

Secondly, in constructing wheels for railway and common 
road carriages with spokes in the form of " sectoral loops of 
" corrugated or hollow iron, of any from in its section " or of 
other irons as above, with * ( a straight radiating spoke inserted 
" between and in contact with the straight sides of each con- 
" tiguous pair of looped spokes." 

Thirdly, in lightening the iron naves of wheels by inclosing 
in the casting blocks of pumice stone or other suitable 
material. 

Fourthly, in constructing the ribs or standards of carriage 
bodies of corrugated iron, to the flanges or edges of which the 
panelling of the carriage is rivetted or bolted. 

Fifthly, in machinery for bending the wheel spokes above 
described. 

[Printed, Id. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1847, April 8.— No. 11,649. 
DE BEBGUE, Charles, and HADDAN", John Coope.—" Im- 
". provements in wheeled carriages, and in panels and springs 
" for carriages and other purposes." 

This invention relates in the first place to an improved mode 
of constructing the framework of railway carriages. 

Secondly, the invention relates to an improved mode of 
manufacturing papier mache* panels to be used for carriage 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 413 

and other purposes and consists in placing a piece of papier 
maehe intended for a panel, while in a moist state, in a 
suitable frame by which it may be held flat, being kept in 
that position until dry, and being rendered flat and even by 
the moist edges of the panel adhering to the frame. 

Thirdly, the invention relates to the construction of steel 
springs for carriages and other purposes and consists in cutting 
the different pieces of steel of which the spring is to be com- 
posed out of plates in such a manner that the tapered or 
chamfered ends of the pieces are produced with little or no 
waste of metal, the ends of the pieces being in fact in the form 
of a single inclined plane, instead of being chamfered in both 
directions as usual. 

Fourthly, the invention consists of a combination of slings, 
with pieces of india-rubber for the purpose of forming a side 
or bearing spring for a railway or other carriage. To the sole 
bar of the carriage are bolted two struts which project down- 
wards, these answering as scroll irons, and each having near 
its lower end a box or hollow cylinder, inside which is a tube 
on which are placed india-rubber and metal rings, through 
each tube is passed a bolt which is connected with a sling or link 
also connected with the axle box, the bolts, when the weight 
of the carriage depresses the sole bar and parts in connection 
therewith, causing the rings of india-rubber to be compressed 
such rings in fact forming the springs of the carriage. 
[Printed, 2s. 2d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1847, April 20.— No. 11,665. 
ROWLEY, George William. — " Improvements in the con- 
" struction of carriages, and in apparatus to be used with 
i( omnibuses and other carriages." 

[JYb Specification enrolled.'] 

A.D. 1847, May 4.— No. 11,689. 
TAYLOR, Joseph. — Wheels. The first part of this invention 
consists in constructing inclined flanges or snugs on the 
interior of the tires of such wheels, to which the inclined 
edges of certain plates, constituting the sides of the said 
wheels are attached, and also in "constructing the sides of 
" wheels of concave plates, supported by rings or blocks of 
" wood." 



414 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

The invention consists, secondly in a method of constructing 
wheels "in which the plates constituting the sides of the 
" wheels are connected to a ring of wood, to which ring of 
" wood the tire of the said wheel is connected. " 

Thirdly, in a mode of constructing punches for cutting holes 
in plates for railway wheels, " that is to say punches in which 
" two or more points only of the punches act on the plates 
" to be cut at the same time so as to cut the said holes pro- 
" gressively." 

Fourthly, the invention consists in constructing a drilling 
machine to be used in the manufacture of wheels such as 
mentioned above, by combining together a number of drills 
so as to drill the required number of holes at the same time ; 
this part of the invention including the use of double bands 
" for driving the said drills." 
[Printed, Is. Drawings.] 

A.D. 1847, May 22.— No. 11,706. 
CHINNOCK, Charles. — Joints for shafts and poles. This is 
an improved form of ball and socket joint applicable to the 
above and other purposes. The ball is cast on to a shoe which 
is secured to the end of the shaft or pole. A cup is similarly 
cast on the corresponding shoe pinned to the carriage. A pin 
passes through the cup into the ball to which it is hinged, 
and is fitted with a spiral spring at the back of the cup. This 
spring is kept up to its work by a nut on the rear end of the 
pin. This spring constantly pulls the ball into the socket, by 
which all looseness in the joint is prevented. 
[Printed, Is. h&. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1847, May 24.— No. 11,715. 
ADAMS, William Bridges, and EICHAEDSOK, Eobert.— 
" Certain improvements in the construction of railways, and 
" of engines and carriages used thereon ; and also in transport 
" and storage arrangements for the conveyance, management, 
" and preservation of perishable articles." 

This invention relates to a multitude of particulars, and 
" includes the application of two or four or more wheeled 
" tenders for fuel or water, constructed with a body wherein 
" to carry passengers or letters or parcels of goods for hire to 



FOE COMMON KOADS. 415 

11 attach by a swivel joint to locomotive engines on railways." 
Also, " the application of water or steam boilers to warm the 
" interior of railway carriages ;" the ' ( combination of gutta 
" percha with cast iron to form a tyre or band on the buffer 
" heads or necks of railway carriages;" the "application 
" of moveable seats for passengers to railway carriages ; with 
" central pivots to enter sockets in the floors." Also a mode 
of constructing the tires of railway "wheels with an internal 
" rib or flange to retain their circular form at the outer edge 
" of the tires to which the spokes or felloes of the wheels 
" may be bolted or ri vetted laterally without piercing the 
" tread of the tyre," and a mode of blocking such tires while 
heated to give them a true circular form. Also the application 
to railway wheels of " cylindrical or circular turned wooden 
" spokes and of wooden felloes, the internal portion of which 
a is a straight surface, while the outer portion corresponds 
' ' to the circle of the tyre and which are drawn together by 
" bolts previous to forcing such wheel into the heated tyre 
" by mechanical pressure." Also certain modes of "con- 
" structing bearings and axle boxes for railway wheels, so 
" as to replace the bearings when worn," "such bearings 
" being in separate pieces and fitted to axle boxes provided 
' * with spring metal collars or conical hoops or other flexible 
" material to retain the grease or oil and prevent waste." 
Also a mode of constructing "double floors" to railway 
carriages for passengers and stuffing the interstice with saw- 
dust or other similar " substance to deaden the sounds of the 
" wheels." Also a mode of constructing close waggons "to 
" carry grain or similar substance in bulk to load near the 
" top and discharge at the bottom," and a mode of making 
such waggons ' ' of specific cubic contents internally so that 
.' * they may serve as measures of quantity and save labour and 
" expense in meterage." Also the application of "spring 
" tension cords or chains of links," such chains of links being 
" extended by the elastic action of disc or spiral or other 
" metallic springs to support carriages on their axles and 
" permit lateral as well as vertical elasticity," and certain 
spring frames ' ' for resisting the tension of the cords inde- 
" pendently of the carriage frame." Also a mode of enabling 
such spring frames " to traverse laterally, and also diagonally 



416 CARRIAGES AKD OTHER VEHICLES 

" to tlie form of the carriage," by the pressure of the flanges 
of the central wheels of such carriage against the rails, " the 
" movement of such wheels being regulated by elastic or 
" rigid diagonal connecting rods," and, also, the application 
of such diagonal rods to regulate the movement on curves of 
wheels attached to bow springs on railway carriages. Also 
the application of rollers or lubricated loose collars "to 
" prevent friction on the bearing surfaces of spiral or helical 
" springs, for the purpose of elastic bearing, buffing, or 
" traction, to railway carriages, and the application of such 
" springs to give elasticity to tension links." Also the 
application to railway carriages of steel springs made in the 
form of hoop key rings. Also the application of the disc 
springs, formerly patented by the present patentee, "within 
" tubes to retain them in proper position, instead of a rod 
" passing through a central hole," Also improved modes of 
forming steel plates with surface hollowed longitudinally, 
" so as to construct laminated springs without the use of 
" slots and studs;" a mode of constructing disc springs 
which consists in forming them with a hole in the middle, 
and slits radiating therefrom. 

The patentees propose to apply the various improvements 
described in the specification in the construction of a com- 
bined engine and carriage on one framing or wheel base. 
This vehicle may be made of light weight to run on trams 
or light rails on high roads, or on rails carried on posts above 
the ground. 

[Printed, 2s. 6d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1847, June 3.— No. 11,727. 

HORNE, William, BEADON, George, and SMITH, Andrew. 
— " Improvements in wheel carriages." 

One part of this invention relates to forming the tire of 
carriage wheels of galvanized hoop iron, " of two or more 
" parts or thicknesses," which are first rivetted together and 
then united into one mass by being "re-galvanized," such 
tires working with less noise than usual. 

Axle boxes are also described as being lined or stuffed with 
fusible metal, hemp, leather, or other suitable material," so 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 417 

" as to prevent the rubbing contact of iron and iron," this 
reducing the noise usually produced by the working of the 
axle in the box. 

Carriage springs are also described as being galvanized in 
order to prevent oxidation ; all the couplings of carriages 
connected with the axles and springs being also galvanized or 
lined with some suitable material, "in order to prevent con- 
' tact of iron and iron," and so prevent noise. 

Another part of the invention relates to the construction 
of a timber carriage, ll with framing and roof, and sawing bed 
* * attached, so that timber may be sawed up where it is felled, 
" instead of being taken to a saw pit," this carriage being 
furnished with a windlass, and certain slings, blocks, ropes, 
rollers, and other apparatus by which timber may be raised 
up to the sawing bed, the first wheels being removed during 
such operation, and the front part of the carriage being sus- 
tained by legs which are then let down to support it. 

The invention further embraces the application of mecha- 
nism, composed of a winch, or crank, a pinion and a wheel 
provided with a disc carrying studs, and acting upon internal 
teeth carried by a pulley, which, through the medium of 
certain chains and other pulleys, and certain rods or levers, 
may be made to raise or lower the cover of a carriage at 
pleasure by turning the winch or crank. Cogged wheels, a 
screw with a nut and chains, and a screw and lever are all 
likewise set forth as applicable to this purpose. 

Another part of the invention relates to the "universal 
" tractor " described in the specification of the patent of 
George Beadon of the 29th July 1845, and consists in applying 
parts of the machinery "differently arranged by an inter- 
" mediate shaft and bevelled wheels, which can be put in 
" or out of gear by the ordinary methods, and cogged wheels, 
" band wheels, or universal joint attached by keys and coup- 
" lings to the end of the intermediate shaft for driving any 
" other machinery." 

A " cart or put " is also described, which may be used 
either for the ordinary purposes of a cart, or to sow seeds, 
acting as a drill when required. This cart is not boarded 
at the bottom, but provided with a kind of screw, which may 
be moved backwards and forwards by means of cams actuated 
by gearing driven from one of the wheels, thus distributing 



418 CAKRIA&ES AND OTHEE VEHICLES 

soil or manure over tke surface of the ground upon which 
the cart may be moved. Worms upon a shaft driven by 
the same gearing, may also actuate wheels on the axes of 
perforated rollers, through which seed may be passed, such 
seed being directed to the ground by tubes. The body of 
the cart may be tilted by means of a curved rack and a pinion, 
and certain flaps may be let down when it is desired to dis- 
charge a quantity of earth or dressing from the cart at one 
spot. 

Another part of the invention relates to so hinging the 
parts of the enclosure of an open carriage together, that 
" they may pass or slide into the front set or boot of the 
"carriage." And the invention further embraces improve- 
ments upon the "lock or wheel plate," described in the Specifi- 
cation No, 8755, A.D. 1840, and consists in " lengthening the 
" fuehelles and fixed sweigh bar to work on a piece called 
" the hooping or perch piece," for the purpose of giving " an 
" increased bearing for the under carriage," as also in the 
use of square-headed perch bolts to revolve in the top bed 
or hooping piece, "and front slide, not revolving in the, 
" slide or slots, as before done," the wheel plate being, by 
preference, galvanized. 

The invention further includes fixing springs to axletrees 
by cranking one or more of the plates, attaching a spring to 
an axle by surrounding the latter with wood or some other 
non-conductor of sound ; a mode of suspending a spring from 
an axle by means of a belt or cushion of leather or other 
suitable material ; placing the short plates of carriage springs 
on the interior instead of the exterior of such springs, the 
upper spring being connected with the axle, and the lower 
spring with the body of the carriage, the weight of the latter 
thus expanding instead of closing the springs ; attaching the 
Bteps of carriages to * ' detached shafts " instead of to the bodies 
of such carriages ; forming the fronts of carriages, " between 
" the standing or door pillars, of curved or segmental glass," 
without any side windows; and a mode of hanging the doors 
of carriages ' ' by hinging the door pillar to the contracted 
'Might;" ■?'& attaching the whole or part of the fore pillar 
"to the door." 

[Printed, 2s. 1Q#, Drawings.'] 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 419 

AD. 1847, July 26.— No. 11,815. 
DE BERGrUE, Charles.— Springs. A part of this invention 
relates to an improvement in springs for common road and 
other carriages. They consist of rings of india-rubber sepa- 
rated by discs of metal, the whole supported on a central rod. 
The upper end of this rod is attached to the body of the 
vehicle, the lower end to an iron stay. It passes through an 
eye in the axle tree, so as to allow the latter to rise and fall 
and in so doing, to compress the rings between the axletree 
and the vehicle body. 

[Printed, Is. 6d. Drawings.'] 

A.D. 1847, July 29.— No. 11,821. 
MORISON, James. — Propelling carriages. The specifica- 
tion of this patent describes a three- wheeled carriage to be 
propelled by one or more persons. The propelling is per- 
formed through the alternate operation of the carriage seat 
and a treadle. When the person seats himself his weight 
causes the seat to descend. This, by means of a flexible band 
furnished with projections which take into similar projections 
on a pinion on the driving shaft, causes the shaft to turn. 
The driver then raises himself by pulling towards him a lever, 
and throws his weight on the treadle. The treadle continues 
the rotary motion and compresses a spring which raises the 
seat for a fresh stroke. The wheels are independent of the 
driving axle being worked through clutches, so that either 
may be disconnected if desired. The carriage is steered by 
the single wheel in front. When going down hill the carriage 
may be made to store, up power by compressing air> which 
power may be used to assist propulsion. 

The invention also relates to an improved wheel having a 
railway attached to its periphery. A shallow groove is formed 
round the periphery in which the rails work, They are 
retained by central projections passing loosely through holes 
cut in the periphery. Spiral or other springs connect the 
projections with the nave. The rails are all dovetailed into 
each other at their ends. Each rail is capable of turning 
slightly upon its projection to accommodate itself to the vary- 
ing points of pressure of the wheel. 
[Printed, lid. Drawings.'] 

02 



420 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1847, August 19.— No. 11,841. 
FAERIES, Archibald. — "Improvements in propelling car- 
" riages on common roads." 

This invention consists in " the construction, arrangement, 
" and adaptation of a certain system of machinery capable of 
" moving and impelling carriages over ordinary travelling 
" roads, the impelling power being obtained from the rotary 
" motion of a sort of tread-wheel to be acted upon by the 
" feet of a person seated in the carriage." 

An arrangement is described in which a vehicle is mounted 
upon four wheels, the hinder pair being fixed upon the ends 
of a revolving axle, while the wheels of the front pair are placed 
loosely upon the ends of an axle which is not capable of revolv- 
ing, but is connected at its centre with a vertical spindle, 
mounted in a frame attached to the body of the carriage, this 
arrangement allowing the wheels to " lock " when the carriage 
requires to be turned. When this is the case the conductor 
of the vehicle, by turning a handle fixed upon a short vertical 
shaft, brings into action certain chain wheels and chains by 
which the front axle is moved as requisite. On a shaft passing 
across the framework of the carriage is mounted a "drum 
*' wheel," having upon its circumference radial vanes, and 
these vanes being acted upon by the feet of the conductor 
cause the drum to turn, and, by means of a bevel wheel fixed 
on the same shaft, to give motion through the medium of a 
short shaft carrying bevel pinions to a second bevel wheel 
fixed upon the hinder axle of the carriage, the bind wheels 
being Hxed upon this shaft, and their rotation causing the 
vehicle to move forwards. The bevel wheel on the axis of the 
tread wheel, as well as that on the axis of the hind wheels of 
the carriage, are each provided with several concentric rings 
of teeth, and the pinions on the shaft are capable of being 
placed in different positions thereon so as to be brought into 
gear with different rings of such teeth, " according to the 
" rotary power desired to be communicated to the hinder 
" running wheels." 

[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1847, October 14.— No. 11,903. 
HORNE, Thomas. — - " Certain improvements applicable to 
" carriage windows." 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 421 

This invention 'relates to certain arrangements of parts in 
connection with carriage windows, by which they will be less 
likely to be injuriously affected by variations of temperature, 
rain, or damp, which usually render such windows difficult to 
open and close, vibration and the ingress of rain being by 
the present invention also more satisfactorily hindered. 

According to one modification of the invention the sash of 
the window slides up and down in grooves of metal, which 
for a portion of their length are partly filled with gutta 
percha or some other elastic material, or with wood, in order 
to prevent the sash from rattling, there being space left 
between the elastic material or wood and one side of the 
groove for the passage of certain metal plates which are 
attached to the sides of the sash. In front of the lower part 
of the sash is affixed a narrow ledge, which when the sash is 
raised and pushed outwards passes over a corresponding ledge 
on the lower part of the opening in the carriage door, the 
sash being thus retained in position. By the use of these 
ledges the sash need not be pushed outwards when raised as 
far as is requisite under the ordinary arrangement. The sash 
may, however, be retained in a partly raised condition by 
having affixed to it a rack into the teeth of which a spring 
stop enters. When liberated from the ledge or the stop the 
sash will in most cases descend by its own weight, but in 
order to aid the descent, and also in keeping the sash in 
position when raised, an india-rubber or other spring is con- 
nected at one end with the lower side of the sash, and at the 
other with the lower part of the opening in the door in which 
the sash works. 

The invention also includes certain filling pieces, one on 
each side the opening for the window, these pieces turning 
upon axes and being constantly acted upon by springs, these 
pieces both preventing the sash from shaking, and also the 
ingress of wind or rain. Arrangements of counterbalance 
weights for the sash, and of a roller over which the strap 
passes for raising the sash, are also set forth, as also a mode 
of employing a certain moveable curved plate to prevent wind 
and rain from entering through the lower part of the opening 
for the window. 

[Printed, Is. Sd. Drawings.'] 



422 CARRIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES] 

A.D. 1847, October 28.— No. 11,927. 
EVANS, Edward. — " Wheels for railway and other car- 
" riages." 

According to this invention the tire or hoop of the wheel 
is connected with the spokes or with the inner rim or peri- 
phery " without the use of bolts or rivets." When an inner 
ring is used such ring is formed with a dovetail projection on 
each of its outer edges, the tire having in its inner surface 
a dovetailed recess to receive the outer part of the ring, with 
the projections. When an inner ring is not used, the ends 
of the spokes carry projections which, with the ends of the 
spokes, enter a similar groove in the tyre. The projections 
are in each case made of such size as easily to enter the 
groove in the tyre when the latter is expanded by heat, and 
as this still leaves some space between the projections and the 
sides of the groove, such space is filled after the cooling of 
the tire by running it into melted metal. When an inner 
ring is used, it may either be composed of an entire ring 
previously formed, or of segments. 
[Printed, 6d. Drawing.] 

A.D. 1847, November 9.— No. 11,951. 
DYER, Reuben. — " Improvements applicable to two and four 
" wheel carriages." 

This invention relates to wings or wheel covers for pre- 
venting the wheels of carriages from throwing dirt, and the 
invention consists in the first place in supporting such wings 
or wheel covers by rods or arms connected to the axletree of 
the carriage ; and in the second place in connecting such rods 
or arms with the frame or shafts under the body of the carriage ; 
the patentee stating, however, that he prefers the first ar- 
rangement, as, according to the second, the wings or covers 
rise and fall with the springs of the carriage. He states also 
that he does not claim the use of wings or covers when 
attached to the body of the carriage. 
[Printed, bd. Drawing.'] 

A.D. 1847, November 25.— No. 11,979. 
HUTCHISON, William. — (A communication.) —" Improve* 
" ments in treating pasteboard and other substances rendering 



FOB COMMON KOADS. 423 

tl them compact and impervious to wet frost vermin and de- 
" structive agents." 

According to one part of this invention pasteboard is ren- 
dered suitable for use in the construction of railway and other 
carriages, as well as for other purposes, by being first 
thoroughly dried in a chamber heated to from 60 to 130 degrees 
Fahrenheit. Such pasteboard may be t( worked or fashioned 
" to the shape, form, or device required, before or imme- 
" diately after submitting it to the drying process," and after 
being dried is immersed in a boiling solution or mixture, 
which is composed of 75 parts of resin or pitch and 25 parts 
of oil, tallow, or other greasy matter, with the addition, 
together or separately of pounded stone, chalk, slate, &c. 
thoroughly dried. The patentee states that glue, gum and 
other cohesive substances maybe used instead of the resin 
or pitch, but that he prefers to use the resin or pitch, and to 
mix with the composition some vegetable or mineral colouring 
matter, which will bring the pasteboard to either a light or 
dark colour as required, the pasteboard being immersed in 
the composition until it becomes infiltrated or impregnated 
therewith, and being thereby rendered able to resist the action 
of air, water, frost, vermin, and other destructive agents. 

In addition to the pasteboard, paper, old rags, hemp, flax, 
jute, tow, ropes and cordage, hay, straw and other vegetable 
matter, "either mixed together or not, and formed into a 
" substance " may be similarly treated such materials being 
" formed into a substance " by being boiled or mashed to- 
gether, and then shaped to the desired figure, being then 
dried, and afterwards submitted to the action of the com- 
position as already mentioned. Plaster of Paris, stone, chalk, 
and other substances may also be similarly treated. 
[Printed, 4d. No Drawings^ 

A.P. 1848, January 7.— ISTo. 12,017. 

BELL, Geokge. — " Certain improvements in the arrangement 
" of wheels and axles for steam and other carriages, which 
*.' facilitates travelling on railways and common roads ; parts 
" of which improvements are applicable to other machinery." 
[No Specification enrolled.'] 



424 CAEEIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

A.D. 1848, January 18.— No. 12,029. 
LISTEE, Samuel Cunliefe. — " Improvements in railway 
" trains and other carriages, and generally where a lifting 
" power or pressure is required." 

One part of this invention consists in a mode of applying 
brakes to all the wheels of a railway train simultaneously, 
which is effected by the employment of a tank into which air 
is compressed by means of a pump worked by one of the axles 
of the guard's carriages, in which the tank is by preference 
placed, suitable pipes communicating with this tank and con- 
veying the compressed air (upon the opening of a valve by 
the guard) to cylinders in which are pistons connected with 
brakes, the latter being thus pressed upon the carriage wheels. 
Each carriage is furnished with an air pipe, and the pipes of 
the various carriages in a train are so jointed together as to 
admit of the passage of compressed air from one end of the 
train to the other. Nearly the same effect may be produced 
by creating a vacuum in the pipes, and causing the atmosphere 
to press upon the pistons. 

By a disclaimer which was enrolled on the 17th July 1848 
the patentee removed from the title of this invention the 
words "and other carriages, and generally where a lifting 
" power or pressure is required," on the ground of that part 
of the invention, which was to have been described in pur- 
suance of those words, being wanting in utility. 
[Printed, 6d. Br awing. ~\ 

A.D. 1848, March 11.— No. 12,094. 
ASHBUEY, John.— Wheels. The invention consists firstly 
" in employing certain novel combinations of wood and cast 
" or wrought iron in the construction of wheels," by which 
such wheels "are rendered permanently elastic, the various 
" strains to which they may be subject are more equally dis- 
tributed, and their dismemberment, should the tyre become 
" worn or broken, or should it be removed altogether, is 
" prevented." Secondly in a novel method of constructing 
railway wheels. Thirdly, in " certain novel methods of 
" securing the tyres of wheels." Fourthly, " in constructing 
" the tyres of railway wheels with certain novelties of shape 
" or form, whereby their 'hold' upon the wheel is more 



FOR COMMON ROADS. 425 

" effectually retained." Fifthly, in "an improved method 
" of * preparing' 'finishing 5 and * dressing ' the tyres of 
" railway wheels/' by grinding them with hard stone instead 
of dressing them in a lathe. And sixthly in causing the wood 
used in the construction of wheels made according to the 
present invention "to be saturated with any well known 
" compound by which wood is rendered incombustible or 
" impervious to ignition, or in saturating the wheels previous 
" to putting on the tyres with such materials." 

The details of these arrangements are fully set forth, but 
will only be understood with the aid of the drawings annexed 
to the specification. The wheels formed according to the 
first part of the invention present when completed " the 
" appearance of a complete disc of wood with an iron nave." 
Tyres are fixed upon wheels in some cases by being made 
slightly convex on the inner circumference before being 
heated and shrunk on, while in other cases the tyres are 
furnished with internal flanges, bolts, jagged spikes, and other 
contrivances also aiding to secure them in their places, various 
modifications of the invention being described. 
[Printed, 3s. 6d. Drawings.^ 

A.D. 1848, April 15.— No. 12,127. 
DAYIES, David. — " Certain improvements in the construction 
" of the heads of open and close carriages." 

This invention consists in forming the heads of open and 
close carriages " with framed side windows, which form part 
" of the moveable head on one or both sides of the door, 
' ' and hinged to the body of the carriage, to which windows 
" the stretchers and flexible covering of the carriage head 
" are attached. These framed windows are hinged to the 
' ' body of the carriage in such a manner as to cause the roof 
* ' of the carriage when opened to be thrown back quite out 
" of the way of the heads of the persons sitting in the 
'" carriage." 

An arrangement is described in which the body and doors 
of a carriage are constructed as usual, there being pillars, 
however, on each side of the doors which rise to a short 
distance above the body of the carriage, and level, or nearly 
so with the tops of the doors. Hinged to the upper parts of 
the pillars are framed panels for the reception of glass, these 



426 CAEBIAGES AND OTHER VEHICLES 

forming side windows* In carrying out this part of tho 
arrangement a recess is formed in the top of each pillar within 
which a segmental piece attached to the under side of the 
panel works as the carriage head is opened and closed, 
" forming a kind of rule joint which gives great stability to 
" this part of the head." A metal stop is employed to give 
steadiness to the head when closed, an iron corner plate 
strengthening the angle between the pillar and the upper 
part of the body of the carriage. The recess in the pillar is 
made good on the outside by a piece of thin plate iron before 
the flexible covering of the head is put on, and slats or 
stretchers are hinged to the panels for supporting and keeping 
extended the flexible covering of the head in the usual manner. 
The central portion of the roof of the carriage is hinged to 
the front compartment, and tur